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研究生:李奕璋
研究生(外文):I-Chang Lee
論文名稱:彩色海芋組培苗結球及開花之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Rhizome Formation and Flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida
指導教授:李哖李哖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nean Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:159
中文關鍵詞:彩色海芋休眠貯藏花芽分化結球組培苗激勃素癒傷
外文關鍵詞:Zantedeschia hybridadormancystoragefloral initiationrhizome formationplantletgibberellic acidcuring
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彩色海芋(Zantedeschia hybrida)的根莖形態依照主芽大小和根莖的關係可分為single-type 和multi-type。根莖的肥大主要由分佈在莖頂分生組織下方的初生增厚區域(primary thickening region)中散生的初生增厚組織(primary thickening meristem, PTM)的細胞分裂產生,PTM功能還包括產生不定根及維管束。根莖採收後於10℃貯藏6∼8週,種植前主芽包括5片鞘葉,種植後會再發育兩片葉片後分化花芽,每個鞘葉及葉片均包含一個腋芽,根莖養分充足或浸泡GA可以促進腋芽開花。彩色海芋主要在種植之後才開始花芽分化,主芽高6cm時即可見佛焰苞分化(stage2);主芽19cm時雌雄蕊均已分化(stage 5),種植前浸泡pro-GAS的根莖於主芽高2cm時即分化至stage 2。
后里田間於1997年10月中旬以7x7cm密度種植Z.’ Crystal Glow’組培苗,隔年5月8日採收所結組培球平均鮮重11.1g,窄徑2.2cm,窄徑3cm以上開花球有10%。南投松崗(海拔2000m)於1998年3月29日種植之Z. ’Pacific Pink’及 Z. ’Florex Gold’ 組培苗在出瓶後種植於100格穴盤馴化,40天後以5 x5cm、7×7cm、10×10cm密度移植於田間及Z. ’Florex Gold’以7×7cm移植於塑膠籃中。結果以移植密度10×10cm組培苗的葉面積在300cm2以上且結球最佳,同年10月24日採收Z. ’Pacific Pink’組培苗結球25g以上開花球有64.7%,Z. ’Florex Gold’有88.8%,兩品種5 x5cm密度種植之組培苗腐爛率高。台北1998年10月29日種植之Z. ’Florex Gold’組培苗出瓶後以穴盤種植馴化,再依前述3種密度移植於塑膠籃中及出瓶後直接定植於籃中,移植3個密度種植以10×10cm的葉面積65.5cm2長最佳,但結球無顯著差異,直接定植籃子中組培苗葉面積100.2cm2,隔年5月9日採收結球平均8.7g,窄徑2.2cm優於穴盤移植,但腐爛率高於移植處理組。莖基直徑7∼9mm的組培苗結球顯著大於莖基7mm以下,莖基直徑<3mm的總葉面積小,不利結球。根莖的結球和總葉面積之間有顯著的正相關。
彩色海芋Zantedeschia hybrida ’Black Magic’於梅峰(海拔2000m)種植,在田間植株完全枯萎7週(1998/11/30)以後取樣之根莖具有正常萌發及開花之能力,完全枯黃11週(1998/12/25)取樣之根莖在生長及開花的表現上最佳。植株完全枯黃(1998/10/10)或枯黃3週(1998/11/1)後取樣之根莖生長則不一致且不開花。綠熟採收(1998/9/19)的根莖平均需半年才會萌發,只有1/3之根莖開花。根莖中澱粉含量在植株完全枯黃時會顯著上升,之後變化不明顯,至12月底以後取樣的根莖澱粉含量顯著降低;蔗糖含量在植珠完全枯黃時顯著下降,之後再逐漸上升。另取2月初採收之根莖,採後移至28℃、RH =88%處理,顯示28℃處理有助於營養生長,提早萌發、增加根莖葉片數及葉面積。但28℃處理不利於根莖開花,會減少根莖的開花率及開花朵數,並以小球所受影響程度較大。
休眠之Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Crystal Glow’組培球5月底於后里採收,10℃乾貯6週後種植在梅峰田間(海拔2100m),9月盛花,有95%根莖開花,平均花朵數1.6朵;處理GA3花朵數增至3.6朵。休眠之Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Florex Gold’ 組培球10月底於松岡(海拔2000m)採收,15℃乾貯9週後以口徑18公分盆種植於台北設施下,4月盛花,有70%根莖開花,10℃乾貯6週的開花率為56.3%;處理pro-GAS增加至87%,花朵數無顯著差異。兩試驗材料之營養生長均有隨乾貯期(3∼9週)增加葉數及總葉面積。
彩色海芋Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Super Gold’ 根莖定植人候室日/夜溫20/15℃,於種植後4個月及5個月開始斷水1個月與對照6個月均正常澆水者相較,然斷水1個月者葉均黃萎,正常澆水植株葉尚綠,其葉綠素螢光值(Fv/Fm)無顯著降低。在種植6個月後採收,正常澆水處理組為綠熟採收,其根莖之乾物重及澱粉含量與種植5個月再斷水1個月後採收的根莖無顯著差異,可是葉片中澱粉及蔗糖含量較高。如提早於種植4個月後斷水,根莖之乾物重及澱粉含量降低。但綠熟採收根莖的腐爛率及鮮重皆高於斷水處理組。根莖經5℃乾貯6週後定植,則綠熟採收根莖的芽數、葉片數、葉面積、始花天數、花朵數之表現皆比斷水處理組差,但於5℃乾貯10週後,根莖定植後的生長及開花的表現無差異。
彩色海芋Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’組培球在採收後於人工氣候室日/夜溫15/13,20/15,25/20,30/25,35/30,30/13℃下癒傷,在20/15,25/20,30/25,30/13℃下癒傷1天可形成良好癒傷組織,又以20/15℃的癒傷效果最佳根莖,失重最少。35/30℃癒傷不利傷口之木栓質產生,根莖快速失水而皺縮,喪失商業價值。15/13℃至癒傷 3天才觀察有癒傷組織生成,根莖失水顯著增加。建議彩色海芋採收後立即於20∼27℃癒傷3天即可貯藏。癒傷的過程,35/30、30/25℃癒傷根莖之木栓層下方細胞會累積澱粉粒。
彩色海芋Zantedeschia hybrida根莖於種植前浸泡GA3可以提早根莖萌發、增加開花率、花朵數、降低開花節位、提早開花,但開花品質降低且不利結球。處理GA3種植而兩週後,根莖中蔗糖的濃度較浸泡蒸餾水處理者高,但根莖及芽周圍組織中amylase、sucrose synthase、invertase的活性變化與sucrose含量及GA3處理沒有顯著相關性。商用pro-GAS(GA1+2+3+4)促進開花的效果比GA3佳,而且處理兩者在生長上沒有顯著差異。Paclobutrazols能有效地降低彩色海芋植株高度,其減少葉柄長度的效果大於花梗長的影響。以低濃度(50ppm)的pro-GAS浸泡,再於萌發時每盆灌注2∼4mg Paclobutrazol 會減少花朵數目。
The tuberous rhizome of Zantedescia hybrida had single and multiple-types in relation to the sizes of dominant buds. The rhizome thickening developed from the cell differentiation in primary thickening meristem ( PTM), scattering over the primary thickening region below the apex. The function of PTM also included the growth of adventive roots and vascular bundle. Tuberous rhizomes were storaged at 10℃ for 6-8 weeks after harvest and dominant buds were in five sheaths before planting and two leaves formated before flower bud formation after planted, with axillary buds on sheath and leaves. The nutrient sufficiency in the tuberous rhizome and GA soak catalyzed the axillary buds into flower. Flowers differentiated after planting, dominant buds with 6cm set off a spathe in visibility (stage 2), a bud with 19cm had gynoecia and androecia differentiation(stage 5). The pro-GAS soak speeded the bud 2cm to grow faster into the stage 2The tuberous rhizome of Zantedescia hybrida had single and multiple-types in relation to the sizes of dominant buds. The rhizome thickening developed from the cell differentiation in primary thickening meristem ( PTM), scattering over the primary thickening region below the apex. The function of PTM also included the growth of adventive roots and vascular bundle. Tuberous rhizomes were storaged at 10℃ for 6-8 weeks after harvest and dominant buds were in five sheaths before planting and two leaves formated before flower bud formation after planted, with axillary buds on sheath and leaves. The nutrient sufficiency in the tuberous rhizome and GA soak catalyzed the axillary buds into flower. Flowers differentiated after planting, dominant buds with 6cm set off a spathe in visibility (stage 2), a bud with 19cm had gynoecia and androecia differentiation(stage 5). The pro-GAS soak speeded the bud 2cm to grow faster into the stage 2
In the Haolie field, the plantlet of Z. ’Crystal Glow’ in a density of 7x7cm had an average weight 11.1g, 2.2cm narrow diameter and 10% of flower bulbs in 3cm narrow diameter. Z. ‘Pacific Pink’ and Z. ‘Florex Gold’ in Nan-Tou Sung-Kang (2000m altitude) after in vitro were planted in 100-cell plugs for acclimation, forty days later, transplanted in fields with densities of 5x5cm, 7x7cm, 10x10cm and 7x7cm in plastic basketrys for Z. ‘Florex Gold’. As the result, the best was the 10x10cm in plantlet with total leaf area over 300cm2 and good bulbs came along. In the Z. ‘Pacific Pink’ plantlet, flower bulbs over 25g had 64.7% and in the Z. ‘Florex Gold’ let with 88.8%. The 5x5cm had a high rate of decay. In a paralleling experiment of Z. ‘Florex Gold’ in Taipei, of the same 3 densities in plastic basketrys, the 10x10cm with total leaf area of 65.5cm was the best, but there were no big difference among various bulbs. Total leaf area in the plantlet transplanted into basketrys after in vitro was 100.2cm, lifted rhizomes in an average weight of 8.7g, 2.2cm narrow diameter were better than plug planting with a higher rate of decaying after transplantation. The rhizome formation with a 7-9mm stem basal diameter in plantlet was bigger than those with a stem basal under 7mm; the stem basal less than 3mm has a small leaf area, less contributing to bulb. The rhizome formation had a positive relationship with total leaf area.
In Mei-Feng Highland (2000m altitude), Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’ which had dried out thoroughly in 7 weeks (1998/11/30) had samples of the tuberous rhizomes with a potential to grow and flower normally, and in 11 weeks (1998/12/25) for the best performance. Tuberous rhizome lefted at plants dried-out (1998/10/10) and those in 3 weeks later had irregular growth and no flowering. The tuberous rhizomes from unripe harvest need a six months to sprout and only one-third of them could grow into flower. The starch in plants started to arise obviously at the drying stage with no clear change later. After December, the starch in sampled rhizomes went down
drastically; the sucrose reduced greatly in leaf senescence and then went up in nature. The tuberous rhizomes lifted in early February and moved to 28℃, RH=88% for further process show that 28℃ was contributive to the vegetative growth, to sprout earlier and to increase leaves and leaf area per rhizome. The temperature of 28℃ was harmful to flower in decreasing the rate of flowering and the number of flowers while small rhizomes were mostly affected.
Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Crystal Glow’ 1st generation tuberous rhizomes in dormancy were lifted at the end of May in Haolie. Rhizomes had been stored at 10℃ for 6 weeks, and then planted in the Mei-Feng fields (2100m altitude). It had a 95% flowering rate in rhizomes with 1.6 flowers, and two more added upon the GA3 treatment and blossom in September. Z. ’Florex Gold’ 1st generation tuberous rhizomes in dormancy were lifted at the end of October in Sung-Kang (2000m altitude). Rhizome had been stored in 15℃ for 9 weeks and then planted in 18cm-diameter pots in Taipei. It had a 70% flowering rate in rhizomes and blossom in April. The flowering rate for the rhizomes in 10℃ in 6 weeks was 56.3% and up to 87% after the pro-GAs treatment without any big change in the flower number. In both experiments, the vegetative growth underwent a period of dry storage (3~9 weeks) in order to increase and the leaf area.
The Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Super Gold’ tuberous rhizome was planted in phytotron with day/night temperature 20/15℃. A comparison was made among various periods of growth: Four and five months along with additional one month of water withheld, and six months of normal watering. One month of water withheld got dry-out leaves, and normal watering got green leaves without chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) to fall greatly. Harvests were set up after six months of planting. The unripe harvest was normal watering, whose starch and dry weights in tuberous rhizome were almost the same as those in harvests of five-month planting and one month of water withheld, but whose starch and sucrose in leaves were higher. The dry weight and starch in tuberous rhizome were reduced for plants of four months and one month of water withheld. Nevertheless, the decay rate and fresh weight were higher in unripe harvest than in those of water being withheld. For tuberous rhizomes in 5℃ dry storage for 6 weeks before planting, the number of their shoots, leaves, and flowers and total leaf area were better in those of water being withheld than in unripe harvest. And as for those in 10 weeks, all harvests were the same in growth and flowering.
Lifted Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’ 1st generation tuberous rhizomes got curing in phytotron with day/night termperature in 15/13, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25,35/30 and 30/13℃. One day’s curing in 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 and 30/13℃ formed well organized periderm. Temperature of 20/15℃ had the best result and the least weight loss; 35/30℃ inhibited the deposit of suberin, accelerated tuberous rhizome shrinking and lost commercial quality. Wound periderm was visible after 3 days’ curing in 15/13℃, water losing in tuberous rhizomes was sped up in 15/13℃. It was suggested that Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’ could be stored after 3 days’ curing in 20∼27℃ in order to avoid the severe the weight loss. In the curing process, cells of tuberous rhizomes under surface layers accumulated starch grains.
Gibberellin acid (GA3) at 100ppm was applied to Zantedeschia hybrida at 100 ppm as preplant tuberous rhizome 15 mins. soak. It brought an earlier sprouting, increased the flowering rate and the number of flowers, reduced the number of flowering nodal positions, and made earlier flowers. But flowers were in lower quality and of worse bulbing. Commercial pro-GAS was better in promoting flower than GA3. Two weeks after planted, the GA3 soak made a higher density of sucrose in tuberous rhizomes than those in distilled water. The dynamic changes in amylase, suorose synthase, and invertase of rhizome and around-apex tissues were not siginificant difference between distilled water and GA3 soak. Commercial Pro-GAS(GA1+2+3+4) contributed to blossom better than GA3 did, but it made no big difference in growth. Paclobulazols reduced effectively the height of plants, and decreased the length of petiole with a better result than the length of peduncle. However, pro-GA3 saturation with a density of 50ppm and an instillation of 2~4mg paclobullazol into pots at sprouting decreased the number of flowers.
第一章、前言(Introduction)1
第二章、前人研究(Literature review)3
一、 海芋的介紹(Description of Zantedeschia) 3
(一)分佈(Distribution) 3
(二)分類與形態(Taxonomy and morphology)4
(三)台灣海芋的生產狀況(Current status of Zantedeschia
production in Taiwan) 8
二、影響海芋生長與發育的因素(Factors affecting growth and
development of Zantedeschia)9
(一)休眠(Dormancy)10
(二)環境因子(Environmental factors)11
1.溫度(Temperature)11
2.光強度(Light level)12
(三)貯藏(Storage)13
三、影響海芋開花的因素(Factors affecting flowering of
Zantedeschia)14
(一)花芽形成的時間(Timing of floral bud formation)14
(二)根莖大小(Rhizome size)14
(三)休眠(Dormancy)15
(四)環境因子(Environmental factors)、、、、15
1.溫度(Temperature)15
2.光強度(Light intensity and photoperiod)16
(五)貯藏(Storage)18
(六)生長調節劑處理(Plant growth regulator treatment)19
1.激勃素(Gibberellic acid)19
2.巴克素(Paclobutrazol, Bonzi, PP333)21
四、彩色海芋根莖及切花的採收及採後處理(Harvest and postharvest
handling of rhizome and cut flower of Zantedeschia) 22
(一)根莖的採收(Harvest of rhizome)22
(二)根莖的採後處理(Post-harvest of rhizome)22
(三)切花的採收與分級(Harvest of cut flower and grading)23
(四)切花的採後處理(Post-harvest of cut flower)24
第三章、彩色海芋結球形態及花芽分化發育過程之觀察(Morphological
observation on rhizome formation and flower initiation
and development of Zantedeschia hybrida)25
摘要(Abstract)25
一、前言(Introduction)25
二、材料方法(Materials and methods) 26
(一)初生肥大分生組織的觀察(Observation on primary thicken
meristem)26
(二)花芽分化發育之觀察(Observation on flower initiation and
development)27
三、結果(Results)28
(一)根莖的形態之觀察(Observation on rhizome morphology)28
(二)初生肥大分生組織的觀察(Observation on primary thicken
meristem)29
(三)主芽之觀察(Observation on dominant buds)29
(四)花芽分化觀察(Observation on flower initiation)30
四、討論(Discussion)32
Summary35
第四章、種植密度及基徑大小對彩色海芋組培苗結球之影響(Planting density and on rhizome formation of Zantedeschia hybrida )45
摘要(Abstact)45
一、前言(Introduction)45
二、材料方法(Materials and methods) 46
(一)種植密度對結球之影響(Effects of planting density on
rhizome formation ) 46
(二)組培苗基徑大小對結球之影響(Effects of stem basal
diameter on rhizome formation) 47
三、結果(Results)47
(一)種植密度對結球之影響(Effects of planting density on
rhizome formation ) 47
(二)組培苗基徑大小對結球之影響(Effects of stem basal
diameter on rhizome formation) 49
四、討論(Discussion)49
Summary52
第五章、彩色海芋之休眠(Dormancy of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’) 63
摘要(Abstact)63
一、前言(Introduction)63
二、材料方法(Materials and methods) 65
(一)採收熟度對生長開花的影響(Effects of harvest maturity on
growth and flowering )65
(二)碳水化合物分析方法(Methods for carbohydrate analysis)66
(三)種植前高溫處理及種球大小對彩色海芋生長及開花之影響
(Effects of warm treatment and rhizome size on growth and
flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’)67
三、結果(Results)67
(一)採收熟度對萌發的影響(Effects of harvest maturity on
sprouting )67
(二)採收熟度對生長的影響(Effects of harvest maturity on
growth )68
(三)採收熟度對開花之影響(Effects of harvest maturity on
flowering)68
(四)不同取樣時間根莖碳水化物含量(Carbohydrates content in
rhizome at different sampling date)69
(五)種植前高溫處理及種球大小對彩色海芋生長及開花之影響
(Effects of warm treatment and rhizome size on growth and
flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’)69
四、討論(Discussion)70
Summary75
第六章、乾貯溫度與時間對彩色海芋‘Crystal Glow’ 和 ‘Florex Gold’生育及開花之影響(Effects of dry storage temperature and duration of temperature treatment on development and flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Crystal Glow’ and ‘Florex Gold’)83
摘要(Abstract)83
一、前言(Introduction)83
二、材料方法(Materials and methods) 85
(一)植物材料(plant materials)85
1.1998年夏季試驗(Experiment in summer in 1998)86
2.1998年冬季試驗(Experiment in winter in 1998)86
(二)試驗方法(Experiment methods)1.1998年夏季試驗87
1.1998年夏季試驗(Experiment in summer in 1998)87
2.1998年冬季試驗(Experiment in winter in 1998)87
三、結果(Results)88
(一)乾貯時間對生長及開花之影響(Effects of dry storage
duration on growth and flowering ) 88
(二)乾貯溫度對生長及開花的影響(Effects of dry storage
temperature on growth and flowering )90
(三)激勃素對生長及開花的影響(Effects of gibberelline acid on
growth and flowering )90
四、討論(Discussion)91
(一)品種及採收熟度對貯藏的反應(Effects of varieties and
harvest maturity on storage responese)91
(二)彩色海芋之促成栽培(Forcing culture of Zantedeschia
hybrida)93
Summary94
第七章、斷水及綠熟採收對彩色海芋’Super Gold’結球及子球生長和開花之影響(Effects of withholding water and green mature harvest on bulbing, daughter rhizome growth and flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Super Gold’)110
摘要(Abstact)110
一、前言(Introduction)110
二、材料方法(Matericals and methods) 111
(一)1997年試驗(Experiment in 1997)111
(二)1998年試驗(Experiment in 1998)112
三、結果(Results)113
四、討論(Discussion)114
Summary115
第八章、溫度對彩色海芋''Black Magic''採後癒傷之影響(Effect of temperature on curing of Zantedeschia hybrida''Black Magic'')121
摘要(Abstact)121
一、前言(Introduction)121
二、材料方法(Matericals and methods) 122
三、結果(Results)123
四、討論(Discussion)124
Summary126
第九章、種植前高溫處理及種球大小對彩色海芋生長及開花之影響(Effects of warm treatment and rhizome size on growth and flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida ‘Black Magic’ 134
摘要(Abstact)134
一、前言(Introduction)134
二、材料方法(Matericals and methods) 136
(一)種球大小及激勃素(GA3)對彩色海芋生長及開花之影響
(Effects of rhizome size and gibberellin acid on growth
and flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida.)136
(二)不同激勃素對彩色海芋生長與開花之影響(Effects of
different kind of gibberellin on growth and flowering of
Zantedeschia hybrida.)136
(三)激勃素(GA3)對彩色海芋酵素活性及蔗糖濃度之影響(Effects
of gibberellin acid on enzyme activity and sucrose
content of Zantedeschia hybrida)137
1.酵素活性測定(Measurement enzyme activity)137
2.碳水化物測定(Measurement carbohydrate content)137
(四)激勃素(pro-GAs)及巴克素(Paclobutrazol, PP-333)對彩色海
芋生長及開花之影響(Effects of pro-GAs and Paclobutrazol
on growth and flowering of Zantedeschia hybrida) 138
三、結果(Results)138
(一)種球大小及激勃素對Z.‘Black Magic’生長及開花之影響
(Effects of rhizome size and gibberellin acid on growth and
flowering of Z. ‘Black Magic’.)138
1. 種球大小對生長及開花之影響(Effects of rhizome size on
growth and flowering )138
2. 激勃素對生長及開花之影響(Effects of gibberellin acid
on growth and flowering )138
(二)不同激勃素對Z. ‘Super Gold’生長與開花之影響(Effects of
different kind of gibberellin on growth and flowering of
Z.‘Super Gold’)139
(三)萌發前主芽及根莖中三種水解酵素變化及GA3對其之影響(The
performance of enzyme activity in the main bud and rhizome
before sprouting and gibberellin acid function) 140
(四)pro-GAS及PP-333對彩色海芋Z. ‘Florex Gold’生長及開花之影
響(Effects of pro-GAS and PP-333 on growth and flowering
of Z.‘Florex Gold’ 140
四、討論(Discussion)140
(一)GA3對彩色海芋生長及開花的影響(Effects of gibberellin
acid on growth and flowering )139
(二)GA3對彩色海芋生理之影響(Effects of gibberellin acid on
rhizome physiology)141
(三)其他種類GA的作用(Function of other kind of gibberellin)
143
(四)GAS和Paclobutrazol 的交感(Interaction between GAS and
Paclobutrazol)143
Summary144
參考文獻152
附錄159
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