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研究生:陳鼎勻
研究生(外文):Ding-Yun Chen
論文名稱:VideoVR:從連續視訊自動建立全景影像的即時系統
論文名稱(外文):VideoVR:A Real Time System for Automatically Constructing Panoramic Images from Video Clips
指導教授:歐陽明歐陽明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming Ouhyoung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:全景影像以影像為主的虛擬實境即時的估算位移量
外文關鍵詞:panoramic imagesImage-Based Virtual Realityreal-time motion estimation
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本論文提出一個即時從真實場景的連續視訊,自動建立全景影像的編輯系統。使用者可直接手持攝影機進行拍攝,不需另外使用特別的硬體裝置如魚眼鏡頭、腳架等,即可訊速產生所需的全景影像。假設,將原本已壓縮過的5.72MB影片(大小為320x240),在CPU 為PII-233的機器上執行,只需22秒就能產生完整的全景影像,而其大小只有123KB。
由於連續視訊中的資料量非常多,本論文利用階層式來達到即時的估算位移量,同時也修正了可能因為階層式而造成影像定位錯誤的情形。而估算位移量的方法,一般是利用明暗度的差值來估算,但是攝影機光圈的變化可能會造成比對上的失誤,於是,本論文提出可以解決此問題的方法,使得估算位移量能更準確的適合更多的情況。同時,攝影機光圈的變化也可能造成結果的全景影像中,會有整塊較黑的區域出現,無法只利用調整整個全景影像的亮度或比對來克服;因此本論文利用動態的方式,調整每個畫面的明暗度,以解決因光圈的快速變化,造成全景影像出現整塊較黑區域的問題。一旦使用者拍攝環狀場景超過360度時,本系統可自動尋找拍攝360度中的重複場景,同時能接合頭尾影像,使整個系統能真正達到完全的自動接合。
接下來,可以將產生的全景影像輸出成虛擬實境瀏覽器所支援的格式,或可輸出成VRML97的檔案格式;如此一來,使得原本已壓縮過的5.72MB影片,變成只有123KB左右的全景影像,大小只有原來的三十四分之一,非常適合透過網際網路的傳輸,而參觀者還可以將視窗前後左右移動,瀏覽整個全景影像。
An authoring system is proposed to construct panoramic images of real-world scenes from video clips automatically in real-time. Instead of using other special hardware devices such as fish-eye lens or tripod, a user can just pan a hand-held camcorder simply. Therefore, a user can construct a panoramic image more convenient and more rapidly. Our implementation of constructing a panoramic image from CIF format video clip takes 22 seconds on a Pentium II-266 PC.
There are so much data in video clips, and so a hierarchical method is proposed to get transformation between successive frames. The traditional method uses intensity errors to get the above transformation, but that may cause error due to change in aperture. To make the system more robust, we propose a method to solve the problem. At the same time, the change in aperture may generate a dark area in the panoramic image, which can not be overcome by adjusting brightness and contrast. Therefore, we use adaptive brightness adjustment of every frame to solve this problem. Once a user captures a scene over 360 degrees, our system will detect the same area automatically, and stitch them together. As a result, this system can not only generate popular image-based virtual reality data format, but also output the panoramic images in VRML97 format. Compared with the original video data, our proposed method reduces the data size from 5MB to 150KB, and is very suitable for transmission through Internet.
第一章 緒論4
1.1 概說4
1.2 動機與目標5
1.3 系統概觀7
第二章 相關研究10
2.1 利用照片來接合環狀的全景影像10
2.2 利用照片來接合球狀的全景影像12
2.3 利用連續視訊來接合環狀的全景影像13
第三章 位移量的估算16
3.1 估算位移量的基本概念16
3.2 幾種估算位移量的方法18
3.3 階層式的估算位移量19
第四章 接合影像與輸出29
4.1 消除縫隙的接合畫面29
4.2 接合頭尾成為環狀全景影像35
4.3 輸出全景影像40
第五章 實驗結果與討論41
5.1 實驗結果41
5.2 討論60
第六章 結論與未來展望61
6.1 結論61
6.2 未來展望61
參考文獻66
附錄一 Video VR 編輯器使用者手冊69
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[8] Richard I. Hartley. In Defence of the Eight-Point Algorithm. In IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intellugence, Vol. 19, N0. 6, June 1997, pages 580-593.
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[11] Shmuel Peleg and Joshua Herman, Panoramic Mosaicing with VideoBrush. DARPA Image Understanding Workshop, May 1997, pages.261-264.
[12] Shmuel Peleg and Moshe Ben-Ezra, Stereo Panorama with a Single Camera. To appear in CVPR''99
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[17] Video Brush, http://www.videobrush.com
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[19] IPIX, http://www.ipix.com
[20] Be Here, http://www.behere.com
[21] Smooth Movie, http://www.smoothmove.com
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[25] IBM, http://www.software.ibm.com/net.media/solutions/panoramix
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