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研究生:柳文成
研究生(外文):Liu, Wen-Cheng
論文名稱:感潮河系之水理與水質動態傳輸模擬研究
論文名稱(外文):Modelung Study on Dynamic Transport of Hydrodynamic and Water Quality in Tidal Estuarine System
指導教授:許銘熙許銘熙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Ming-Hsi
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:農業工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:其他工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:272
中文關鍵詞:水理與水質河口環流鹽分分佈主支流匯流模式檢定與驗證模式應用數值模擬
外文關鍵詞:hydrodynamics and water qualityestuarine circulationsalinity distributionconfluence of mainstem and tributariesmodel calibration and verificationmodel applicationnumerical simulation
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河口及感潮河段為河川流域及近岸海洋水與物質交換必經之通道,所以對於此一河段水理狀況之瞭解是預測污染物質自陸地上排放或沖刷至河川後擴散傳輸至海洋的必要條件之一。本文研究對象為河口之重要水理現象,包括潮流、河道流、河口環流以及促成河口環流且又受河口環流影響之鹽分分佈及水質動態傳輸狀況。
本文主要目的為發展一涵蓋主、支流匯流之感潮河系及河口之垂直二維水理與水質動態傳輸模式,模式中不僅可以涵括各種動力因素,並可考慮河川幾何形狀之變化,對於主、支流交匯處則利用連續方程式、動量平衡及質量平衡方程式加以處理。
模式建立後,將數值模式應用於淡水河複雜河系,包括淡水河系三大支流大漢溪、新店溪及基隆河。本文以理論分析及數值模擬探討淡水河系之潮汐及河口環流之特性,並以現場實測資料來檢定與驗證數值模式之正確性與適用性,檢定及驗證之參數有曼寧係數、紊流擴散係數及水質動態傳輸模式求解各水質變數中之參數。
模式經過檢定與驗證後,將模式應用於探討有、無關渡防潮堤防下之淡水河系及河口濕地潮流及鹽分分佈情形,及上游不同淡水流量狀況下,廢污水截除前後之鹽分分佈。在水質方面,將模式應用於探討不同河川流量下,廢污水截除前後對淡水河系水質狀況之影響,可作為環境規劃與管理之參考依據。
The estuary, together with the tidal freshwater river upstream of it, is the pathway for exchange of water and materials between its drainage basin and coastal ocean. To predict the fate and transport of materials from land to ocean, it is essential to understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of this stretch of the river. This study investigates the major components of water movement in the estuarine system : tidal flow, freshwater river flow and estuarine (or residual) circulation. The longitudinal and vertical salinity distributions are also investigated as a forcing function of, as well as a response to, the estuarine circulation.
The purposes of this study are to develop a vertical two-dimensional numerical model which includes the capability to model tributaries and to study the hydrodynamic and water quality characteristics of estuarine system. The hydrodynamic model is based on the principles of conservation of volume, momentum and mass, and the water quality model on the conservation of mass alone. The flow conditions at the confluences of mainstem and tributaries are solved by expanded continuity, momentum and mass-balance equations.
After model development, the numerical model is applied to investigate the Tanshui River system, the largest estuarine system in Taiwan with drainage basin including the capital city of Taipei. It consists of three major tributaries : the Tahan Stream, Hsintien Stream and Keelung River. The study investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of the tidal reaches of the river system by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The model is calibrated and verified with observational field data. The calibrated and verified parameters include Manning* friction coefficient, the coefficients in turbulence diffusion terms and the coefficients of eight-water quality state variables.
As examples of model utilities, the calibrated and verified model is used to investigate the tidal flow and salinity conditions in the Tanshui estuarine system and its estuarine wetland under the conditions with and without Kuan-Du dike. The model is also used to compute the salinity distributions and to predict future water quality conditions under several scenarios of wastewater diversion and under various hydrological conditions. The results show that the model has potential for more general diagnostic applications and prediction of pollutant transport and fate. It also can be used as an aid for making waste load allocations, management decisions and environmental impact analyses.
目 錄
頁 次
謝誌i
中文摘要ii
英文摘要iii
目錄v
表目錄viii
圖目錄x
第一章 導論1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 過去相關研究2
1-2-1 有關水理方面之研究2
1-2-2 有關水質方面之研究5
1-3 研究目的7
第二章 水理與水質數值模式9
2-1 水理動態傳輸模式9
2-1-1 基本方程式9
2-1-2 邊界條件11
2-1-3 紊流閉合模式15
2-1-4 模式解法17
2-1-5 主支流匯流處理19
2-1-6 壓力梯度22
2-1-7 穩定性條件 23
2-2 水質動態傳輸模式23
2-2-1 基本方程式23
2-2-2 邊界條件31
2-2-3 匯流處水質濃度之質量平衡方程式32
第三章 流域基本資料蒐集與分析33
3-1 流域概況33
3-2 水理與水質基本資料之蒐集與整理34
3-3 實測潮位資料之分析34
3-3-1 資料之篩選34
3-3-2 潮位調和分析35
3-3-3 平均潮差及潮波傳播36
3-4 全潮測量流速及鹽分數據分析37
第四章 水理模式之檢定及驗證38
4-1 幾何形狀及上下游邊界條件38
4-2 模式對潮汐模擬之檢定 38
4-2-1 潮之檢定39
4-2-2 綜合潮之檢定40
4-3 模式驗證41
第五章 鹽分入侵之檢定及驗證44
5-1 利用觀測值進行模式之檢定與驗證44
5-1-1 模式之檢定44
5-1-2 模式之驗證46
5-2 河口環流之理論驗證 47
5-2-1 理論值47
5-2-2 模擬結果48
5-2-3 實測數據49
第六章 水質模式之檢定與驗證51
6-1 淡水河系污染量之推估51
6-1-1 集水區之劃分 51
6-1-2 天然側流量51
6-1-3 污染負荷之推估52
6-2 上游河川流量與水質濃度之迴歸分析52
6-3 模式之檢定53
6-4 模式之驗證54
第七章 數值模式之應用56
7-1 潮流 56
7-1-1 平均河川流量與低流量情形下之潮汐狀況56
7-1-2 關渡防潮堤防之影響57
7-2 鹽分分佈57
7-2-1 河口濕地鹽分之數值模擬 57
7-2-2 廢污水截除前後鹽分分佈模擬60
7-2-2.1 廢污水截除前平均流量下鹽分模擬60
7-2-2.2 流量下廢污水截除前鹽分模擬60
7-2-2.3 流量下廢污水截除前鹽分模擬61
7-3 水質62
7-3-1 廢污水截除前後平均流量下之水質模擬 63
7-3-2 廢污水截除前後 流量下之水質模擬63
第八章 結論與建議65
8-1 結論65
8-2 建議67
參考文獻69
附錄A 基本方程式之推導83
附錄B 有限差分方程式86
附錄C 理論解析解89
個人資料(學經歷簡述)269
著作270
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