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研究生:金秦基
研究生(外文):Jin-Ki Kim
論文名稱:不同產地蕎麥澱粉之理化性質及其麵條產品特性探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat starch from different areas and their effects on the characteristics of soba
指導教授:李敏雄李敏雄引用關係呂政義楊建澤
指導教授(外文):Min-hsiung LeeCheng-yi LiiChien-tse Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:農業化學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:蕎麥澱粉直鏈澱粉支鏈澱粉麵條
外文關鍵詞:buckwheatstarchamyloseamylopectinnoodlesoba
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本研究主要在探討不同產地之蕎麥澱粉理化性質及蕎麥粉製品(蕎麥麵)品質與澱粉間之關係。實驗分兩部份進行。第一部份為蕎麥澱粉之理化性質探討,蕎麥澱粉先經分離純化,再經分劃後測定其理化性質,包括一般理化性質、水結合力、膨潤力、示差掃描熱分析儀( Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC )、快速糊液連續黏度(Rapid Viscosity Analyzer, RVA)等之測定,及以X-ray繞射和掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning Electron Microscopy ,SEM )觀察。第二部份為蕎麥製品-蕎麥麵(buckwheat noodle)之理化性質及品質的探討,以期對蕎麥製品開發研究有所助益。
結果顯示,在理化性質測定方面,當以稀鹼(0.1% NaOH)進行澱粉分離純化時,所得四種蕎麥澱粉(TC1、SW2、CHI及USA)之收率分別為62.8、61.6、64.8及63.2%,並依照Hizukuri (1986)的方法將蕎麥澱粉再劃分為直鏈澱粉及支鏈澱粉。經青價及β-amylolysis(%)之測定結果、四種蕎麥澱粉均為:直鏈澱粉>全澱粉>支鏈澱粉。經Sepharose CL-4B膠體過濾層析之澱粉溶離曲線,出現二個峰,但支鏈澱粉則為單一峰,顯示所分離之澱粉純度相當高。在分子量部份,經純化得到之四種支鏈澱粉,其分子量介於500萬至4,000萬之間,DPn為7,000左右,CL則為22左右。此外,經isoamylase水解後,四種蕎麥澱粉之支鏈澱粉之溶離曲線皆出現三個峰,其DPn別為 40、20及7左右。四種不同產地蕎麥澱粉經DSC分析得知,第一個吸熱峰糊化溫度和第二吸熱峰之糊化溫度有正相關性。DSC之△H1和RVA之尖峰黏度、熱糊黏度、冷糊黏度和最終黏度亦呈相關性。另外蕎麥澱粉之溶解度與RVA之崩解黏度及總回升黏度亦具正相關性。
第二部份為蕎麥麵製作研究,主要在探討四種之蕎麥粉及不同澱粉或麵粉之添加對蕎麥麵品質之影響。四種蕎麥粉原料之膨潤力、水結合力和快速糊液黏度測定變化圖並無顯著差異。全蕎麥麵與添加不同澱粉所製成之麵條水煮後增重率並無顯著差異,但水煮損失率以後者較高。質地測試之結果顯示,四種純蕎麥麵之硬度、咀嚼性和外聚自黏性在統計分析上有顯著差異,而添加不同澱粉之六種蕎麥麵之硬度、彈性及咀嚼性亦有顯著差異。本實驗中亦對全蕎麥麵進行官能品評,結果顯示四種全蕎麥麵在質地與接受度有顯著差異。將蕎麥粉之RVA黏度測定性質、水合性質與煮麵性質之相關性此較時可的知結果如下;在RVA黏度性質方面,尖峰黏度之溫度和85℃時之膨潤力有顯著相關性,可推測蕎麥澱粉於85℃具最佳之膨潤力,並產生極高之黏度。由TPA測定及官能品評中得知,TPA之硬度與咀嚼性呈顯著正相關,咀嚼性與黏著性亦呈顯著正相關,而官能品評之接受度和質地則與TPA之黏著性呈現正相關。由此可推論質地是影響蕎麥接受度之主要因素。
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat starches produced from different areas. The experiments included two major parts. The first part was to analyze the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat starches that were isolated and purified from four kinds of buckwheat (TC1, SW2, CHI and USA). The starches were then fractionated into amylose and amylopectin by the method of Hizukuri (1986). The measurements including water binding capacity, swelling power,differential scanning calorimetry and rapid viscosity analysis were performed . The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were also used to investigate the crystalline and exterior microstructure of starches. The second part was to study the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat noodle prepared with the buckwheat flours. We hope that the results of this research might provide useful information for the development of buckwheat products.
The results of the first part of this study showed that high yields of four buckwheat starches (TC1, SW2, CHI and USA ) isolated and purified with dilute alkali solution (0.1% NaOH ) were 62.8% 61.6% 64.8% and 63.2%. The purified starches were then fractionated into amylopectin and amylose fractions according to Hizukuri method. It was found that the blue value andβ-amylolysis limit(%)of four buckwheat starch and their amylopectin and amylose were in the order of amylose >starch> amylopectin. Two major peaks were shown amylose and amylopectin fractions in the gel filtration elution curves of buckwheat starch. The amylopectin fraction from buckwheat starch appeared only in a single peak in the elution curve. The M.W. of the four amylopectins ranged between 5,000 and 40,000 kD. The DP of amylopectin was around 7,000 and the CL was about 22. The isoamylase-treated buckwheat amylopections all showed three peaks in the gel filtration elution curve and the DPn of there three peaks were 40, 20 and 7. The DSC analysis of four different buckwheat starches showed that there was positive correlation between the completion temperature of first and second peaks. The △H1 of DSC was correlated with the peak viscosity, holding strength, cold pasty viscosity and final viscosity measured by RVA ,The solubility of buckwheat starch also had positive correlation with breakdown and total set back of RVA. The second part of this study showed that there were no significant difference in swelling power, water binding capacity, and RVA among starches. There was no difference in weight loss after cooking the noodle among the whole buckwheat noodle and the buckwheat noodle made with the addition of starch or wheat flour with the addition of other starches or wheat flour , had more weight loss after cooking. The results of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that there were significant differences in the hardness, chewiness, and gumminess among buckwheat noodles made of whole buckwheat flour from four different areas. The hardness, springiness and chewiness of six kinds of buckwheat noodles made of buckwheat with different starches added were also significantly different.
The noodles made of four different buckwheat flour were compared by sensory evaluation. The results showed significant differences in their texture and acceptance. The RVA analysis of buckwheat flour showed that the viscosity and hydration properties were correlated with cooking properties of buckwheat noodle. The temperature of peak viscosity had positive correlation with swelling power of buckwheat flour at 85℃ .It implied that the largest swelling power and the highest viscosity of buckwheat flour were both occurred at 85℃ .
The results of TPA determination and sensory evaluation of buckwheat starch showed that the chewiness had significant positive correlation with hardness and adhesiveness. The acceptance and quality of while buckwheat noodle evaluated by sensory were also positively correlated with adhesiveness analyzed by TPA it proposed that the acceptance of buckwheat was influenced mainly by the texture of buckwheat.
第一章、緒言..............................................................................1
第二章、文獻回顧.....................................................................5
壹、蕎麥研究...........................................................................6
一、蕎麥..............................................................................6
二、蕎麥澱粉研究...........................................................14
三、蕎麥的芸香甘...........................................................14
貳、澱粉之研究....................................................................16
一、澱粉之組成..............................................................16
二、 澱粉顆粒之結構....................................................22
三、澱粉之溶解分散.....................................................24
四、澱粉之分劃..............................................................25
五、澱粉之理化性質測定............................................27
六、澱粉結構之討論.....................................................29
七、關於分子量之測定.................................................37
參、蕎麥麵之研究...............................................................38
一、 蕎麥麵之源起.......................................................38
二、 蕎麥粉之製粉及分級..........................................39
三、 蕎麥麵條之品質...................................................43
第三章 實驗部分..................................................................... 51
壹. 材料與方法......................................................................52
一、蕎麥澱粉之理化性質............................................52
(一)、材料...................................................................52
(二)、實驗方法及步驟.............................................55
1. 蕎麥澱粉之分離............................................55
2. 蕎麥澱粉之分劃與純化...............................55
3. 蕎麥澱粉之理化性質...................................57
二、蕎麥麵(Soba)製作之材料........................................74
(一)、材料...................................................................74
(二)、實驗方法及步驟.............................................74
1.蕎麥粉之理化性質..........................................74
2.蕎麥麵(Soba) 製作及麵條品質測定.............75
3.質地測定...........................................................77
4.官能品評...........................................................77
貳、結果與討論..................................................................80
一、蕎麥澱粉之理化性質...............................................80
(一)蕎麥澱粉之分離與純化.....................................80
(二)蕎麥澱粉之分劃.,................................................83
(三)蕎麥澱粉之理化性質.........................................85
(四)直鏈澱粉之理化性質.......................................125
(五)支鏈澱粉之理化性質.......................................135
二、蕎麥麵(Soba)之製作................................................154
(一)蕎麥粉之理化性質...........................................154
(二)蕎麥麵製作及麵條品質..................................167
(三)蕎麥麵之質地分析............................................173
(四)官能品評分析 ...................................................180
(五) 相關性分析..........................................................182
第四章 結論..........................................................................185
參考文獻................................................................................189
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