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研究生:陳昱豪
研究生(外文):Yu-hau Chen
論文名稱:數位影像及視訊之浮水印技術
論文名稱(外文):Digital Image and Video Watermarking
指導教授:貝蘇章
指導教授(外文):Soo-Chang Pei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電信工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:浮水印多媒體資訊隱藏版權保護
外文關鍵詞:watermarkfingerprintingsteganographymultimediaJNDcopyright protection
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這個世界正不斷地變得越來越數位化。許多人努力地將舊資料轉換成數位的形態,而新的資料幾乎不是由數位化的方式傳遞,就是本來就是數位的形態。數位化的最大好處之一就是資料傳輸及資料複製異常地方便。我們可以輕易地備份和散布我們的資料,而在資料複製的過程中,資料的品質不會有任何的降低。然而,在這美好情況的背後,未經授權的複製和更改資料內容是一個嚴重而極待解決的問題。如果沒有一個良好的版權保護機制,數位資料的版權擁有者很難放心地將他的作品公開地散佈。於是,有人提出數位浮水印技術,企圖解決這個問題。浮水印這個想法是將一個旁人無法察覺的簽名或密碼(這個簽名即稱為浮水印)加入到原始的資料中,在不影響原始資料品質的情況下,隱藏這樣一個簽名在裡面。之後,如果有必要的話,我們可以取出這個浮水印,來證明這個作品的版權是屬於誰。本論文的第一章是一個簡單的介紹,之後的第二章會詳細的討論數位浮水印技術的許多一般性考量。
在第三章,我們會提出一個採用某JND模型的浮水印方法。根據該JND模型,我們可以算出一張影像中每個像素的JND值。於是我們便將浮水印加在JND值最大的那些像素中,而加入的灰階值大小則跟該像素的JND值成正比。在本章最後,我們會將我們的方法應用到彩色影像上。
討論過影像之後,在第四章我們會把我們的方法延伸到視訊的浮水印上。我們將會提出一個以視景分析為基礎的方法。我們對不同的視景採取不同的浮水印作法。我們將會呈現一些與視訊有關的實驗結果。
在第三章與第四章中,我們所呈現的實驗,都是根據一些一般性的攻擊。在第五章中,我們會報告我們對於最近提出的許多特殊的攻擊法的調查。這些攻擊法都是專門設計來破壞或干擾浮水印系統的。很顯然,只要有人提出新的浮水印方法,就會有人提出新的攻擊方法。當然,對許多的攻擊法,也都有人提出反制的方法。
最後,第六章是我們的結論。相信在這個數位的時代,數位浮水印將會繼續是一個有趣的研究領域。
Chapter 1 Introduction1
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Digital Watermarking5
2.1 Backgrounds5
2.2 Terminology and Notations8
2.3 The Classification of Watermarking Systems9
2.4 The Multiple Ownership Problem10
2.4.1 Problem Description11
2.4.2 The Solution13
2.5 Performance Evaluation of Watermarking Systems15
2.5.1 Invisibility and Robustness15
2.5.2 Reliability19
2.5.3 Conclusion22
2.6 Summary23
Chapter 3 Watermarking Scheme Based on JND Model25
3.1 Human Visual System and the JND Profile Model25
3.2 Watermarking Method27
3.2.1 Watermark Structure27
3.2.2 Watermark Insertion28
3.2.3 Watermark Detection29
3.2.4 Similarity Measure and Threshold31
3.3 Visual Results34
3.4 Robustness Results I: Signal Processing35
3.4.1 Lossy Compression35
3.4.2 Low-Pass Filtering39
3.4.3 Noise Addition43
3.4.4 Multiple Watermark Insertion45
3.4.5 Printing and Rescanning46
3.4.6 Conclusion48
3.5 Robustness Results II: Geometrical Distortion48
3.5.1 Affine Transformations49
3.5.2 Resizing51
3.5.3 Cropping54
3.5.4 Conclusion56
3.6 Extension to Color Images57
3.7 Conclusion59
Chapter 4 Video Watermarking Scheme Based on Scene Analysis 61
4.1 Introduction61
4.2 Watermark Insertion63
4.2.1 Case 165
4.2.2 Case 266
4.3 Watermark Detection71
4.3.1 Case 171
4.3.2 Case 272
4.4 Experimental Results73
4.4.1 Frame Averaging74
4.4.2 Statistical Averaging78
4.4.3 MPEG Encoding79
4.5 Conclusion and Future Work79
Chapter 5 A Survey on Attacks83
5.1 Introduction83
5.2 The Classification of Attacks84
5.3 Detection-Disabling Attacks86
5.3.1 Line Removal and Duplication86
5.3.2 StirMark87
5.3.3 Counterattacks89
5.4 Removal Attacks90
5.4.1 Laplacian Removal Attack90
5.4.2 Non-Linear Filtering94
5.4.3 Conclusion95
5.5 Oracle Attacks96
5.6 Collusion Attacks97
5.7 Other Attacks98
5.7.1 Attack Based on the Presence of a Watermark Inserter 98
5.7.2 Mosaic Attack99
5.8 Conclusion100
Chapter 6 Conclusion101
References103
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