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研究生:彭淑貞
研究生(外文):Shu-Chen Peng
論文名稱:台灣地區雙語兒童的詞彙學習策略
論文名稱(外文):Chinese Bilingual Children''s Word Learning Strategies
指導教授:張顯達張顯達引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hintat Cheung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:語言發展兒童期雙語詞彙學習
外文關鍵詞:Language developmentChildhood bilingualismLexicon learning
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共通排他性限制(Mutual exclusivity constraint)是指兒童時常會避免同一物體有兩個名稱;一般認為是兒童在學習新字詞時最常用的採取的策略之一(Markman, 1994)。文獻中指出此限制有四種效果:消除歧異效果(disambiguation effect)、更正效果(correction effect)、拒絕效果(rejection effect),及限定效果(restriction effects)(Merriman & Bowman, 1989)。 Davidson et al. (1997)進一步指出共通排他性限制會受到雙語所影響;也就是說,雙語兒童使用此限制的程度不及單語兒童。基於此觀點,本研究探索國、台雙語兒童對共通排他性限制的使用。本研究採取在Davidson et al. (1997)的三個測試;包括消除歧異測試(disambiguation test)、拒絕測試(rejection test)與限定測試(restriction test),探討雙語是否會影響兒童使用共通排他性限制。此外,這些測試於不同的語境下進行以便檢測兒童對不同語言的敏感度。這些語境包括:(1)完全國語(All-Mandarin):整個實驗進行包括假的目標詞在內都是使用國語;(2)混合語(Mixed-code):整個實驗除了假的目標詞是用台語音韻形式呈現外,其它都是以國語進行;(3)完全台語(All-Taiwanese):整個實驗進行包括假的目標詞在內都是使用台語。38位操持國語的單語兒童與58位操持國、台雙語兒童參與此三項測試,並依年齡分為較小組(四歲組)與較大組(六歲組)。結果顯示雙語的影響只有在限定測試中較為顯著;雙語兒童暫緩使用共通排他性限制的傾向來得比單語兒童高。此外,我們的結果顯示兒童對不同語言的敏感度也受到雙語的影響。在消除歧異測試與限定測試中,雙語組兒童對不同語言的敏感度比單語組兒童高。然而,我們的研究顯示年齡似乎對於兒童所採取的共通排他性限制或其對於語言的敏感度都沒有影響;唯一的例外是在消除歧異測試中,只有單語組中較小兒童對不同語言具有敏感度,而單語組較大兒童卻沒有。總括而言,本研究認為台灣地區兒童雙語使用者對於他們所接觸的不同語言具有敏感度,也因此引發不同的詞彙學習策略。
The mutual exclusivity constraint, which is suggested to be one of the most often used strategies when children learn new words, refers to the finding that children often avoid two labels for the same object (Markman, 1994). This constraint is generally considered to have four effects-disambiguation, correction, rejection, and restriction effects (Merriman & Bowman, 1989). Davidson et al. (1997) further showed that the mutual exclusivity constraint would be affected by bilingualism; that is, bilingual children did not use the constraint as extensively as that of monolingual children. Pursuing this line of inquiry, the present study focused on Mandarin-Taiwanese bilingual children''s use of the mutual exclusivity constraint. Following Davidson et al. (1997), the present study comprised three tests; namely, the disambiguation test, the rejection test, and the restriction test, to examine whether bilingualism would affect children''s use of the mutual exclusivity constraints. Furthermore, these tests were accessed in three different input conditions, to examine these children''s sensitivities to different language inputs. These different input conditions included: (1) All-Mandarin: Throughout the test, only Mandarin was used, including the target artificial words; (2) Mixed-code: Throughout the test, only Mandarin was used, except that the target artificial names resemble to Taiwanese words in terms of phonological shapes; (3) All-Taiwanese: Throughout the test, only Taiwanese was used, including the target artificial words. 38 monolingual Mandarin-speaking and 58 Mandarin-Taiwanese bilingual children participated in the three tests, including younger (4-year-old) and older (6-year-old) ones. The results indicated that the influence of bilingualism was only significantly different in the restriction test. Bilingual children tended to suspend the use of the mutual exclusivity constraint more often than monolingual ones did. Besides, our results indicated that children''s sensitivities to different languages were influenced by bilingualism. In the disambiguation test and the restriction test, children of the bilingual group were more sensitive to different language inputs than monolingual children were. However, our results supported that neither children''s applications of the mutual exclusivity constraint nor their sensitivity to different language inputs were influenced by their developmental pattern, except that in the disambiguation test, only younger children of the monolingual group were sensitive to different language inputs, while older ones were not. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggested that young bilinguals in Taiwan are sensitive to the type of language they are spoken to and would invoke different learning strategies accordingly.
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………iii
List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………v
Chapter1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Background ……………………………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose ………………………………………………………………3
1.3 Design of this study …...………………………………………………5
1.4 Significance of this study ………………………………………………6
1.5 Organization of the thesis ………………………………………………6
Chapter 2. Literature review …..………………………………………………………7
2.1 Monolingual children''s word learning strategies …………………………7
2.1.1 The mutual exclusivity constraint……………………………………8
2.1.2 Other constraints …………………………………………………10
2.1.3 Summary …………………………………………………………11
2.2 Bilingual children''s two lexicons ………………………………………12
2.2.1 The unitary language system hypothesis ……………………………13
2.2.2 The separate development system hypothesis ………………………14
2.3 Bilingual children''s word learning strategies ……………………………14
2.3.1 Au & Glusman (1990) ……………………………………………14
2.3.2 Merriman & Kutlesic (1993) ………………………………………15
2.3.3 Davidson, Jergovic, Imami, and Theodos (1997) …………………16
2.4 Studies on childhood bilingualism in Taiwan …………………………18
Chapter 3. Language proficiency and Classification of monolingual and bilingual children …20
3.1 Subjects ………………………………………………………………20
3.2 Proficiencies in Mandarin and Taiwanese ………………………………21
3.3 Classification of the two language groups ………………………………25
3.4 Correlations between children''s performance in different tasks ……………28
3.5 Summary ……………………………………………………………31
Chatper 4. The disambiguation test ……………………………………………………32
4.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………32
4.2 Method ………………………………………………………………33
4.2.1 Subjects …………………………………………………………33
4.2.2 Materials …………………………………………………………33
4.2.3 Procedure …………………………………………………………35
4.3 Scoring ………………………………………………………………36
4.4 Results ………………………………………………………………36
4.5 Discussion ……………………………………………………………46
Chapter 5. The rejection test ……………………………………………………………50
5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………50
5.2 Method ………………………………………………………………51
5.2.1 Subjects …………………………………………………………51
5.2.2 Materials …………………………………………………………51
5.2.3 Procedure ………………………………………………………52
5.3 Scoring ………………………………………………………………52
5.4 Results ………………………………………………………………53
5.5 Discussion ……………………………………………………………64
Chapter 6. The restriction test …………………………………………………………67
6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………67
6.2 Method ………………………………………………………………67
6.2.1 Subjects …………………………………………………………67
6.2.2 Materials …………………………………………………………68
6.2.3 Procedure …………………………………………………………69
6.3 Scoring …………………………………………………………………71
6.4 Results …………………………………………………………………71
6.5 Discussion ……………………………………………………………80
Chapter 7. General discussion and conclusion ……………………………………………82
References ..……………………………………………………………………………87
Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………93
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