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研究生:劉秀敏
研究生(外文):Laura Hsiu-min Liu
論文名稱:停頓現象與語言之產生
論文名稱(外文):Pause and Language Production in Chinese Narrative
指導教授:黃宣範黃宣範引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shuanfan Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:語言產生靜默停頓填補停頓停頓標記敘事
外文關鍵詞:language productionsilent pausefilled pausepause markernarrative
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心理學家長期以來對於認知功能的停頓相當感興趣,因為停頓現象所反映出語言構思與語言產生的關係正是了解停頓功能的重要基石。從認知的觀點來看,說話者預先構思他們下面要說的話,將思想轉化為形成語言前的訊息,再轉譯為語言形式。停頓的功能和實際語言的功能同樣重要。本研究的目的旨在探討語言產生時停頓現象和語言化認知過程間的關係。
本研究主要探討口語敘事言談中的停頓現象。研究結果顯示,敘事者使用不同的停頓標記來解決語言產生即時的構思問題。爭取時間最直接的方式即是使用靜默停頓來為後面要說的話做準備。而有一些連接詞和口語填補詞也漸漸發展為停頓標記,滿足停頓的功能。填補停頓和音節延長時常相伴發生,一方面表示語言產生時遭遇的困難,一方面顯現佔據發言權的溝通意圖。本研究並探討各種不同的停頓現象和句法結構的關係,以及和詞彙指涉的訊息特徵之間的關係。
本研究顯示,靜默停頓的長度與其後構思的語言結構複雜度(即單位大小)兩者之間沒有顯著關連性。一般而言,在靜默停頓和填補停頓之後通常伴隨著子句大小的語言單位,而音節延長之後多為片語或詞彙。停頓標記的使用大致受到其後語言單位的影響區分為三類:「然後」和「那」等連接詞停頓標記標示較大單位的構思困難(子句和複雜句),「就」和「就是」標示片語的構思困難(通常是動詞片語),而指示詞停頓標記「那個」和「這個」則標示名詞或名詞片語的搜尋困難。
本研究也觸及停頓現象與訊息結構的議題。現有的語料分析結果顯示停頓與其後名詞指涉的訊息新舊狀態有密切關係:產生新的訊息會伴隨較多的停頓或遲疑,且有功能分化的趨勢。音節延長經常標示新的訊息,尤其是出現在存在句式的S論元﹔而停頓標記大部分是用來標記舊的訊息,不因論元的不同而有所差異。
The present study aims to investigate how pausing patterns reflect thought and speech. This is done through an examination of the location, function, and frequency of various types of pause. The pausing phenomenon examined consist of the following types: (1) silent pauses (unfilled pauses or prosodic breaks), (2) filled pauses like uh and um and lengthening, (3) pause markers emerging from demonstratives like nage ''that'' and zhege ''this'', a temporal adverb jiu, copular jiushi ''(that) is'' and connective words like rahou ''then'' and na ''and''. Specifically, our research questions are as follows: first, how are the various types of pauses distributed in spoken narrative? Second, how are these pausing patterns related to grammatical structure and information flow properties? Finally, how can the relationship between pauses and linguistic units be accounted for in terms of cognitive processes underlying language production? These questions will be answered in the course of this study.
The pause patterns are examined in natural speech, where thinking is embodied via mental grammar. Therefore, a further objective of this study has been to develop an understanding of the way that speakers encode thought into speech. While pause duration has previously been considered to primarily depend on the syntactic structure, it is suggested here that the syntactic structure play a relatively insignificant role in pause production in spoken narratives, and that information flow properties such as activation status of nominal referents appear to figure significantly in understanding pause behaviors in language production.
This study is also intended to deepen our understanding of the process of language production in general, and the development of pause markers in particular. The present study is different from earlier studies on pause in at least two respects. Most of the earlier studies suffer from focusing on a single dimension of pause phenomena, rather than on the combination of different types of pauses. Since pauses of different types can be shown to frequently co-occur, an improved understanding of the relationship between pause and production units has been attained in this study through an in-depth analysis of the various types of pause. Furthermore, previous studies on pause have been based on reading data or written discourse production. In contrast, this study is based on on-line spoken narrative.
Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
Transcription Conventions ix
List of Abbreviations ii
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Objectives 2
1.2 Previous Studies 3
1.2.1 Cut-off Value of Hesitation Pause 4
1.2.2 Encoding Units 5
1.2.3 Pause Duration and Distribution 7
1.2.4 Cognitive Rhythms in Monologue 9
1.3 Theoretical Background 11
1.4 Data and Methodology 13
1.4.1 Database 13
1.4.2 Transcription 13
1.4.3 Measurement 15
1.4.4 Coding of Analysis 16
1.5 Organization 23
Notes for Chapter 1 24
Chapter 2 Silent Pauses and Cognitive Processes 26
2.1 Distribution of Silent Pauses 26
2.2 Locations of Silent Pauses 27
2.2.1 Pausing for Words 30
2.2.2 Pausing for Phrases 34
2.2.3 Pausing for Clauses and Clause-complexes 37
2.3 Silent Pauses and Structural Units 40
2.4. Pause in Phrasal Categories 44
2.5 Pause and Word Classes 48
2.6 Summary 50
Notes for Chapter 2 51
Chapter 3 Filled Pauses and Lengthening 52
3.1 Location of Filled Pauses 53
3.2 Filled Pauses and Grammatical Encoding Units 57
3.3 Co-occurrence of Filled Pauses and Silent Pauses 62
3.4 Lengthening as Hesitation Device 65
3.4.1 Lengthened Words: Lag Locus 66
3.4.2 Lengthening and Structural Units 77
3.5 Summary 79
Notes for Chapter 3 81
Chapter 4 Emergence of Pause Markers in Chinese 82
4.1 Why Pause Markers? 82
4.2 Chinese Pause Markers 83
4.1.1 Connectives ranhou ''then'' and na ''and'' 84
4.2.2 Temporal Adverb jiu 86
4.2.3 Verbal Filler jiushi/jiusho 88
4.2.4 Zhege ''this'' and Nage ''that'' 89
4.3 Pause Markers and Syntactic Structure 92
4.4 Inconsistency between Pause Markers and Structural Units 95
4.4.1 Clause-complex/clause Signaled by Non-connective Pause Markers 95
4.4.2 Miscellaneous Category of Problem Phrases 104
4.4.3 Difficult Words 109
4.5 Summary 112
Notes for Chapter 4 114
Chapter 5 Pauses and Information Flow 122
5.1 Information Patterning in spoken Chinese 122
5.2 Information Flow Properties of Problem Nominal Referents 124
5.2.1 A Arguments 126
5.2.2 S Arguments 128
5.2.3 O Argument 131
5.2.4 Oblique Arguments 133
5.2.5 Others 135
5.3 Codability and Lexical Choice 137
5.4 Information Status Signaled by Different Pausing Devices 145
5.5 Summary 147
Notes for Chapter 5 149
Chapter 6 Conclusion 152
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