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研究生(外文):Laura Hsiu-min Liu
論文名稱(外文):Pause and Language Production in Chinese Narrative
指導教授(外文):Shuanfan Huang
外文關鍵詞:language productionsilent pausefilled pausepause markernarrative
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The present study aims to investigate how pausing patterns reflect thought and speech. This is done through an examination of the location, function, and frequency of various types of pause. The pausing phenomenon examined consist of the following types: (1) silent pauses (unfilled pauses or prosodic breaks), (2) filled pauses like uh and um and lengthening, (3) pause markers emerging from demonstratives like nage ''that'' and zhege ''this'', a temporal adverb jiu, copular jiushi ''(that) is'' and connective words like rahou ''then'' and na ''and''. Specifically, our research questions are as follows: first, how are the various types of pauses distributed in spoken narrative? Second, how are these pausing patterns related to grammatical structure and information flow properties? Finally, how can the relationship between pauses and linguistic units be accounted for in terms of cognitive processes underlying language production? These questions will be answered in the course of this study.
The pause patterns are examined in natural speech, where thinking is embodied via mental grammar. Therefore, a further objective of this study has been to develop an understanding of the way that speakers encode thought into speech. While pause duration has previously been considered to primarily depend on the syntactic structure, it is suggested here that the syntactic structure play a relatively insignificant role in pause production in spoken narratives, and that information flow properties such as activation status of nominal referents appear to figure significantly in understanding pause behaviors in language production.
This study is also intended to deepen our understanding of the process of language production in general, and the development of pause markers in particular. The present study is different from earlier studies on pause in at least two respects. Most of the earlier studies suffer from focusing on a single dimension of pause phenomena, rather than on the combination of different types of pauses. Since pauses of different types can be shown to frequently co-occur, an improved understanding of the relationship between pause and production units has been attained in this study through an in-depth analysis of the various types of pause. Furthermore, previous studies on pause have been based on reading data or written discourse production. In contrast, this study is based on on-line spoken narrative.
Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
Transcription Conventions ix
List of Abbreviations ii
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Objectives 2
1.2 Previous Studies 3
1.2.1 Cut-off Value of Hesitation Pause 4
1.2.2 Encoding Units 5
1.2.3 Pause Duration and Distribution 7
1.2.4 Cognitive Rhythms in Monologue 9
1.3 Theoretical Background 11
1.4 Data and Methodology 13
1.4.1 Database 13
1.4.2 Transcription 13
1.4.3 Measurement 15
1.4.4 Coding of Analysis 16
1.5 Organization 23
Notes for Chapter 1 24
Chapter 2 Silent Pauses and Cognitive Processes 26
2.1 Distribution of Silent Pauses 26
2.2 Locations of Silent Pauses 27
2.2.1 Pausing for Words 30
2.2.2 Pausing for Phrases 34
2.2.3 Pausing for Clauses and Clause-complexes 37
2.3 Silent Pauses and Structural Units 40
2.4. Pause in Phrasal Categories 44
2.5 Pause and Word Classes 48
2.6 Summary 50
Notes for Chapter 2 51
Chapter 3 Filled Pauses and Lengthening 52
3.1 Location of Filled Pauses 53
3.2 Filled Pauses and Grammatical Encoding Units 57
3.3 Co-occurrence of Filled Pauses and Silent Pauses 62
3.4 Lengthening as Hesitation Device 65
3.4.1 Lengthened Words: Lag Locus 66
3.4.2 Lengthening and Structural Units 77
3.5 Summary 79
Notes for Chapter 3 81
Chapter 4 Emergence of Pause Markers in Chinese 82
4.1 Why Pause Markers? 82
4.2 Chinese Pause Markers 83
4.1.1 Connectives ranhou ''then'' and na ''and'' 84
4.2.2 Temporal Adverb jiu 86
4.2.3 Verbal Filler jiushi/jiusho 88
4.2.4 Zhege ''this'' and Nage ''that'' 89
4.3 Pause Markers and Syntactic Structure 92
4.4 Inconsistency between Pause Markers and Structural Units 95
4.4.1 Clause-complex/clause Signaled by Non-connective Pause Markers 95
4.4.2 Miscellaneous Category of Problem Phrases 104
4.4.3 Difficult Words 109
4.5 Summary 112
Notes for Chapter 4 114
Chapter 5 Pauses and Information Flow 122
5.1 Information Patterning in spoken Chinese 122
5.2 Information Flow Properties of Problem Nominal Referents 124
5.2.1 A Arguments 126
5.2.2 S Arguments 128
5.2.3 O Argument 131
5.2.4 Oblique Arguments 133
5.2.5 Others 135
5.3 Codability and Lexical Choice 137
5.4 Information Status Signaled by Different Pausing Devices 145
5.5 Summary 147
Notes for Chapter 5 149
Chapter 6 Conclusion 152
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