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研究生:余建成
研究生(外文):Yu Chien-cheng
論文名稱:論中文的派生名詞:詞法與語意的交互作用
論文名稱(外文):On Chinese Derived Nominals: Interface Between Morphology and Semantics
指導教授:黃宣範黃宣範引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang Shuanfan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:名物化動詞化零構形
外文關鍵詞:nominalizationverbalizationzero-derivation
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論中文的派生名詞
詞法與語意的交互作用
余建成
摘要
本論文旨在探討中文動詞透過零構形(zero-derivation)轉換成名詞時,其語意和詞法之間的互動關係。 研究資料來源有二﹕其一、中央研究院平衡語料庫;其二、台大中文口語語料庫(Taita Spoken Chinese Corpus)裡擷取八個小時的口語對話。 本研究的主要目的乃在探究書寫文字及口語表達時,促成動詞轉換名詞或名詞轉換動詞的催化因素。 此外,本文亦從歷史語言學的角度探討在名物化(nominalization)和denominalization兩種過程的影響之下,動詞和名詞的內部結構如何變化。
研究結果發現書寫文字和口語表達兩種語料庫的證據顯示在動詞轉換名詞與名詞轉換成動詞時,二者之間有顯著的差異。至少有三種條件限制動詞和名詞之間的轉換:音節、語意及詞法句法。 首先,音節數不僅與轉類的方向有相關;它並與名物化的過程相關。 在古中文及現代中文,單音節名詞較易轉類成動詞;然而,現代中文裡,雙音節名詞則很少轉類成動詞使用。 另外,在現代中文裡,單音節及雙音節動詞均易轉類成名詞。 資料顯示,雙音節動詞比單音節動詞較易轉類成動(24.54% 比16.81%)。 其次,動詞來源詞 (verbal counterpart)的語意亦在名物化的過程當中扮演重要的角色。 動作動詞(action nouns)比狀態動詞(state verbs)較不易經過名物化的過程。 此外,構成複合動詞的語素的語意亦會對名物化的可能性有程度性的影響。 第三,由動詞來源詞轉類而來的零構形名詞的語意轉換類型與複合動詞的內部結構有關。對等、主謂及同心結構的複合動詞 (coordinate, subject-predicate and endocentric constructions)較容易衍生結果、主事及工具名詞 (resultative, agentive and instrumental nominalization);另一方面,動賓及動補結構等複合動詞 ( subject-predicate, verb-object and verb-complement verb compounds)則極少衍生成名詞。 本文將藉由語料庫所得的統計結果來印證上面所提的一些觀察。

On Chinese Derived Nominals:
Interface Between Morphology and Semantics
Yu Chien-cheng
Abstract
This thesis is aimed at investigating the interface between morphology and semantics in deriving Chinese zero-derived nominals. Data are collected from two sources, viz. the Academia Sinica Corpus and eight hours' spoken discourse from Taita Spoken Chinese Corpus. The major objective of this research is to probe into the factors influencing the use of zero-derived nominals and denominal verbs in oral and written discourse. Besides, from a historical point of view, this study investigates how the basic internal structures of verbs and nouns change under the influence of nominalization and denominalization processes.
It is found that the use of zero-derived nominals and denominal verbs is significantly different in oral and written corpus. There are at least three constraints on the conversion between verbs and nouns, namely, syllabic, semantic and morphosyntactic. First, syllabicity correlates not only with the direction of conversion but also with the process of nominalization. Monosyllabic nouns convert easily to verbs in both classical and modern Chinese while disyllabic nouns rarely do in modern Chinese. Moreover, both monosyllabic and disyllabic verbs easily convert to nouns. Disyllabic verbs enjoy a higher percentage (24.54%) of undergoing nominalization than monosyllabic ones (16.81%) in our data. Second, the semantics of the verbal counterpart also plays a role in the process of nominalization. Action verbs such as dushu 'read' are less likely to become nominalized than state verbs such as congming 'wise'. In addition, the semantics of the component parts of a verb compound also have effect on the possibility for it to become nominalized. Third, patterns of semantic shifts of zero-derived nouns from their verbal counterparts can be shown to be related to the internal structures of verb compounds. As for their relation to the internal structure, coordinate, subject-predicate and endocentric verb compounds easily go through the process of resultative, agentive, or instrumental nominalizations, while verb-object and verb-complement verb compounds rarely do. All of the above-mentioned observations will be justified on the basis of the statistics from the corpora.

Table of Contents
Abstract
1.Introduction
1.1 Background1
1.2 Organization of the Thesis2
1.3 Literature Review2
1.3.1 Verbs, Nouns and Nominalization3
1.3.2 N to V or V to N: Problem of Direction of Conversion11
1.3.3 Syllabicity and Nominalization 14
1.3.4 Semantics and Nominalization 16
1.3.5 Internal Structure and Nominalization18
1.3.6 Summary 20
1.4 Research Questions 20
1.5 Methodology 21
1.5.1 The Corpus 22
1.5.2 Statistical Software 22
2.Possibility of Nominalization: Corpus-Based Statistics23
2.1 Four Types of Verbs23
2.1.1 Verb-Complement Compound Verbs23
2.1.2 Verb-Object Compound Verbs25
2.1.3 Hua-suffixed Verbs26
2.1.4 General Verbs 27
2.2 Syllabicity and Nominalization27
2.3 Semantics and Nominalization 36
2.3.1 Classifying Verbs and Nominalization38
2.3.2 Active and Stative Verbs vs. Nominalizations41
2.4 Interaction Between Syllabicity and Semantics in Nominalization 43
2.5 Internal Structure and Nominalization 46
2.5.1 VC Compound Verbs and Nominalization 47
2.5.2 VO Compound Verbs and Nominalization49
2.5.3 Hua-suffixed Verbs 49
2.6 Transitivity and Nominalization 51
2.7 Summary 53
3.Semantics and Morphology in the Process of Nominalization54
3.1 Semantics of Zero-derived Nominals in Chinese54
3.1.1 Semantics of Deverbal Nouns in English 54
3.1.2 Semantics of Derived Nouns in Chinese 55
3.1.2.1 Multiple Conversions From the Same Verb59
3.1.2.2 Hierarchy of Productivity 60
3.1.3 Semantics of the Verbs and the Derived Nouns61
3.1.4 Collocations with Classifiers67
3.1.4.1 Frequency of Occurrence 67
3.1.4.2 Collocations with Numerals 71
3.1.4.3 Collocations with Action and Stative Nouns73
3.2 Compounding Processes and Nominalization 73
3.2.1 Verb Compounding Processes 73
3.2.2 Verb Compounding Processes and Their Nominalization 75
3.2.2.1 Subject-predicate Verb Compounds75
3.2.2.2 Verb-object Verb Compounds76
3.2.2.3 Verb-complement Verb Compounds78
3.2.2.4 Coordinate Verb Compounds 78
3.2.2.5 Modifier-modified Verb Compounds78
3.3 Nominalization in Oral Discourse80
3.4 Summary 88
4.Verbalization 91
4.1 Categories of Verbalization 91
4.1.1 Semantic Categories of English Denominal Verbs92
4.1.2 Semantic Categories of Classical Chinese Denominal Verbs93
4.1.3 Semantic Categories of Modern Spoken Chinese Denominal
Verbs93
4.1.3.1 Agent Verbs 96
4.1.3.2 Instrument Verbs 102
4.1.3.3 Goal Verbs 103
4.1.3.4 Event Verbs 104
4.2 Possible Explanations for the Scarcity of Denominal Verbs in Modern Chinese 105
4.2.1 Verb Compounding is Productive105
4.2.2 Conceptual Constraints106
4.3 Summary107
5.Conclusion110
5.1 Summary110
5.2 Recommendations For Further Research112
Notation 116
Footnotes 117
Bibliography122
Appendix I 130
AppendixII133

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