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研究生:劉玉菁
研究生(外文):Yu-Ching Liu
論文名稱:以自我效能、社會支持探討某工廠男性吸菸員工之戒菸行為
論文名稱(外文):Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Predictor of a Study on Smoking Cessation of Male Employees in a Workplace
指導教授:張媚張媚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:護理學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:自我效能結果期待社會支持戒菸行為減菸率
外文關鍵詞:Self-efficacyoutcome expectationsocial supportsmoking cessationsmoking reduction
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本研究目的在瞭解戒菸活動介入,對工廠吸菸員工在效能期待、戒菸結果期待、戒菸支持行為及吸菸量之影響,並探討研究對象個人特性、效能期待、戒菸結果期待、戒菸支持行為與戒菸行為的關係。
研究設計採類實驗研究法合併調查研究法,以宜蘭某紙廠吸菸員工為研究對象,共招募實驗組、控制組吸菸員工各50名,針對實驗組吸菸員工設計專家演講及小組討論等活動,至於控制組則僅投予戒菸手冊,並以結構式問卷為資料收集工具,測量其前、後測效能期待、戒菸結果期待、戒菸支持行為、戒菸狀況,並追蹤戒菸活動結束後一個月之戒菸狀況。
所得資料以卡方檢定、t-檢定、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關、複迴歸、邏輯斯迴歸等統計方法進行分析。主要研究結果如下:
一、於第一次後測時,戒菸率為16%,其中實驗組有15人戒菸成功,對照組則有1人;全體研究對象平均每日菸量減少39%。至第二次後測,戒菸率提高為19%,實驗組及對照組分別有15人及4人戒菸成功,全體研究對象平均每日菸量減少41%。
二、實施戒菸活動後,實驗組吸菸員工之效能期待顯著提昇;在控制前測得分影響後,實驗組吸菸員工之效能 期待、戒菸結果期待、戒菸支持行為、減菸率均顯著高於對照組。
三、全體研究對象對於各種不同誘發吸菸之情境,有中等程度的信心可以不吸菸。
四、全體研究對象對戒菸後的結果期待略偏正向,其中得分最高的是「可以改善口腔或身上的菸味」。
五、全體研究對象感受到家人、親友所提供的戒菸支持行為偏低,各項支持行為中最多人會展現的是「恭喜決 定戒菸」。
六、第一次後測及第二次後測減菸率的顯著預測因子均為後測效能期待。
七、教育程度及後測效能期待均可顯著預測第一次後測及第二次後測是否戒菸成功。
最後,根據研究結果,提出以下幾點建議:
一、菸害防治教育方面
1.於工作場所(工廠)成立戒菸班,優先輔導教育程度較高的吸菸員工戒菸,同時配合廠內實施禁菸措施。
2.將教導戒菸者在菸癮來的時候如何處理?如何放鬆?如何拒絕請菸?等內容列為戒菸課程設計的重點,以 協助戒菸者有能力面對各種不同誘發吸菸的情境。
二、未來研究方面
1.繼續針對不同性質的工作場所進行此類的研究。
2.建議以減菸率為戒菸行為的指標時,能同時加上評估CO的減量情形,以驗證研究對象自評資料的正確性。
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to realize the effects of a smoking cessation program that influence smoking employees'' efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, social support, and amount of cigarettes they smoked per day in the workplace on factory. Also examine the relationships of the smoking employees'' cessation behavior with personal characteristics, efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, and social support.
The quasi-experimental method and the survey method were used throughout this research. The subjects were volunteers from paper mill in Ilan; and were divided into two groups for fulfilling the research''s need. There were fifty smokers in the experimental group and another fifty smokers in the comparative group. The experimental group had smoking cessation program, which included four group-discussions and three lectures. For those who in comparative group, they were given only brochures. Two structural questionnaires were designed to collect data from pretreatment and posttreatment assessments of smoking behavior, efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, and social support. A month after the smoking cessation program was finished; another structural questionnaire was utilized to trace all the subjects on their smoking status.
The obtained data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product-moment, multiple regression, and logistic regression with commercial available software SPSS 7.0. The major results were as follow:
1. The percentage prevalence at second and third survey were 16% and 19% respectively, the result of second survey indicated the number of cigarettes smoked reduced to 39% per day. And the reduced rate was up to 41% when the follow up survey was done on one month later.
2. After the intervention was applied, the efficacy expectation of employees in experimental group was increased significantly. While adjust certain factors, subject''s efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, social support and smoking reduction was significantly higher than those were in the comparative group.
3. All subjects that were found with middle level confidence could resist various situations that would attract their desire for smoking.
4. All subjects'' expectation toward to quit the smoking were positive. "To reduce the smell of cigarette" was one of the items that subjects cared most.
5. The support from family and friends were relatively low. "Congratulation for decision to quit smoking" was one of the supports that subjects heard most often.
6. The posttreatment efficacy expectation was both the best predictor of smoking reduction in the second and third surveys.
7. Among those who did quit the smoking during the period of research, the best predictors for validated quitting were educational level and posttreatment efficacy expectation.
Based on the results of this study, some recommendation for anti-smoking health education and further investigations were suggested:
1. To implement smoking restriction strategies in the workplace and establish a teaching program to help the smoking employees to abstain from smoking, especially for those who has higher educational level.
2. In order to help smoker to control their smoking desire under varies situations; the focus of the smoking cessation program should include the following:
(1) How to teach quitter to handle their desire for smoking? How to relax?
(2) How to teach the smoking employee to refuse the treat of cigarettes from other smokers.
3. To keep on further studies of smoking cessation in different workplaces.
4. To measure the carbon monoxide level that utilizes the reduction number of cigarettes smoked as an indicator.
第一章 緒論--------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 研究動機與重要性--------------------------------- 1
第二節 研究目的----------------------------------------- 5
第二章 文獻探討---------------------------------------- 6
第一節 戒菸的定義與測量--------------------------------- 6
第二節 戒菸行為之影響因素------------------------------- 8
第三節 效能期待與戒菸行為-------------------------------10
第四節 結果期待與戒菸行為-------------------------------15
第五節 社會支持與戒菸行為-------------------------------16
第六節 戒菸課程設計相關研究-----------------------------20
第三章 研究方法---------------------------------------- 21
第一節 研究架構-----------------------------------------21
第二節 研究假設-----------------------------------------22
第三節 名詞界定-----------------------------------------23
第四節 研究設計-----------------------------------------25
第五節 研究場所及對象-----------------------------------26
第六節 研究工具-----------------------------------------27
第七節 資料收集過程-------------------------------------34
第八節 資料分析-----------------------------------------35
第四章 研究結果---------------------------------------- 37
第一節 研究對象之個人特性分佈情形及一氧化碳測量結果-----37
第二節 實施戒菸活動前後,研究對象效能期待、戒菸結果期
待、戒菸支持行為、吸菸量改變情形之描述與檢定-----47
第三節 研究對象個人特性與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-----58
第四節 研究對象效能期待與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-----67
第五節 研究對象戒菸結果期待與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之
關係---------------------------------------------71
第六節 研究對象戒菸支持行為與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之
關係---------------------------------------------72
第七節 研究對象個人特性、效能期待、戒菸結果期待及戒菸
支持行為對減菸率之預測----------------------------75
第八節 研究對象個人特性、效能期待、戒菸結果期待及戒菸
支持行為對是否戒菸成功之預測---------------------82
第五章 討論-------------------------------------------- 86
第一節 研究對象之戒菸經驗-------------------------------86
第二節 研究對象之戒菸行為-------------------------------87
第三節 實施戒菸活動前後,研究對象效能期待、戒菸結果
期待、戒菸支持行為、吸菸量的改變情形-------------89
第四節 研究對象個人特性與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-----92
第五節 研究對象效能期待與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-----94
第六節 研究對象戒菸結果期待與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-96
第七節 研究對象戒菸支持行為與減菸率及是否戒菸成功之關係-97
第八節 減菸率之預測因子---------------------------------97
第九節 是否戒菸成功之預測因子---------------------------99
第六章 結論與建議------------------------------------- 100
第一節 結論---------------------------------------------100
第二節 研究限制-----------------------------------------101
第三節 建議--------------------------------------------- 103
參考資料----------------------------------------------- 108
中文部份------------------------------------------- 108
英文部份------------------------------------------- 110
附錄一 戒菸活動前測量問卷---------------------------- 118
附錄二 戒菸活動結束後立即測量問卷-------------------- 124
附錄三 戒菸活動結束後一個月測量問卷------------------ 128
附錄四 專家效度名單---------------------------------- 129
附錄五 對照組戒菸手冊-------------------------------- 130
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