(3.238.186.43) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/05 22:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:郭士榮
研究生(外文):Shih-Jeong Kuo
論文名稱:黑豆豆腐及豆漿加工中抗氧化力與異黃酮之改變
論文名稱(外文):Changes of the antioxidative activity and isoflavone during processing of black soybean tofu and milk
指導教授:楊開聰
指導教授(外文):Kai-Ts''''ung Yang Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:生活應用科學研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:生活應用科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:黑豆豆腐黑豆豆漿抗氧化力異黃酮
外文關鍵詞:black soybean tofublack soybean milkantioxidative activityisoflavone
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:19
  • 點閱點閱:475
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本研究主要探討青仁﹙T3﹚及黃仁﹙T5﹚兩種不同品系黑豆製作豆腐時之加工適性及黑豆豆腐、豆漿加工過程中抗氧化力與異黃酮之改變。並比較硫氰酸鐵法﹙ferric thiocyanate method﹚及A.O.A.法﹙antioxidative activity test﹚在亞麻油酸系統中之抗氧化性的靈敏度。實驗結果顯示:黃仁黑豆不論在千粒重、豆漿濃度及豆腐產率上皆高於青仁黑豆,且在質地分析上其硬度也較鬆軟,故黃仁黑豆較適合製造黑豆豆腐。於抗氧化性上,以硫氰酸鐵法檢測青仁黑豆時,當劑量在1mg∕ml時於亞麻油酸氧化系統中具最強的抗氧化性,而黃仁黑豆在4mg/ml時於亞麻油酸氧化系統中具最強的抗氧化性。而以A.O.A.法檢測黑豆之抗氧化力時,當萃取物濃度增加時,抗氧化力並無隨著濃度的增加而呈現線性關係。黑豆重複磨漿製成豆腐後,其抗氧化力並不具顯著差異。而黑豆重複磨漿製成豆漿後,其抗氧化力隨著磨漿次數的增加而增加。在異黃酮含量上,青仁與黃仁黑豆間之Genistein含量具顯著差異,但在Daidzein含量上則無顯著差異。在黑豆重複磨漿製得之豆腐及豆漿中,其異黃酮含量也不具顯著差異。在顏色分析上,青仁與黃仁黑豆在a值及b值上皆具顯著差異。重複磨漿製得之豆腐中,以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之豆腐其L值及a值上具顯著差異。重複磨漿製得之豆漿中,以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之豆漿,其L值間具顯著差異。在質地分析上,黃仁黑豆製得之豆腐其質地較青仁黑豆製得之豆腐鬆軟。於此實驗中發現以磨漿水重複磨漿兩次製得之豆腐其膠體不易成型。以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之豆腐,其在硬度、凝聚性、彈性、膠質感及咀嚼性上具顯著差異。以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之豆腐,其在附著性及彈性上具顯著差異。
This research is to study the production efficiency, texture, antioxidative activity and isoflavone contents of tofu and soybean milk make from green-cotyledon black soybean and yellow-cotyledon black soybean. Also, the Ferric Thiocyanate Method and the Antioxidative Activity Test (A.O.A. Method) are both applied in this study to examine and compare the sensitivity in the linoleic acid model system. In terms of production efficiency, test results show that from the same weight ( per 1000 grains ) of two cultivars of soybean, the yellow-cotyledon black soybean generates greater amount of soybean milk and tofu than those of green-cotyledon black soybean. In terms of texture, test results show that tofu from yellow-cotyledon black soybean is softer than that from green-cotyledon black soybean. Therefore, we may conclude that yellow-cotyledon black soybean is more adaptive to tofu processing. In the antioxidative activity tests, results show a significant differene in using the Ferric Thiocyanate Method, but no difference in applying the A.O.A. method. When the Ferric Thiocyanate Method is applied, the greatest antioxidative activity occurs when the extract concentration of green-cotyledon black soybean is 1mg / ml in the linoleic acid model system; however, of yellow-cotyledon black soybean it is 4mg / ml. When the A.O.A. method is applied there is no significant difference between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, in terms of the relationship between antioxidative activity and repetition of grinding, we find that there exists a positive relationship in making soybean milk from yellow-cotyledon black soybean, which is not found in making soybean milk from green-cotyledon black soybean. This positive relationship in not found in the process of making tofu from either green-cotyledon black soybean or yellow-cotyledon black soybean. As to the contents of isoflavone, the results show that there exists a significant difference in the content of Genistein, however not in the content of Daidzein. The difference cannot be found in either tofu or soybean milk that made from green-cotyledon and yellow-cotyledon black soybean, either, when the grinding process of repetition is applied. In the color analysis we find that yellow-cotyledon black soybean shows significant differences in the a-value and the b-value. The analysis on the tofu made from repetition of the grinding process shows that there are significant differences in the L-value and the a-value. However, the analysis on the soybean milk made from repetition of the grinding process shows that there are significant differences only in the L-value. In this study we also find that after twice repeated grinding with grinding water tofu gel is easy to collapse. Also the hardness, the cohesiveness, the springiness, the gumminess, the chewiness, the adhesiveness result from repeated grinding with grinding water are significantly different from those without the repeated grinding process.
目錄表目錄圖目錄中文摘要 Ⅰ英文摘要 Ⅲ第一章 前言 1 第二章 文獻回顧 3 第一節 氧化壓力 3 第二節 生體細胞中的抗氧化防禦系統 8 第三節 天然抗氧化劑 19 第四節 黑豆 38第三章 實驗材料與方法 41 壹、黑豆基本成分分析 41 一、原料之取得 41 二、樣品製備 41 三、一般成分分析 41 四、異黃酮含量測定 41 五、抗氧化力測定 44 貳、不同品種黑豆製造豆腐時加工適性之差異 46一、 黑豆豆腐之製作 47二、 實驗設計 48三、 化學成分分析 48四、 物性分析 48參、重複磨漿方式與次數對黑豆豆腐品質之影響 49 一、實驗設計與樣品製備 49 二、一般成分、抗氧化力及異黃酮含量分析 50 三、顏色分析 50 四、質地分析 50 肆、黑豆豆漿之製備與重複磨漿之影響 51 一、黑豆豆漿之製備 51 二、重複磨漿方式與次數對黑豆豆漿之影響 51 三、抗氧化力及異黃酮含量分析 52 四 、顏色分析 52 伍、統計分析 52第四章 結果與討論 53第五章 結論 103參考文獻 105附錄 129表目錄表一 黑豆及黃豆之一般成分 54表二 黑豆及市售黃豆異黃酮含量 55表三 黑豆原料及市售黃豆之顏色分析 57表四 不同濃度下青仁黑豆之抗氧化力 59表五 不同濃度下黃仁黑豆之抗氧化力 63表六 不同濃度下市售黃豆之抗氧化力 66表七 不同品系黑豆豆腐及黃豆豆腐之一般成分 71表八 青仁、黃仁豆腐及黃豆豆腐之異黃酮含量 73表九 不同品系黑豆豆腐及黃豆豆腐之抗氧化力 74表十 青仁黑豆、黃仁黑豆及黃豆豆腐之顏色分析 76表十一 黑豆豆腐及黃豆豆腐之質地性質 79表十二 千粒重、豆漿濃度、豆腐水分及產率 81表十三 重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之一般成分 84表十四 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐其異黃酮含量 85表十五 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐其異黃酮含量 86表十六 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之顏色分析 88表十七 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之顏色分析 89表十八 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之質地分析 90表十九 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之質地分析 91表二十 重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之抗氧化力 93表二十一 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿之顏色分析 95表二十二 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿之顏色分析 96 表二十三 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿其異黃酮含量 98表二十四 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿其異黃酮含量 99表二十五 以磨漿水重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿其抗氧化力 100 表二十六 以原豆漿重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿其抗氧化力 101 圖目錄圖一 活性氧對生物體之傷害及其防禦系統 5圖二 抗氧化劑之間的關聯 11圖三 類黃酮之基本結構 24圖四 各種類黃酮之化學結構 25圖五 十二種類黃酮異構物之化學結構 28圖六 各種不同結構之花青素 34圖七 以硫氰酸鐵法檢測青仁黑豆之抗氧化力 61圖八 以硫氰酸鐵法檢測黃仁黑豆之抗氧化力 64圖九 以硫氰酸鐵法檢測市售黃豆之抗氧化力 67圖十 以A.O.A.法檢測青仁黑豆之抗氧化力 68圖十一 以A.O.A.法檢測黃仁黑豆之抗氧化力 69圖十二 不同品系黑豆 77圖十三 不同品系黑豆豆腐 78圖十四 以硫氰酸鐵法檢測重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆腐之抗氧化力 94圖十五 以硫氰酸鐵法檢測重複磨漿製得之黑豆豆漿之抗氧化力 102
參考文獻:吳思敬,1994,桑葉抗氧化活性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。呂鋒洲,1994,抗氧化酵素之介紹。自由基生物學與醫學,創刊號,1-7。宋禮邦、蘇正德,1994,茶梗中非兒茶酚抗氧化成分之研究。東海學報35:21- 47。李奇恩,1995,利用微生物產生抗氧化性物質之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。李時珍,1990,本草綱目。大台北出版社。沈明來,1995,實驗設計學。P.247,九洲圖書公司,台北。施明智,1986,不同浸漬及磨漿方式對豆漿品質及豆渣功能特性的影響。國立台 灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。張步桃,1995,黑豆·蘿蔔·茶。元氣齋出版社,台北。張明慧、吳天賞、蘇正德,1996,茵陳蒿抗氧化成分之研究。食品科學23﹙4﹚:594-607。連大進,1994,台灣黑豆。鄉間小路20:54-56。連大進,1995,台灣黑豆的利用與生產展望。農業世界147:39-42。陳正芸,1989,油脂色素對其品質之影響﹙上﹚。食品工業21﹙6﹚:29-38。曾慶瀛、黃士禮、洪沄利,1993a,即溶烏豆粉及烏豆簽之製造與特性之探討。中華生質能源學會會誌12:10-30。曾慶瀛、余哲仁、余哲禮,1993b,烏豆脂氧化酵素之純化與特性之探討。中華生質能源學會會誌12:171-178。曾慶瀛、余哲仁、洪沄利,1994,烏豆、薏仁和糙米應用於早晨穀粉之製造。中華生質能源學會會誌13:102-109。劉廷英,1984,豆鼓油及其抗氧化性。中國農業化學會誌22:240-256。戴文禎,1997,黑豆萃取物之抗氧化效用。私立中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所碩士論文。戴文禎、胡雪萍、趙璧玉,1996,黑豆的抗氧化物質含量。中華民國營養學會雜誌21:216。蘇正德,1992,果實種子類中藥之抗氧化性及生育醇類之調查研究。食品科學19:12-14。蘇正德、大澤俊彥、川岸舜朗、並木滿夫,1992,紫地丁酸之分離、純化、構造確認及抗氧化協力作用。東海學報33:1131-1142。寺尾純二,1988,過酸化脂質と食品。油化學37:878-884。寺尾純二,1992,Formation of lipid peroxides in biological system and their physiological aspects:On the occurrence of phospholipid peroxidation. 油化學41:750-756。
參考文獻:AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. 15Ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington.Adlercreutz, H., Bannwart, C., Wahala, K., Makela,T., Brunow, G., Hase,T., Arosemena, P.J., Kellis, J.T. and Vickery, L.E. 1993. Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 44﹙2﹚:147-153.Adlercreutz, H., Gorbach, S. and Goldin, B. 1992. Dietary phyto-oestrogens and the menopause in Japan. Lancet 339:1233.Adlercreutz, H., Hockerstedt, K., Bannwart, C., Bloigu, S., Hamalainen, E., Fotsis, T. and Ollus, A. 1987. Effect of dietary components,including lignans and phytoestrogens, on entero-hepatic circulation and liver metabolism of estrogens and on sex hormone bonding globulin﹙SHBG﹚. J. Steroid Biochem. 27:1135-1144.Afanas,ev, I.B., Dorozhko, A.I., Brodskii, A.V., Kostyuk, V.A. and Potapovitch, A.I. 1989. Chelating and free radical scavenging mechanisms of inhibitory action of rutin and quercetin in lipid peroxidation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 38:1763-1769.Akiyama, T., Ishida, J., Nakagawa, S., Ogawara, H., Watanabe, S.I. and Itoh, N. 1987. Genistein, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine specific protein kinases. J. Biol. Chem. 262:5592-5595.Alcaraz, M.J. and Hoult, J.R.S. 1985. Effect of hypolaetin-8-glucoside and related flavonoids on soybean lipoxygenase and snake venom phospholipase A2. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 278:4-12.Ames, B.N. 1983. Dietary carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Science. 221:1256-1260.Ames, B.N., Shigenaga, M.K. and Hagen, T.M.1993. Oxidants, antioxidants and degenerative disease of aging. Computer Mock-Up:1-6.Anderson, J.J., Ambrose, W.W. and Garner, S.C. 1995. Orally dosed genistein from soy and prevention of cancellous bone loss in two ovariectomized rat models. J. Nutr. 125:799S.Angelo, A.J.S. 1996. Lipid oxidation in foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36﹙3﹚:175-224.Aoyama, T., Nakakita, Y., Nakagawa, M. and Sakai, H. 1982. Screening for antioxidants of microbial origin. Agric. Biol. Chem. 46:2369-2371.Astorg, P.1997. Food carotenoids and cancer prevention:An overview of current research. Trends in Food Sci. and Tech. 8﹙12﹚:406-413.Bakker, J., and Timberlake, C.F. 1985a. The distribution of anthocyanin in grape skin extracts of port wine cultivates as determined by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:1315-1324.Bakker, J., and Timberlake, C.F. 1985b. The distribution and content of anthocyanins in young prot wines as determined by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:1325-1333.Bannwart, C., Fotsis, T., Heikkinen, R., and Adlercreutz, H. 1984. Identification of the isoflavonoic phytoestrogen daidzein in human urine. Clin. Chim. Acta 136:165-172.Barnes, S., Kirk, M., and Coward, L. 1994. Isoflavones and their conjugates in soy foods:Extraction conditions and analysis by HPLC-mass apectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2466-2474.Beddows, C.G. and Wong, J. 1987a. Optimization of yield and properties of silken tofu from soybean.Ⅰ. The water:bean ratio. Intertional J. of Food Sci. and Tech. 22:15-21.Beddows, C.G. and Wong, J. 1987b. Optimization of yield and properties of silken tofu from soybean.Ⅱ. Heat processing. Intertional J. of Food Sci. and Tech. 22:23-27.Beddows, C.G. and Wong, J. 1987c. Optimization of yield and properties of silken tofu from soybean.Ⅲ. Coagulant concentration, mixing and filtration pressure. Intertional J. of Food Sci. and Tech. 22:29-34.Bonorden, W.R. and Pariza, M.W. 1994. Antioxidant nutrition and protection free radicals. Nutr. Toxic. 19-48.Bors, W., and Saran, M. 1987. Radical scavenging by flavonoid antioxidant. Free Rad. Res. Commun. 2:289-294.Brzezinski, A., Adlercreutz, H., Shaoul, R., Rosler, A., Shomueli, A., Tranos, V. and Schenker, J.G. 1997. Short-term effects of phytoestrogen-rich diet on postmenopausal women. Menopause 4:89-94.Caragay, A.B. 1992. Cancer preventive foods and ingredients. Food Technol. 46﹙4﹚:65-68.Chan, K.M., Decker, E.A., Lee, J.B. and Butterfield, D.A. 1994. EPR spin-trapping studies of the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of carnosine and related dipeptides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1407-1410.Chen, Q., Shi, H. and Ho, C.T. 1992b. Effects of rosemary extracts and major constituents on lipid oxidation and soybean lipoxygenase activity. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69﹙10﹚:999-1002.Cheng, C., Pearson, A.M.and Gray, J.I. 1992b. Effects of synthetic antioxidants﹙BHA,BHT and PG﹚on the mutagenicity of IQ-like compound. Food Chem. 43:177-183.Cook, N.C. and Samman, S. 1996. Flavonoids-chemistry,metabolism,cardioprotective effects,and dietary source. J. Nutr. Biochem. 7:66-76.Costantion, L., Albasin, A., Rastelli, G., and Benvenuti, S. 1992. Activity of polyphenolic crude extracts as scavengers of superoxide radicals and inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Planta. Med. 58:342-344.Crush, K.G. 1970. Carnosine and related substances in animal tissues. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 34:3-30.Cunningham, M.L., Peak, J.G. and Peak, M.J.1987. Single-strand DNA breaks in rodent and human cells produced by superoxide anion or it reduction products. Mutat. Res. 184:217-222.Danni, O., Sawyer, B.C. and Slater, T.F. 1977. Effect of﹙+﹚-catechin in vitro and in vivo on disturbances produced in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum by carbon tetrachloride. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 5:1029-1032.Davies, M.J., Hayashi, M., Sharma, O.P., Nigam, S. and Benedetto, C. 1987. Free radical scavenging properties of modulators of eicosanoid metabolism. Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res. 17:1098-1102.Decker, E.A. and Faraji, H. 1990. Inhibition of lipid oxidation by carnosine. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67:650-652.Decker, E.A., Crum, A.D. and Calvert, J.T. 1992. Differences in the antioxidant mechanism of carnosine in the presence of copper and iron. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:756-759.DeMan, J.M., deMan, L. and Gupta, S. 1986. Texture and microstructure of soybean curd﹙tofu﹚as affected by different coagulants. Food Microstructure 5︰83-89.DeWhalley, C.V., Rankin, S.M., Hoult, R.S., Jessup, W., Leake, D.S.1990. Flavonoids inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins by macrophages. Biochem. Pharm. 39:1743-1751.Draper, H.H., Agarwal, S., Nelson, D.E.V., Wee, J.J., Ghoshal, A.K. and Farber, E. 1995. Effects of peroxidative stress and age on the concentration of a deoxyguanosine-malondialdehyde adduct in rat DNA. Lipids 30﹙10﹚:959-961.Drenska, D., Bantutova, I., and Ovcharov, R. 1989. Anticonvulsant effect of anthocyanins and antioxidants. Famatsiya﹙sofia﹚39:33-40.Duh, P.D., Yeh, D.B. and Yen, G.C. 1992. Extraction and identification of an antioxidative component from peanut hulls. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69:814-818.Economou, K.D., Oreopoulou, V. and Thomopoulos, C.D. 1991. Antioxidant activity of some plant extracts of the family labiatae. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68:109-113.Esterbauer, H.1982. Aldehydic Products of Lipid Peroxidation. In Free radicals, Lipid Peroxidation and Cancer, Mabrien D.C.H. and Slater T.F.﹙Ed.﹚, p.101-128. Academic Press, London.Flohe, L., Gunzler, W.A. and Schock, H.H. 1992. Glutathione peroxidase:a selenoenzyme. FEBS Lett. 32:132-134.Fotsis, T., Pepper, M., Adlercreutz, H., Flerischmann, G., Hase, T., Montesano, R. and Schweigerer, L. 1993. Genistein, a dietary-derived inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:2690-2694.Frankel, A.A., Custer, L.J., Cerna, C.M., and Naraha, K. 1995. Rapid HPLC assay od dietary phytoestrogens from lugumes and from human urine. PSEBM 208:18-26.Frankel, E.M., Kanner, J., German, J.B., Parks, E. and Kinsella, J.E. 1993. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341:454-457.Fuhrman, B., Lavy, A. and Aviram, M. 1995. Consumption of red wine with meats reduces the susceptibility of human plasma and low-density lipoprotein to lipid peroxidation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:549-554.Gabor, E. 1988. Possible biological role of some anthocyanins in foods. Bull. Liaison-Groupe Polyphenols 14:130-133.Gaudette, D.C. and Holub, B.J. 1990. Effect of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on U46619-induced phosphoinositide phosphorylation in human platelets. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 170:238-242.Gordon, M.H. 1996. Dietary antioxidants in disease prevention. Nat. Prod. Rep. 265-273.Halliwell, B. and Chirico, S. 1993. Lipid peroxidation:its mechanism,measure and significance. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57:715s-725s.Halliwell, B., Murcia, M.A., Chirico, S. and Aruoma, O.I. 1995. Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo:What they do and how they work. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35﹙1&2﹚:7-20.Halliwell, B. 1993. The role of oxygen radicals in human disease with particular reference to the vascular system. Haemostasis 23﹙suppl.1﹚:118-126.Halliwell, B.1994. Free radicals and antioxidants:a personal view. Nutr. Rev. 52﹙8﹚:253-265.Hara, T. and Kubota, E. 1984. Changes in aroma compononts of green tea during the frying process. Nippon Nogeikagku Kaishi 58:25-30.Haraguchi, H., Saito, T., Ishikawa, H.,Date, H., Katako, S., Tamura, Y. and Mizutani, K. 1996. Antiperoxidative components in Thymus Vulgaris. Planta Med. 62:217-221.Harborne, J.B. 1988 The Flavonoids:Advances in Research Since 1980, Chapman and Hall, New York.Hendrich, S., Lee, K.W., Xu, X., Wang, H.J., and Murphy, P.A. 1994. Defining food components as new nutrients. J. Nutr. 124:1789s-1792s.Hertog, M.G.L., Feskens, E.J.M., Hollman, P.C.H., Katan, M.B., Komhout, D. 1993. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease:the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342:1007-1011.Hertog, M.G.L., Kromhout, D., Aravanis, C.,et al. 1995. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the Seven Countries Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 155:381-386.Huang, S.W., Frankel, E.N. and German, J.B. 1994. Antioxidant activity of α- and γ- tocopherol in bulk oils and in oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2108-2112.Husain, S.R., Cillard, J. and Cillard, P. 1987. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of flavonoids. Phytochemistry 26:2489-2491.Ide, H., Kow, Y.W. and Wallace, S.S. 1985. Thymine glycol and urea residues in M13 DNA constitute replicative blocks in vitro. Nucleic Acid Res. 13:8035-8039.Igarashi, K., Takanashi, K., Makino, M., and Yasu, T. 1989. Antioxidative activity of major anthocyanin isolated from wild grapes﹙Vitis coignetiae﹚. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 36:852-856.Igarashi, K., Yoshida, T. and Suzuki, E. 1993. Antioxidative activity of nasunin in Chouja-nasu﹙little eggplant,Solanum Melongena L.Chouja﹚.Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaish 40:138-143.Imida, K., Fukushima, S., Shivai, T., Ohtani, M., Nakanishi, K. and Ito, N. 1983. Promoting activities of butylated hydroxy-anisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on 2-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis and inhibition of γ- glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci development in the liver of rats. Carcinogenesis. 4:885-889.Ishikawa, T., Suzukawa, M., Ito, T., Yoshida, H., Ayaori, M., Nishiwaki, M., Yonemura, A., Hara, Y., Nakamura, H. 1997. Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66:261-266.Ishikawa, Y. 1992. Development of new types of antioxidants from microbial origin. J. Jpn. Oil Chem. Soc. 41:762-767.Ito, N., Fukushima, S. and Tsuda, H. 1985. Carcinogenicity and modification of the carcinogenic response by BHA,BHT,and other antioxidants. CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 15:109-150.Jacob, R.A. and Burri, B. 1996. Oxidative damage and defense. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63:985S-990S.Kamei, H., Kojima,T., Hasegawa, M., Koide, T., Umeda, T., Yukawa, T. and Terabe, K. 1995. Suppression of tumor cell growth by anthocyanins in vitro. Cancer Invest. 13:590-594.Kanner, J., Frankel, E., Granit, R., German, B. and Kinsella, J.E. 1994. Natural antioxidants in grapes and wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:64-69.Kawakubo, J., Nishira, H., Aoki, K. and Shinke, R. 1993. Production of phenolic compounds by Aspergillus S-4 in sake cake medium and identification of terrein. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 57:1208-1209.Kinsella, J., Lokesh, B. and Stone, R. 1990. Dietary n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid and amelioration of cardiovascular disease:Possible mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52:1-28.Kinsella, J.E., Frankel, E.M., German, J.B. and Kanner, J. 1993. Possible mechanisms for the protective role of antioxidants in wine and plant foods. Food Tech. 47﹙5﹚:85-89.Knekt, P., Jarvinen, R., Keunanen, A. and Maatela, J. 1996. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland:a cohort study. Bri. Med. J. 312:478-481.Kohen, R., Misgav, R. and Ginsburg, I. 1991. The SOD like activity of copper:carnosine, copper:anserine and copper:homocarnosine complexs. Free Radical Res. Commun. 12-13:179-185.Larson, R.A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochem. 27:969-978.Larson, R.A. 1995. Antioxidants Mechanisms of Secondary Natural Products. In Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in biology Ahmad,.S.﹙Ed.﹚ Chapter 6. p. 210-237. Chapman&Hall, London and New York.Laughton, M.J., Evans, P.J., Moroney, M.A., Hoult, J.R.S. and Halliwell, B.1 991. Inhibition of mammalian lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase by flavonoids and phenolic dietary additives:relationship to antioxidant activity and to iron-reducing ability. Biochem. Pharm. 42:1673-1682.Lee, H.P., Gourley, L., Duffey, S.W., Esteve, J., Lee,J. and Pay, N.E. 1991. Dietary effects on breast-cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 337:1197-1200.Lee, M.H. 1988. Natural antioxidants from teas. In Processing of the international symposium on recent development in tea production.p.299. Taiwan Tea Experiment Station, Taoyuin.Lim, B.T., DeMan, J.M., DeMan, L. and Buzzell, R.I. 1990. Yield and quality of tofu as affected by soybean and a soymilk characteristic. Calcium sulfate coagulant. J. Food Sci.55︰1088-1092.Lingnert, H., Vallentin, K., and Eriksson, C.E. 1979. Measurement of antioxidative effect in model system. J. Food Processing and Preservation 3:87-103.Liu, Y., Bhalla, K., Hill, C. and Priest, D.G. 1994. Evidence for involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in taxol-induced apoptosis in human ovarian tumor cell line. Biochem. Pharmacol. 48:1265-1272.Machlin, L.J. and Bendich, D.1987. Free radical tissue damage:protective role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J. 1:441-445.Mangiapane, H., Thomson, J., Sater, A., Brown, S., Bell, G.D. White, D.A. 1992. The inhibition of the oxidation of low density lipoproteins by﹙+﹚-catechin, a naturally occuring flavonoid. Biochem. Pharm.43:445-450.Mascio, P.D., Murphy, M.E. and Sies, H. 1991. Antioxidant defense systems︰the role of carotenoids,tocopherol, and thiols. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:194S-200S.Matsukawa, Y., Marui, N., Sakai, T., Satome, Y., Yoshida, M., Matsumoto, K., Nishimo, H. and Aoike, A. 1993. Genistein arrests cell cycle progression at G2-M. Cancer Res. 53:1328-1331.Matsuzaki, T. and Hara, Y. 1985. Antioxidative activity of tea leaf catechin. Nippon Negei Kaguku Kaishi 59:129-134.Maxwell, S.R.J. 1995. Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Drugs 49:345-361.Mayes, P.A. 1993. Structure and Function of the Lipid-Soluble Vitamins.In Harper′s biochemistry. Murry, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W.﹙Ed.﹚Chapter 53. p588-599. Appleton&Lange, a Publishing Division of Prentice Hall.McCord, J.M. 1994. Free radicals and prooxidants in health and nutrition. Food Tech. 48﹙5﹚:106-111.Messina, M.J. and Barnes, S. 1991. The role of soybean products in reducing cancer risk. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 83:541-546.Messina, M.J., Persky, V., Setchell, K.D.R. and Barnes,S. 1994. Soy intake and cancer risk:a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr.Cancer 21:113-131.Meunier, M.T., Duroux, E. and Bastide, P. 1989. Antioxidant activity of procyanidol oligomers and anthocyanins with regard to superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation. Plant. Med. Phytother. 23:267-274.Meyer, A.S. and Isaksen, A. 1995. Application of enzymes as food antioxidants. Trends in Food Sci. and Tech. 6:300-304.Mitsuda, H., Yasumoto, K. and Iwami, K. 1966. Antioxidative action of indole compounds during the autoxidation of linoleic acid. Eiyo to Shokuryo 19:210-214.Moroney, M.A., Alcaraz, M.J., Forder, R.A., Carey, F. and Hoult, J.R.S. 1988. Selectivity of neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition by an anti-inflammatory flavonoid glycoside and related aglycone flavonoids. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 40:787-792.Murkies, A.L., Lombard, C., Strauss, B.J.G., Wilcox, G. and Burger, H.G. 1995. Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flashes:effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas 21:189-195.Namiki, M. 1990. Antioxidants∕antimutagens in foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 29:273-300.Nawar, W.W. 1985. Lipid in Food Chemistry, Fennema O.R.﹙Ed.﹚, p.139-244. Marcel Dekker,Inc., New York.Neuzil, J., Gebicki, J.M. and Stocker, R. 1993. Radicals-induced chain oxidation of protein and its inhibition by chain-breaking antioxidants. Biochem. J. 293:601-606.Nieto, S., Garrido, A., Sanhueza, J., Loyola, L.A., Morales, G., and Leighton, F. 1993. Flavonoids as stabilizers of fish oil:an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. J. Am. Oil Chem. 70﹙8﹚:773-778.Niki, E. 1992. Active oxygens and free radicals in biology. J. Jpn. Oil Chem. Soc. 41﹙9﹚:768-773.Okada, K., Tamura, Y., Yamamoto, M., Inoue, Y., Takagaki, R., Takahashi, K., Demizu, S., Kajiyama, K., Hiraga, Y. and Kinoshita, T. 1989. Identification of antimicrobial and antioxidant constituents from licorice of Russian and Xinjiang Drogin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37﹙9﹚:2528-2530.Okura, A., Arakawa, H., Oka, H., Yoshinari, T. and Monden, Y. 1988. Effect of genistein on topoisomerase activity and in the growth of [VAL12] Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 157:183-189.Onyeneho, S.N. and Hettiarachchy, N.S. 1992. Antioxidant activity of durum wheat bran. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:1496-1500.Osawa, T., Katsuzaki, H., Hagiwara, Y., Hagiwara, H. and Shibamoto, T. 1992. A novel antioxidant isolated from young green barley leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:1135-1138.Osawa, T. 1996. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Biochem. Pharm. 52:1033-1039.Potter, S.M. 1998. Soy protein and cardiovascular disease:The impact of bioactive components in soy. Nut. Rev. 56﹙8﹚:223-230.Ramarathnam, N., Osawa, T., Namiki, M. and Kawakishi, S. 1988. Chemical studies on novel rice hull antioxidants. 1. Isolation, Fractionation, and partial characterization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36:732-737.Ramarathnam, N., Osawa, T., Namiki, M. and Kawakishi, S. 1989. Chemical studies on novel rice hull antioxidants. 2. Identification of isovitexin,a.c-glycosyl flavonoid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:316-319.Ramarathnam, N., Osawa, T., Ochi, H. and Kawakishi, S. 1995. The contribution of plant food antioxidants to human health. Trends in Food Sci. and Tech. 6:75-82.Rashid, M.H., Kato, F. and Murata, A. 1992. Effects of microorganisms on the peroxidation of lipid and fatty acid composition of fermented fish meal. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 56:1058-1061.Reid, T.M. and Loeb, L.A. 1993. Effect of DNA repair enzymes on mutagenesis by oxygen free radicals. Mutat. Res. 289:181-186.Renaud, S., and de Lorgeril, M. 1995. Wine,alcohol,platelets and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet. 339:279-287.Retassky, K.L. and Frei, B.1995. Vitamin C prevents ion-dependent initiation and propagation of lipoprotein in human low-density lipoprotein. Biochemica. Biophysica. Acta. 1257:279-287.Rice-Evans, C.A., Miller, N.J. and Paganga, G. 1996. Structure antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acid. Free Radical Biol. 20:933-956.Rouseff, R. and Nogy, S. 1994. Health and nutritional benefits of citrus fruit components. Food Tech. 48﹙11﹚:125-139.Saio, K. 1979. Tofu-relationships between texture and fine structure. Cereal Food World 24﹙8﹚︰342-354.Saio, K. and Watanabe, T. 1978. Differences in functional properties of 7S and 11S soybean proteins. Journal of Texture Studies 9︰135-157.Saito, M., Hosoyama, H. and Yamaji, N. 1998. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J. Agric.Food Chem.46:1460-1464.Satue-Gracia, M.T., Heinonen, M. and Frankel, E.N. 1997. Anthocyanins as antioxidants on human low-density lipopretein and lecithin - liposome system. J. Agric. FoodChem. 45︰3362-3367.Saul, R.L. and Ames, B.N.1 986. Background levels of DNA damage in the population. Basic. Life Sci.38:529.Setchell, K.D.R., Borriello, S.P., Hulme, P., Kirk, D.N. and Axelson, M. 1984. Nonsteroidal estrogens of dietary origin:possible roles in hormone-dependent disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40:569-578.Shahidi, F. and Wanasundara, P.D.J.P.K. 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32﹙1﹚:67-103.Sharma, O.P., Adlercreutz, H., Strandberg, J.D., Zirkin, B.R., Coffey, D.S.and Ewing, L.L. 1992. Soy of dietary source plays a preventive role against the pathogenesis of prostatitis in rats. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 43:557-564.Shen, C.F., DeMan, L., Buzzell, R.I. and deMan, .M. 1991. Yield and quality of tofu as affected by soybean and soymilk characteristics:glucono delta lactone coagulant. J. Food Sci. 56:109-112.Shih, M.C., Hou, H.J. and Chang, K.C. 1997. Process optimization for soft tofu. J. Food Sci. 62:833-837.Sies, H. and Stahl, W. 1995. Vitamin E and C,β-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidante. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62﹙suppl.﹚:1315S-1321S.Slater, T.F., Cheeseman, K.H., Spinozzi, F., Pagliacci, M.C., Migliorati, G., Moraca, R., Grignami, F., Riccardi, C. and Nicoletti, I. 1994. The natural tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein produces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells. Leuk. Res. 18:431-439.Stadler, R.H. and Fay, L.B. 1995. Antioxidative reactions of caffeine:Formation of 8-oxocaffeine﹙1,3,7-Trimethyiuric acid﹚in coffee subjected to oxidative stress. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:1332-1338.Stadtman, E.R. and Oliver, D.N. 1991. Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. Physiological Consequences. J. Biol. Chem. 266:2005-2008.Stadtman, E.R. and Oliver, D.N. 1991. Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. Physiological consequences. J. Biol. Chem. 266:2005-2008.Steinberg, D. 1988. Antioxidants in the prevention of human atherosclerosis. Circulation 85:2338-2344.Steinberg, D. 1992. Metabolism of lipoproteins and their role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis Rev. 18:1-6.Su, J.D. 1992. Investigation of antioxidative activity and tocopherol content on Chinese crude drugs of fruits or seeds. Food Sci. 19﹙1﹚:12-24.Sun, N., Breene, W.M. 1991. Calcium sulfate concentration influence on yield and quality of tofu from five soybean varieties. J. Food Sci. 56:1604-1607.Takahama, U. 1983. Suppression of lipid photoperoxidation by quercetin and its glycosides in spinach chloroplasts. Photochem. Photobiol. 38:363-373.Tamura, H. and Yamagami, A. 1994. Antioxidative activity of monoacylated anthocyanins isolated from Muscat Bailey A grape. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1612-1615.Tasi, S.J., Lan, C.Y., Kao, C.S. and Chen, S.C. 1981. Studies on the yield and quality characteristics of tofu. J. Food Sci. 46︰1734-1737.Tew, B.Y., Xu, X., Wang, H.J., Murphy, P.A. and Hendrich, S. 1996. A diet high in wheat fiber decreases the bioavailability of soybean isoflavones in a single meal fed to women. J. Nutr. 126:871-877.Torel, J., Cillard,J . and Cillard, P. 1986. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and reactivity with peroxy radical. Phytochemistry 25:383-385.Tsuda, T., Makino,.Y., Kato, H., Osawa, T. and Kawakishi, S. 1993. Screening for antioxidative activity of edible pulses. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 57:1606-1608.Tsuda, T., Shiga, K., Ohshima, K., Kawakishi, S. andTsuda, T., Watanabe, M., Ohshima, K., Norinolou, S., Choi, S.W., Kawakishi, S. and Osawa, T. 1994. Antioxidative activity of the anthocyanin pigments cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and cyanidin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2407-2410.Tsujino, Y., Tsurumi, S., Yoshida, Y. and Niki, E. 1994. Antioxidative effects of dihydro-r-prronyl-triterpenoid saponin﹙chromosaponin Ⅰ﹚. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem 58:1731-1732.Tsutsumi, N. 1995. Effect of coumestrol on bone metabolism in organ culture. Bio. Pharm. Bull. 18﹙7﹚:1012-1015.Vinson,J.A. and Hontz,B.A.1995. Phenol antioxidant index︰comparative antioxidant effectiveness of red and white wines. J.Agric.Food Chem. 43:401-403.Vlaskovska, M., Drenska, D., and Ovcharov, R. 1990. Effect of antioxidants, alone and in combination, on the inflammatory process. Probl. Vutr. Med. 18:3-19.Waltzl, B. 1996. Health-promoting effects of phytochemicals. In:Proceeding of IUFOST''''96'''' regional symposium.Wanasundara, U.N. and Shahidi, F. 1994. Stabilization of canola oil with flavonoids. Food Chem. 50:393-396.Wang, H., Cao, G. and Prior, R.L. 1997. Oxygen absorbing capacity of anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45:304-309.Wang, H.J. and Murphy, P.A. 1994. Isoflavone content in commercial soybean foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1666-1673.Wang, H.J. and Murphy, P.A. 1996. Mass balance study of isoflavones during soybean processing. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:2377-2383.Wei, H., Bonald, B., Cai, Q., Barnes, S. and Wang, Y. 1995. Antioxidant and antipromotional effect of the soybean isoflavone genistein. PSEBM. 208:124-130.Wei, H., Wei, L., Frenkel, K., Bowen, R., and Barnes, S. 1993. Inhibition of tumor promoter induced hydrogen peroxide formation in vitro and in vivo by genistein. Nutr. Cancer 20:1-12.Wilcox, G., Wahlgvist, M.L., Burger, H.G. and Medley, G. 1990. Oestrogenic effects of plant foods in postmenopausal women. Br. Med.J . 301:905-906.Wu, J.W., Lee, M.H., Ho, C.T. and Chang, S.S. 1982. Elucidation of the chemical structures of natural antioxidants isolated from rosemary. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 59:229-345.Yen, G.C., Duh, P.D. and Tsai, C.L. 1993. Relationship between antioxidant activity and maturity of peanut hulls. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41:67-70.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔