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研究生:李光中
研究生(外文):Kuang-chung Li
論文名稱:後冷戰時期美國情報體系改革之研究
指導教授:裘兆琳裘兆琳引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:美國研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:情報體系中情局
相關次數:
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「知己知彼,百戰不殆」,情報工作關係一國國家安全及其在全球
競技場上之競爭力,為任何國家所不能忽視及或缺者。情報對國家
安全之重要性無戰時與平時之分,冷戰雖已結束,但各國對情報之
需求並未稍減,惟情報體系必須對內外環境之改變加以因應,以發
揮其最大效能。
造成後冷戰時期美國情報體系改革之主要原因有三:一為因環境
變遷而帶來之新挑戰,二為艾姆斯諜案之經驗教訓,三為國會因艾
姆斯諜案所引發之震撼而成立布朗委員會對情報體系作全盤性檢視
並提出建言。
因應冷戰結束,面臨之威脅改變,美國情報體系必須調整工作重
點,並須加強公開化作為,以增進各界對其工作之了解並爭取認同
與支持;而面臨預算與人員裁減,則必須進行單位整編,以在有限
資源下統一事權、增加效率;另為充分發揮統合戰力,則必須加強
情報體系各成員間之凝聚力與業務協調;而艾姆斯諜案之教訓則加
強了對反情報工作之重視與改善。
第一章緒論………………………………1
第一節研究動機、方法與限制…………1
第二節相關概念…………………………6
第二章美國情報體系之建構………………12
第一節美國情報工作沿革…………………12
第二節二次大戰後美國情報體系之形成....16
第三節美國情報體系概述…………………27
第三章後冷戰時期美國情報體系改革之肇因……40
第一節新挑戰及工作重點之轉變…………………40
第二節艾姆斯諜案…………………………………52
第三節布朗委員會…………………………………58
第四章情報體系組織改革之走向……64
第一節中央情報首長之權責…………64
第二節單位整編………………………73
第三節加強公開化……………………78
第四節加強情報體系凝聚力…………82
第五章情報體系工作改革之走向……88
第一節工作調整………………………88
第二節加強公開來源情報之蒐整……108
第三節加強對軍事行動之支援………110
第四節加強經濟情報及反情報………112
第六章結語……………………………119
參考書目……………………………………126
壹、 中文部分
一、 書 籍
1. 王雲五編,雲五社會科學大辭典第三冊政治學,
台北:商務印書館出版,民國七十四年。
2. 朱堅章主譯,政治學的範圍與方法,
台北:幼獅出版社,民國七十五年。
3. 林碧炤,國際政治與外交政策,
台北:五南圖書出版,民國七十九年。
4. 易君博,政治理論與研究方法,
台北:三民書局,民國七十七年。
5. 高承恕,布勞岱與韋伯-歷史對社會學理論與方法的意義,
台北:中央研究院民族學研究所,民國七十一年。
6. 陳勻生譯,成文憲法的比較研究,
台北:桂冠圖書公司,民國七十九年。
7. 陳鴻瑜,政治發展理論,台北:桂冠圖書公司,民國七十四年。
8. 張中勇,各國安全制度,台北:三鋒出版社,民國八十二年 。
9. 蔡漢青、孔淑霞編,特務政治-中央情報局秘辛,
台北:風雲時代出版有限公司,民國八十二年。
10. 蔡進源,孫子兵法與世界謀略,
台北:漢宇出版有限公司,民國八十四年三月。
11. 蘇江海,論行政學研究範圍及其教材,
台北:國立中興大學法商學院教務分處出版課,民國七十四年元月。
12. Alvin and Heidi Toffler著,War and Anti-War,傅凌譯,新戰爭論,
台北:時報文化,民國八十三年。
13. Hans A. Binnendijk原編輯, Strategic Assessment 1996,尹元隆譯,
美國一九九六年戰評估,
台北:國防部史政編譯局,民國八十六年九月。
14. Ronald Kessler著,The FBI,伊斯曼譯,聯邦警探--FBI,
台 北:新新聞文化出版,民國八十四年十二月。
15. William H. Lewis and Stuart E. Johnson 編輯,
Weapons of Mass Destruction-New Perspectives on Counterproliferation ,馬振宇譯,大規模 毀滅性武器-反擴散的新展望,
台 北:國防部史政編譯局,民國八十六年八月。
二、 期 刊
1. 宋家怡,「網路上的亡命之徒-電腦駭客」,
世界周刊,第七 三八期,民國八十七年五月十日,頁五至七。
2. 張中勇,「美國國家安全與情報制度」,
美國月刊,第五卷第 六期,民國七十九年十月,頁三O至四O。
3. 「美中情局打中國留學生的主意」,
亞洲週刊電子版,民國八 十七年七月十二日。
三、 報 紙
1. 「美曾密謀刺殺瓜國58名政要」,
中時電子報,民國八十六 年五月廿九日。
2. 「豬灣事件美鍾情局內部調查解密」,
中時電子報,民國八十 七年二月廿三日。
3. 「紀念奧市爆案,打擊恐怖分子」,
世界日報,民國八十五年 四月十九日,版A3。
4. 「G-7高峰會明在巴黎揭幕,美將提打擊恐怖方案」,
世界日 報,民國八十五年七月廿九日,版A4。
5. 「恐怖主義已成過街老鼠」,
世界日報,民國八十五年七月卅 日,版A4。
6. 「美情報:伊朗有恐怖分子訓練營」,
世界日報,民國八十五 年八月三日,版A14。
7. 「美決截斷伊朗利比亞恐怖主義財源」,
世界日報,民國八十 五年八月六日,版A1。
8. 「恐怖主義日益升高威脅全民,聯調局將調五百探員對付」,
世界日報,民國八十五年九月五日,版A3。
9. 「丟顆毒氣彈,攻擊紐約地鐵?」,
世界日報,民國八十七年 二月廿日,版A1。
10. 「攻擊美電腦系統,駭客倍增」,
世界日報,民國八十七年七 月六日,版A3。
11. 「發動突襲,憲法有據」,
世界日報,民國八十七年八月廿二 日,版A3。
貳、 英文部分
I. Government Publication
1. Bromwich, Michael R., A Review of the FBI Performance in Uncovering
the Espionage Activities of Aldrich Hazen Ames-Special Report
Unclassified Executive Summary,Washington, D.C.:
Office of Inspector General, Department Of Justice, April 1997.
2. Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, Introductory
History of Venona and Guide to the Translations , Fort Meade, MD.:
Center for Cryptologic History, NSA, February 1, 1995.
3. CIA Public Affairs, A Consumer''s Guide to Intelligence, Washington, D.C.:
CIA Public Affairs, July 1995.
4. CIA Public Affairs, Factbook on Intelligence, Washington, D.C.:
CIA Public Affairs, June 1995.
5. Commission on the Roles and Capability of the United States Intelligence
Community, Preparing for the 21st Century-An Appraisal of U.S.
Intelligence, Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, March 1, 1996.
6.Department of Defense, The United States Security Strategy for
the East Asia-Pacific Region-1998, Washington, D.C.:
Office of International Security Affairs, November 1998.
7. Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University,
Strategic Assessment 1998-Engaging Power for Peace,
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, March 1998.
8. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Joint Chiefs
of Staff, Washington, D.C.: Joint Chiefs of Staff, June 30, 1991.
9. Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of
Military Terms, New York, NY.: Arco Publishing, 1988.
10. National Counterintelligence Center, Annual Report to Congress on Foreign
Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage, Washington, D.C.:
National Counterintelligence Center, July 1995.
11. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, The Role of
Intelligence in the Foreign Policy Process, Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1980.
12. U.S. Congress, House Select Committee on U.S. National Security and
Military/Commercial Concerns with the People''s Republic of China,
Cox Report, Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, May 25, 1999.
13. U.S. Congress, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Report 101-358:
Authorizing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1991 for the Intelligence
Activities of the U.S. Government, the Intelligence Community Staff, the
Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System, and for
Other Purpose, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1990.
II. Hearings and Speeches
1. Cooper, David E., Economic on Threat from U.S. Allies, Testimony Before
Senate Select Intelligence Committee, February 28, 1996.
2. Deutch, John, Intelligence Roles and Capabilities, Hearing of the Senate
Select Intelligence Committee, April 24, 1996.
3. Freeh, Louis J., The Threat of International Organized Crime and Global
Terrorism and the International Law Enforcement Programs of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Statement Before the House
International Relations Committee,October 1, 1997.
4. Tenet, George J., Does American Need the CIA?,
Speech at Gerald R. Ford Library, November 11, 1997.
III. Books
1. 1993 Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1994.
2. 1994 Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1995.
3. 1996 Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1997.
4. 1997 Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 1998.
5. Cannistraro, Vincent; Bresett, David C., The Terrorist Threat in American,
Washington, D.C.: The Chemical Manufacture Association, April 1998.
6. Hedley, John Hollister, The Prospect of U.S. Intelligence Community,
Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown
University, 1995.
7. Maurice R. Greenberg & Richard N. Hass, Making Intelligence Smarter,
New York, NY.: Council on Foreign Relations, 1997.
8. Richelson, Jeffrey T., The U.S. Intelligence Community, 3rd ed.,
Boulder, CO.: Westview Press Inc., 1995.
9. Shane, Scott and Bowman, Tom, No Such Agency, Baltimore, MD.:
The Baltimore Sun, December 1995.
10. The Twentieth Century Fund, The Report of the Twentieth Century Fund
TaskForce on the Future of U.S. Intelligence, New York, NY.:
The Twentieth Century Fund Press, June 1996.
11. Westerfield, H. Bradford, Inside CIA''s Private World, New Haven, CT.:
Yale University Press, 1995.
IV. Periodicals
1. Auster, Bruce B., "Spies Wanted: James Bond Need Not Apply",
U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 124, No. 23, June 15, 1998, p.32.
2. Bowens, Gregory J., "House Panel Reportedly Caps Intelligence Spending",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly, Vol.51, No. 25, June 19, 1993, p.1588.
3. Carney, Dan and McCutcheon, Chuck,
"Who''s in Charge When Terror Strikes?",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.56, No. 28, July 18, 1998, pp.1921~1924.
4. Cassata, Donna, "Members Fear Fiscal Crackdown May Sap Spy Agency",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.53, No. 46, November 25, 1995, pp.3603~3605.
5. Cassata, Donna, "Panel Orders CIA to Explain Complacency
in Ames Case", Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.52, No. 47, December 3, 1994, pp.3455~3457.
6. Chatterjee, Sumana, "Intelligence Bills Target New Threats",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly, Vol.56, No. 19, May 9, 1998, p.1241.
7. Fulghum, David A., "Advanced Arms Spread Defies Remote Detection",
Aviation Week & Space Technology,
No. 9, November 9, 1992, pp.20~22.
8. Garamone, Jim, "Deutch Pledges More Intelligence Support to Military",
NMIA Newsletter, Vol.10, No.2, 1995, pp.25~26.
9. Hastedt, Glenn, "CIA''s Organizational Culture and the Problem of Reform",
International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,
Vol.9, No.3, Fall 1996, pp.249~269.
10. Hager, Nicky, "Exposing the Global Surveillance System",
Covert Action Quarterly, No.59, Winter 1996~97, pp.11~17.
11. Hulnick, Arthur S., "The Ames Case: How Could It Happen",
International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,
Vol.8, No.2, Summer 1995, pp.133~154.
12. "Intelligence Authority Gets Clinton Signature",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.55, No. 46, November 22, 1997, p.2917.
13. Marsh, Thomas, "General Marsh Outlines Infrastructure Protection
Recommendations", National Security Law Report,
Vol.20, No.1, Winter 1998, pp.1~8.
14. McCutcheon, Chuck and Pomper, Miles A.,
"Embassy Bombings Prompt Closer Scrutiny of Intelligence, Security
Standard", Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.56, No. 33, August 15, 1998, pp.2246~2248.
15. McCutcheon, Chuck, "Intelligence Bill Clears With Small Rise in
Spending, Expanded Wiretap Authority",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.56, No. 40, October 10, 1998, p.2760.
16. Minihan, Kenneth A., "National Security Implication of the Information
Age", National Security Law Report,
Vol.19, No.1, Winter 1997, pp.1~9.
17. Palmer, Elizabeth A., "Conferees Agree on Bigger Role for FBI in
Spy Cases", Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.52, No. 37, September 24, 1994, pp.2705~2707.
18. Schwartz, Randy K., "Patrolling the Empire-Mapping, Imagery & National
Security", Covert Action Quarterly, No.59, Winter 1996~97, pp.32~37.
19. "Senate Passes Authority for Intelligence Activities",
Congressional Quarterly Weekly,
Vol.56, No. 25, June 27, 1998, pp.1775~1777.
V. Magazine and Newspapers
1. Hinds, Michael deCourcy,
"Center for Drug Intelligence Opens,But Some Ask If It Is Really Needed",
New York Times, November 17, 1999, p.A16.
2. Sanger, David E. and Weiner, Tim,
"Emerging Role For the CIA:Economic Spy",
New York Times, October 15, 1995, p.A1.
3. Weiner, Tim, "Report on CIA Spy Is Said to Show Agency''sBlunders",
New York Times, September 25, 1994, p.A28.
4. Meddis, Sam Vincent and Wolf, Richard,
"Congress AppliesCloak-Dagger Pressure",
USA Today, October 6, 1994, p.2A.
5. Millis, John I., "Our Spying Success Is No Secret",
Wall Street Journal, October 12, 1994, p.A15.
6. McGee, Jim, "Is the FBI Becoming Too Powerful?",
TheWashington Post Magazine, July 20, 1997, pp.10~26.
7. Blustein, Paul, "France, Israel Alleged to Spy on U.S. Firms",
Washington Post, August 16, 1996, p.A28.
8. Chandrasekaran, Rajiv and Corcoran, Elizabeth,
"Two Calif.Teens Suspected of Breaking Into Government Computers",
Washington Post, February 28, 1998, p.A6.
9. Graham, Bradley, ? U.S. Military Computer Systems Breachedby Hackers
This Month", Washington Post, February 26, 1998, p.A1.
10. Pincus, Walter, "Congressional Leaders Expect Changes at CIA",
Washington Post, September 27, 1994, p.A8.
11. Pincus, Walter, "Cuba Adviser Probed in Leak of CIA Data",
Washington Post, November 30, 1995, p.A21.
12. Pincus, Walter, "Tainted Moscow Data Swayed U.S.",
Washington Post, December 9, 1995, p.A1.
13. Pincus, Walter, "Justice Report Echoes House Critique in Ames Case",
Washington Post, April 19, 1997, p.A9.
14. Pincus, Walter, "Report Faults CIA''s Delay in Ames Case",
Washington Post, April 22, 1997, p.A22.
15. Pincus, Walter, "In Turnabout, GOP Senators Welcome CIA Nominee",
Washington Post, May 7, 1997, p.A6.
16. Pincus, Walter, ? New Tests Again Catch U.S. Intelligence Off Guard",
Washington Post, May 14, 1998, p.A28.
17. Pincus, Walter, "CIA Chief Cited Loss of Capability in Intelligence",
Washington Post, May 25, 1998, p.A4.
18. Smith, Jeffrey, "CIA Gears Up to Thwart Information Attacks",
Washington Post, June 26, 1996, p.A19.
19. Smith, Jeffrey, "FBI Plans to Expand Overseas",
Washington Post, August 20, 1996, p.A1.
20. Smith, Jeffrey, "CIA Drops Over 1,000 Informants",
Washington Post, March 2, 1997, p.A1.
21. Suro, Roberto, "FBI Boosts Counter-Terrorism Program",
Washington Post, September 5, 1996, p.A21.
22. Suro, Roberto, ? Terrorist Groups Set Up U.S. Cells, Senate Panel Is Told",
Washington Post, May 14, 1997, p.A4.
23. Walcott, John, "Mission Impossible?", Washington Post, December 8, 1996, p.C1.
24. "A CIA Secret", Washington Post, December 28, 1998, p.A24.
25. "DOE Boosts Security", Washington Post, March 17, 1999, p.A6.
26. "U.S. Reveals Spy Satellite Launch Plan", Washington Post, December 19, 1996, p.A16.
VI. Internet
1. 美國中央情報局網頁,
http://www.odci.gov/cia/public_affairs/press_release/ps032098html.
2. 美國國家影像暨製圖局網頁,
http://164.214.2.59/general/factsheets/nimafs.html, April 2, 1998.
http://164.214.2.59/publications/stand-up/vision.html, April 2, 1998.
3. 美國司法部網頁,
http://www.usdog.gov/opa/pr/1998/February/088.htm.html.
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