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研究生:溫文慧
研究生(外文):Wendy
論文名稱:遊戲與儀式:哈洛‧品特的《生日舞會》、《管理員》及《重回故里》
論文名稱(外文):Games and Rituals in Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party, The Caretaker, and The Homecoming
指導教授:吳新發吳新發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-fa Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:遊戲儀式哈洛‧品特《生日舞會》《管理員》《重回故里》
外文關鍵詞:GamesRitualsHarold PinterThe Birthday PartyThe CaretakerThe Hoemcoming
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人們互動的特殊層面是品特劇中最主要的主題,因此,了解品特所關心那些的現象是很重要的。一般而言,品特特別喜歡應用遊戲和儀式在他的戲劇上。唯有在遊戲與儀式中,劇中的主角會暴露出他們的弱點及恐懼。為了生存,他們必須與外界的威脅相互搏鬥。在品特這三個劇本中,外來入侵者扮演威脅者的角色,其他的人物則是受害者。在遊戲中,不論誰是贏家,所有的人終究逃不了威脅或迫害。品特在遊戲及儀式中所呈現的就是個人如何在這種充滿威脅的世界,求取生存。
本文共分五章,首章介紹品特的生平背景,他近似荒謬劇的戲劇手法,以及在他劇本中,由遊戲及儀式中表現出為求生存及權勢的鬥爭。本文主要伯恩及高夫曼的理論為依據。二、三、四章論述此主題如何分別呈現在品特的三齣劇作中。笫二章試論《生日舞會》一劇。一方面,這是一個權力遊戲的戲劇。另一方面,這個劇是主角史丹利死而重生的一場遊戲。此外,這齣戲表現了犧牲者與勝利者的權式。笫三章試論《管理員》中的領土爭奪。經過一連串的遊戲及儀式,載維斯終究被逐出此房間。笫四章試論《重回故里》一劇,主要處理露絲的性與她的權勢,此劇呈現露絲如何克服生活的窘境,並回到她真正的家。笫五章不僅總結前述三劇探索遊戲及儀式主題在品特劇作中的轉變,而且試圖歸納品特特有的表現方式。

The particular area of personal interaction is Pinter's main theme, and it is important to understand the phenomena he concerns. Assumedly, Pinter likes to apply the games and rituals in his plays. Only in the games and rituals, will the characters in the plays expose their vulnerabilities and terror. To exist, they have to fight against the menace that threatens their security.
In Pinter's three plays, the outsider plays the role of meancer, and the insiders always play the role of the victim. In the game, no matter who is the winner, all of them will be menaced and victimized in the end.
This thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter I examines Pinter's background, his dramaturgy shaped by his closeness to the "Theatre of the Absurd," and the significance of games and rituals in his plays. This thesis will be done by approaching the subject from two main theories: Eric Berne's Games People Play and Erving Goffman's Interaction Ritual. The main body of this thesis is devoted to the exploration of the games and rituals separately in Pinter's three plays. Chapter II focuses on The Birthday Party. On the one hand, the play is a power game. On the other hand, the play is a game of Stanley's death and rebirth. In addition, the play represents a victim-victor ritual. Chapter III considers the territorial imperative in The Caretaker. The play ends with Davies's expulsion brought about through a series of games and rituals. Chapter IV primarily deals with Ruth's sex and dominance in The Homecoming. And the play represents how Ruth breaks away from her plight and conquers a new place to be her home. Chapter V not only traces these three plays' thematic progression, but also suggests how Pinter's technique of presentation contributes to his incisive treatment of the theme of games and rituals in these three plays.

Table of Contents
Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii
Acknowledgements ------------------------------------------------------------------- iv
Chapter I: Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Chapter II: Death and Rebirth in The Birthday Party ------------------------ 16
1.Human Relations ------------------------------------------------------------- 18
2.Power games ------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
3.Victim-victor rituals ---------------------------------------------------------- 36
Chapter III: The Territorial Imperative in The Caretaker ------------------- 45
1. Human Relations ------------------------------------------------------------ 47
2.Substitution games ------------------------------------------------------------ 58
3.Territory rituals ---------------------------------------------------------------- 66
Chapter IV: Sex and Dominance in The Homecoming ------------------------ 75
1.The rituals: the variants of homecoming ----------------------------------- 83
2.The sex games between the male and the female ------------------------- 93
Chapter V: Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------- 105
Selected Bibliography -------------------------------------------------------------- 119

Selected Bibliography
Primary Sources:
Pinter, Harold. 1976. Complete Works: One. New York: Grove Press.
---. 1977. Complete Works: Two. New York: Grove Press.
---. 1977. Complete Works: Three. New York: Grove Press.
Secondary Sources:
Almansi, Guido and Simon Henderson. 1983. Harold Pinter. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.
Abrams, M.H., eds. 1986. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. 2. New York: W.W. Norton Company.
Aughtry, Charles Edward, ed. 1963. Landmarks in Modern Drama: From Ibsen to Ionesco. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Berne, Eric. 1964. Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships. New York: Grove Press.
Billington, Michael. 1996. The Life and Work of Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber.
Bird, Frederick. 1980. Rituals and Ceremonies in Popular Culture. Ed. Ray Brown B. Ohio: Bowling Green UP.
Bloom, Harold, ed. 1987. Harold Pinter. New York: Chelsea House Publisher.
Brockett, Oscar G. 1971. Perspectives on Contemporary Theater. Louisiana: Louisiana State UP.
Brown, John Russell, ed. 1968. Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Criti-

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