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研究生:陳英琪
研究生(外文):陳英琪
論文名稱:有趣的閱讀與辯證的省思:格列佛遊記與鏡花緣中的遊記、幻想以及寓言形式之運用
論文名稱(外文):Diverting Reading and Dialectical Reflection: Travel Narratives of Fantasy and Allegory in Jonathan Swift''s Gulliver''s Travels and Li Ju-chen''s Flowers in the Mirror
指導教授:海柏海柏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Patricia Haseltine
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:格列佛遊記鏡花緣讀者反應理論沃爾夫岡‧伊瑟爾遊記幻想寓言
外文關鍵詞:Gulliver''s TravelsFlowers in the MirrorReader''s Response TheoryWolfgang Isertravel narrativefantasyallegory
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本論文旨在比較史威夫特的格列佛遊記(1820)與李汝珍的鏡花緣(1726), 兩本作品雖然分別由中、英作家書寫,它們在遊記、幻想以及寓言的形式上卻有許多相似處。基於沃爾夫岡‧伊瑟爾的讀者反應理論,本論文著重於探討史威夫特與李汝珍如何運用運用遊記、幻想以及寓言形式,並探析兩位作家如何應用伊瑟爾所提出之「隱含的讀者」。文中彙集諸評論家之研究,以展現與比較遊記、幻想以及寓言的形式三者間的交互關係,以期瞭解兩本作品中此三形式對「隱含的讀者」的影響。整體而言,本論文描繪出遊記、幻想以及寓言此三形式蘊涵著相似的閱讀潛力。
本論文共計五章,首章簡介伊瑟爾的讀者反應理論。伊瑟爾視文學作品為深具潛力之結構,讀者可以藉由超越文學領域的標準、價值觀以及其自身的經驗回應文本,並將文本具體化。第二章假設史威夫特與李汝珍於作品中應用遊記形式有兩大功效:一是旅遊為思想之隱喻,一是小說中可能存在的世界之建構。
第三章檢視幻想的形式。藉由一些中、西評論家對幻想的美學研究,得知奇幻具有美學的影響力,它可以誘發讀者的想像力。為了掌握讀者的閱讀興趣,兩位作家以傳奇或神話的色彩潤飾其遊記。文中我運用馬克斯‧路析的理論,以呈現此兩本遊記作品中民俗學的特色。第三章則著眼於寓言的形式。藉由幻想的形式,兩位作者分別鋪陳了不確定的幻想世界,這些不確定的幻想世界使讀者得以活躍地回應文本,並詮釋其意義。由於兩作品可視為寓言,本章中亦包含三種可能的含意與詮釋。
最後一章歸結前四章論述之重點,遊記、幻想以及寓言的形式,不僅可以引發讀者的閱讀興趣,還可以誘發讀者的閱讀反應。事實上,此三形式是密不可分的。特別是遊記的形式促進了幻想與寓言形式的展現。兩本作品中相同的優點,便是可以激發讀者閱讀潛力的不確定性。而兩本作品最令人讚佩的便是其可能性的精緻架構,它容允讀者由不同的面向詮釋作品。由此可知,史威夫特與李汝珍的寫作策略與伊瑟爾的讀者反應理論不謀而合,亦即文本必須是一種溝通的形式。
This present thesis is a comparative study of Jonathan Swift''s Gulliver''s Travels (1726) and Li Ju-chen''s Flowers in the Mirror (1820). Both works, though written respectively by English and Chinese writer, are similar in their form s of travel narrative, fantasy, and allegory. Based on Wolfgang Iser''s Reader''s Response Theory, this thesis concentrates on how both Jonathan Swift and Li Ju-chen manipulate the travel narrative with fantasy and allegory. Their deliberate calculation on their implied readers has thus been closely examined and in some respects treated tentatively. Applying Iser''s theory primarily, I assemble some critics'' researches to exhibit the interrelationship concerning the form of travel narrative, fantasy, and allegory in both works comparatively with the aim of understanding how these particular textual forms of the two literary works are related and affect the implied reader. What I have done in this thesis is to proffer a profile of similar reading potentiality in the forms of travel narrative, fantasy, and allegory.
This present thesis consists of five chapters. In the introduction I give an overview of Iser''s Reader''s Response Theory. Iser considers the literary text as a potential structure that is concretized by the reader in relation to his or her extra-literary norms, values, and experience. What is presented in Chapter Two is the postulation that both Swift''s and Li Ju-chen''s adoption of travel narrative serves their works with double functions: one is travel as a metaphor of thought; the other, the establishment of possible worlds in fictionality.
In Chapter Three I approach the genre of fantasy by mustering some Western and Chinese critics'' research on the aesthetic function of fantasy. On the whole, they accentuate that fantasy contains the aesthetic effect of wonder that can entice readers to exercise their imagination. To capture readers'' interest, both Swift and Li Ju-chen tincture their travel narrative with legend or fairy-tale. I apply Max Luthi''s theory to point out the characteristic embodiment of folk-literature in both Swift''s and Li Ju-chen''s travel narratives. Chapter Four deals with the form of allegory. Both Swift and Li Ju-chen utilize the literary tactic of fantasy to create indeterminate fictional worlds that set readers in an active performance of meaning-formulation. From this angle, Gulliver''s Travels and Flowers in the Mirror can be termed as allegories. Accordingly, I point out three possible implications and interpretations of allegory.
In the conclusion I recapitulate that the forms of travel narrative, fantasy, and allegory are gifted with a distinctive similarity. They can not only generate readers'' interest in reading but also elicit readers'' response to the matters encompassed within the literary texts. In fact, these three forms are intimately connected. It is the very framework of travel narrative that furthers and enhances the forms of fantasy and allegory. The excellent merit that both works have in common is a wide spectrum of indeterminacy that liberates readers'' potential reading. The imaginative greatness of both works is the elaboration of the possibility that there may be numerous directions to approach the marrow of their contents. Seen in this light, both Swift''s and Li Ju-chen''s artistic stratagems in designing their literary works as travel narratives of fantasy and allegory correspond to Iser''s theory that each literary work should be a form of communication.
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………….………. i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…………………………………….…………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGES…………………………………………………… vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER TWO: THE STRATEGY OF TRAVEL NARRATIVE 19
Travel as a Metaphor of Thought 21
Possible Worlds and Fictional Worlds 26
The Strategy of Travel Narrative
in Swift''s and Li''s Works 29
CHAPTER THREE: THE EMPLOYMENT OF FANTASY 53
Literary Writers'' Faculty for Fantasy 55
The Telescoping of Folklore as a Tapestry of Fantasy 60
The Features of Fairy Tale 62
The Features of Legend 72
The Incorporation of Folktale as a Portrait of Man 74
CHAPTER FOUR: THE INTERPRETATION OF ALLEGORY 78
Reading Allegory as an Interaction between Readers and
Literary Works 80
The Interpretation of Political Allegory 84
The Interpretation of Satirical Allegory 86
The Interpretation of Moral Allegory 97
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 103
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