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研究生:洪憶萍
研究生(外文):I-Ping Hung
論文名稱:不同糖對芋澱粉回凝及芋澱粉膠安定性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies of different saccharides on retrogradation of taro starch and on stability of taro starch gel
指導教授:王俊權王俊權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiun-Chuang R. Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:芋澱粉糊化回凝微細結構質地與流變性質熱焓特性
外文關鍵詞:Taro starchSaccharidesGelatinizationRetrogradationMicrostructureTextural and rheological propertiesThermal properties
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本研究的目的即探討添加糖對芋澱粉回凝及芋澱粉膠安定性之影響。以示差掃描熱分析儀(DSC)觀察芋澱粉糊化回凝之變化,以掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、質地測定儀(Texture analyzer)及動態流變儀(dynamic rheometer)觀察芋澱粉膠貯藏期間之變化。結果顯示,添加九種糖均會使芋澱粉的糊化To、Tp、Tc三者提高。添加的糖濃度越高,澱粉糊化溫度越高。添加核糖具抑制芋澱粉回凝的能力。除了添加5、10%的蔗糖與麥芽糖在貯藏初期(第1day)可延緩回凝的發生之外,所有糖的添加在貯藏期間均會促進芋澱粉的回凝。以麥芽糊精促進芋澱粉回凝的能力最大。
添加七種糖(木糖、葡萄糖、果糖、半乳糖、蔗糖、麥芽糖、及麥芽糊精)均可降低未經貯存芋澱粉膠的水活性,添加糖的濃度愈高其水活性愈低。芋澱粉膠結構的變化主要發生在貯藏的12 hr內,網狀結構迅速形成變為緊密。在貯藏期間添加糖的芋澱粉膠,其多孔結構聚集形成網狀結構的速率較緩慢,添加的糖濃度越高,其網狀結構形成愈慢。添加單醣(果糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖)與雙醣(蔗糖、麥芽糖)皆會延緩網狀結構的形成。但添加麥芽糊精的芋澱粉膠,隨貯藏時間的延長,多孔結構聚集形成網狀結構的速率較控制組來的快,且添加的麥芽糊精濃度愈高,其網狀結構形成愈迅速。
由實驗結果發現對芋澱粉膠而言,若添加高濃度(40%)的蔗糖、葡萄糖、木糖、半乳糖及麥芽糖皆會降低芋澱粉膠的硬度。若添加低濃度(5%)的糖溶液,則只有蔗糖會降低膠硬度。添加麥芽糊精皆會促進澱粉膠的硬度。
在芋澱粉:糖液為1:9的芋澱粉膠中,所有的芋澱粉膠之貯存模數(G’)與損失模數(G”)皆隨著貯存時間的延長有增加的現象。損耗正切(tanδ)則隨貯存時間的增加有下降的趨勢。除了添加麥芽糊精外,添加各種糖之芋澱粉膠,其G’值都低於控制組,尤以添加濃度高達40%時,G’值最低。
添加木糖、葡萄糖、果糖、半乳糖、蔗糖、麥芽糖及麥芽糊精的芋澱粉膠,其回凝程度皆高於控制組,有促進回凝的效果,以添加40%的糖其促進效果最顯著。
The properties of this study were to investigate nine different sugars on retrogradation of taro starch and on stability of taro starch gel. Several techniques, included differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) , scanning electron microscope (SEM), texture analyzer, and dynamic rheometer, were applied in this study .
The results showed that the gelatinized temperature (To, Tp, Tc) of the taro starch were increased with addition of sugars. Moreover, gelatinization temperature increased with the increase of sugar concentration. Ribose added gel was found to decrease retrogradation enthalpy. In presence of sucrose and maltose (5%∼10%), retrogradation was retarded in the initial period (1 day).All sugars-added gels increased retrogradation enthalpy of taro starch except 5∼10% sucrose and maltose at early stage (0∼1day). Maltodextrin-added gel increased retrogradation enthalpy significantly during 28 days storage.
The water activity of taro starch gel with sugars (xylose, glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose or maltodextrin) were decreased comparing with control gel. Water activity of taro starch gel decreased with the increases of sugars concentration. The SEM results showed that the development of microstructure of taro starch gel become denser in the initial 12 hours after gelling. However, taro starch gel with sugars addition retarded the development of amylose network during storage. The development of network of taro starch gel slowered with increases of sugars concentration. However, the addition of maltodextrin resulted in the rapider development of network than mono- and disaccharide starch gel.
The results showed that the firmness of taro starch gel were decreased when high concentration solution(40%) of xylose, glucose, galactose, sucrose or maltose were added into gel. In presence of sucrose (5%), the firmness decreased of taro starch gel. However, maltodextrin-added(0∼20%) increased the firmness of gel during 28 days storage.
In the system of 10% taro starch gel( taro starch :solution = 1 : 9), the rheological properties including storage that the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of taro starch gel were increased but tanδ was decreased from to 28 days. The results showed that the storage modulus (G’) of taro starch gel with sugars addition were lower than control gel, except maltoextrin, during storage .
The addition of xylose, glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin in taro starch gel increased degree of retrogradation with the extent of starage time. Higher sugars concentration addition resulted in the higher degree of retrogradation in taro starch gel.
中文摘要----------------------------------------- i
英文摘要 -----------------------------------------------------------iii
目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------v
表目錄 -------------------------------------------------------------viii
圖目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------x
第一章 緒 言 -----------------------------------------------------1
第二章 文 獻 回 顧 --------------------------------------------3
壹、 芋之簡介 ----------------------------------------------------3
一、 以採收母芋為目的之水芋品種 -----------------------4
(1) 檳榔心芋 ------------------------------------------------4
(2) 高雄一號芋 ---------------------------------------------4
(3) 麵芋 -----------------------------------------------------4
(4) 紅梗芋 --------------------------------------------------4
二、以採收子芋為目的之旱芋品種 ------------------------4
(1) 狗蹄芋 --------------------------------------------------4
(2) 烏播芋 --------------------------------------------------4
貳、 芋的一般組成與加工利用 --------------------------------5
參、 澱粉 ----------------------------------------------------------8
一、 澱粉顆粒之組成 -----------------------------------------8
二、 澱粉顆粒結構 -------------------------------------------9
三、 澱粉的糊化 ----------------------------------------------9
1、 澱粉與水的比例 --------------------------------------10
2、 加熱速率 ----------------------------------------------12
3、 添加物 -------------------------------------------------12
a、 鹽類 -----------------------------------------------12
b、 脂質 -----------------------------------------------12
c、 多元醇 --------------------------------------------14
四、 澱粉的回凝 ---------------------------------------------16
1、 澱粉的來源與組成 ---------------------------------16
2、 貯存的溫度和時間 ---------------------------------18
3、 水分含量 ---------------------------------------------19
4、 添加物 -----------------------------------------------19
(1) 鹽 --------------------------------------------------19
(2) 油脂 -----------------------------------------------20
(3) 界面活性劑 ---------------------------------------20
(4) 糖 --------------------------------------------------21
實驗目的---------------------------------------------------------39
第三章 材 料 與 方 法 --------------------------------------30
壹、實驗材料 ---------------------------------------------------30
一、 芋頭原料 ------------------------------------------------30
二、 添加物 --------------------------------------------------30
三、 芋頭澱粉之萃取 ---------------------------------------31
四、 芋頭澱粉之脫脂 ---------------------------------------31
五、 芋頭澱粉膠之製備-------------------------------------31
貳、方法 ----------------------------------------------------------32
一、基本成分分析 -------------------------------------------32
二、總糖含量測定 -------------------------------------------33
三、直鏈澱粉含量測定 --------------------------------------33
四、破損澱粉含量 -------------------------------------------33
五、澱粉定量 -------------------------------------------------34
六、澱粉糊化與回凝之DSC分析 -------------------------34
(1)芋澱粉糊化分析 --------------------------------------35
(2)芋澱粉回凝分析 --------------------------------------35
七、芋澱粉膠水活性測試 -----------------------------------36
八、芋頭澱粉膠之微細結構 --------------------------------36
九、澱粉膠質地測試 -----------------------------------------36
十、流變性質 -------------------------------------------------37
十一、芋澱粉膠可溶性澱粉分析 --------------------------37
十二、統計分析 ----------------------------------------------38
第四章 結 果 與 討 論 --------------------------------------39
一、一般成分分析 --------------------------------------------39
二、芋澱粉的DSC測定 --------------------------------------42
a、 糊化溫度 ----------------------------------------------42
b、 回凝熱焓特性 --------------------------------------- 50
三、芋澱粉膠水活性之變化----------------------------------62四、芋澱粉膠的微細結構 ------------------------------------71
五、芋澱粉膠硬度測試 -------------------------------------- 81
六、芋澱粉膠的流變性質 ----------------------------------- 92
一、貯存模數(G’)之變化 ---------------------------------92二、損失模數(G”)之變化 ----------------------------------94
三、損耗正切值(tanδ)之變化 ---------------------------95
七、芋澱粉膠可溶性澱粉含量 -----------------------------111
第五章 結 論 --------------------------------------------------120
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------------------123
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