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研究生:楊光閃
研究生(外文):Yang, Guang-Shan
論文名稱:中共解放軍退役人員優撫安置政策之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the PLA''s Policy of the Pensions and Transference to the Retired Servicemen
指導教授:蔡萬助蔡萬助引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Wann-Juh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:政治作戰學校
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:179
中文關鍵詞:優撫退休轉業
外文關鍵詞:PensionsRetirementTransference
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  本文藉由政策分析法,只在運用公共政策之原理、原則,以探討中共解放軍退役人員優撫安置問題是如何進入決策體系、成為其政府的議程,政策如何的產出、執行,進而對此項政策做一評價。並就系統論之觀點觀察,此一政策實施後一般民眾及優撫安置之軍人又是如何反應(反饋)。
  本文以公共政策之政策過程階段模型為本篇論文架構。其主要原因是鑑於過去產有關優撫安置政策之研究較少,且多偏向單一法規面的探討。如此將過於微觀(micro),為彌補現狀的不足,因此採用階段模型為分析架構。期能從比較宏觀的(marco)角度來分析。所謂「宏觀」,即是從優撫安置思想、經濟、社會、政策規劃、執行、評估等方面作有系統的分析。
  第一章探討優撫安置問題之環境因素,本章就歷史、政治、社會、經濟等四個觀點探究優撫安置問題之形成,並為了對中共優撫安置政策能有一個比較合理的參照體系,因之進一步探索國際優撫安置潮流之發展情形,以形成對比將更有利於透視中共對優撫安置政策之觀點。
  如欲徹底了解特定公共政策時,須先掌握政策所處環境系絡之特性。在政策制訂過程中,社會資源、經濟發展及人口特質等,是相當重要的指標與影響因素。若能適切掌握此類因素;一則可以提昇政府的回應能力,再則亦能促使政府相關單位主動思考、尋求最佳的政策產出。以提供民人更佳的生活品質。這些問題的探討,可有助於理解歷史趨勢下中共在其當今所面臨之社會、經濟情勢下是如何看待優撫安置政策。
  第二章從政策目標、原則及特色三個層面論述。政策規劃可說是政策行動的先決條件,其目的在提高政策執行的效果。由於環境係處於不斷變遷的狀態,是以規劃亦須保持彈性狀態,方足以應付變化多端的環境變遷。此外,規劃人員是否關注政治因素對於政策規劃所產生的壓力?影響甚鉅。此類政治因素及壓力包括運作程序、監督技術、人事發展、溝通等等。所以政策規劃實無法獨立於管理、資源分配、預算等面向的涉入與影響。
  第三章就政策的合法化基礎上,探討優撫安置之政策執行及評估。政策執行是一種動態的過程。它包含負責執行的機關、人員共同組合之各種必備的要素、採取各項行動、扮演各種管理角色、進行裁量,建立合理可行的例規,化解衝突以達成政策目標。政策執行首應考慮到有效性問題。換言之,執行者應該先掌握不同的執行情境,再深入考量執行過程中應依循的標準與原則。政策評估,其目的在於提供現行政策運行的實況及其成果之資訊,作為政策持續、修正或終結的基礎。政策分析的過程,實屬一循環不已的動態過程,而政策評估可視為新、舊政策之間的連結點,這種連結點呈現在規劃評估,執行評估與事後評估上。
  By way of policy analysis, the thesis focuses on using the principles and rules of the public policy to study how do the problems of pensions and arranging jobs for PLA''s retired soliders enter the policy-making system and then become the administrative agenda. In addition, the thesis is to study how does the policy produce and perform and then make an evaluation for the policy. According to systematic theory, the thesis also observes how do the general public and these retired soldiers'' responses (feedback) after the implementation of the policy.
  The structure of the thesis basically follows the phase model of the policy-making process of the public policy. The reason is that few studies have focused on the pensions and arranging jobs, and most of such studies simply concentrate on the related regulation discussion. To prevent seeing thing from microcosmic and to satisfy what we do not have now, the study adopts the phase model as its analyzing method with aview to conducting the study in a "macro" point of view. What I mean by "macro" is a systematic analysis from the thinking, economy, society, and policy planning, implementation, and evaluation of the pensions and arranging jobs.
  Chapter one discusses the environmental factors concerning the pensions and arranging jobs. It is done from the viewpoints of history, politics, society, and economy so as to see the formulation of the issues of the pensions and arranging jobs. In addition to a clear comparison structure for this policy, the study also compares the policy of the pensions and arranging jobs of the PRC with the international society, which may help us understand more about the pensions and arranging jobs of PRC.
  If we want to comprehend a specific public policy thoroughly, we have to grasp the characters of the environmental system where the policy is in. In the program-initiation process, society resources, economical development, and population characteristic are important indexes and influential factors. If handling properly, these indexes and factors can not only enhance the government ability to response, but also make the related governmental organizations think and search for best responsive policy to improve the living qualit of the general public.Through discussing, the problem will be helpful to understand how the PRC, in the train of history, formulates the policy of the pensions and srranging jobs in its society and economic situation.
  In chapter two, I discuss the compensation and settlement policy from the prospects of program objectives, principles, and characteristics. Program formulation is the premise for program implementation. It is aimed to improve the effectiveness of the program implementation. However, due to the vicissitude of the wholeenvironment, the formulation must be flexible to cope with the environmental changes. The deciding factor is that the planning personnel must pay attention to what the pressure that the political factors could have put on the formulated program. These political factors and pressures include operating procedure, supervising techniques, personnel development, and communication.Therefore, the program formulation can not work without the evolvement and influence of management, resource distribution, and budget.
  In the third chapter, the thesis discusses the program implementation and evaluation of the policy of the pensions and arranging jobs on the basis of law. Program implementation is a constant process. It contais a diversityh of necessary elements which integrated with the responmsible organization and personnel, It has to take many actions, play different managing role, come to executive decisions, and build the reasonable regulations or dissolve confrontation, to realize program objective. Nevertheless. the program executioner has to consider the program effectiveness. In other words. it is for the executioner to understand different implementing environment first, then to think deeply the required standards and principles in the implementing process. As for progam evaluation, it provides the real situation and the outcome information of the current operating program of which can be used as a foundation for continuity, modification, and termination of the program. Finally, the study concludes that the program. analysis process, is actually a constant cysling process, in that the program evaluation can be seen a juncture between the new and old program. This juncture is best presented at the program evaluation, implementation evaluation, and post evaluation.
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