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研究生:潘郁雯
研究生(外文):Yu-Wen Pan
論文名稱:墾丁高位珊瑚礁森林毛柿族群更新之研究
論文名稱(外文):Recruitment of Diospyros discolor Willd. in the Kenting High Coral Reef Forest
指導教授:孫義方孫義方引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Fang Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:更新種子傳播孔隙毛柿台灣獼猴Janzen-Connell假說墾丁高位珊瑚礁森林
外文關鍵詞:RecruitmentSeed dispersalCanopy gapDiospyros discolor Willd.Macaca cyclopisJanzen-Connell hypothesisKenting High Coral Reef Forest
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植物族群是否能更新受到許多因素影響,例如種子傳播者的行為、疾病或草食動物的傷害等生物因子,以及生育地優劣、干擾等非生物因子。本實驗目的在探討種子傳播者及生育環境對毛柿(Diospyros discolor Willd.)種子發芽率及小苗存活率的影響。實驗地點位於墾丁高位珊瑚礁自然保留區,區內的台灣彌猴(Macaca cyclopis)為毛柿主要的種子傳播者。由於獼猴的覓食與社會行為,毛柿種子以單顆、團狀種子及整顆果實的方式散佈在母樹附近。此外,毛柿種子可能被傳播至不同的生育環境,例如成熟的森林底層或光線充足的孔隙,並且也被帶離至與母樹不同距離之處。因此本研究目的希望回答下列問題:(一)獼猴散佈的種子與完整果實,其種子發芽率與小苗存活率是否有差別?(二)傳播至不同生育環境中的種子,其種子發芽率與小苗存活率是否有差別?(三)遠離母樹的種子,其生存上是否有任何好處?
為了解台灣獼猴及不同生育環境對毛柿更新的影響,1997年9月在剛形成的孔隙、成熟的孔隙和完整樹冠3種生育環境下設立12個樣區。在每個樣區中放置4種處理的種子:獼猴進食過程中掉落的單顆種子、人為剝落的單顆種子、果肉被吃而種子外露的團狀種子以及完整的果實。從86年9月至87年9月期間,每個月調查種子存活及發芽狀況,並於同時調查森林中自然生長的小苗作為比較。實驗結果顯示,毛柿種子在剛形成的孔隙中發芽率顯著低於成熟孔隙與完整森林。1年後3個生育環境中的小苗存活率無顯著差異,在剛形成孔隙與成熟孔隙中的小苗生長速率顯著大於成熟森林下小苗。不同的種子處理實驗中,單一種子的小苗存活率顯著低於團狀種子及完整的果實。但在自然狀況下,單一種子則具有較高的小苗存活率。
為了解毛柿小苗存活率與母樹距離的關係,實驗於1996年選擇4棵母樹,母樹周圍至少15公尺內無其他結果毛柿。標定其下所有1996年及1997年果期所建立的小苗,實驗從1997年2月進行至1999年2月,每月記錄小苗高度、葉片數與存活率。由實驗結果得知,無論是生長在母樹樹冠下或遠離母樹的小苗,其存活率無顯著差異。不同年齡的小苗與母樹的平均距離亦無差異,因此,毛柿種子及小苗之存活並不符合Janzen-Connell假說。

There are many factors influencing the recruitment of a plant population. These include biotic factors, such as behavior of seed dispersal agents, disease or herbivores, and abiotic factors, such as environmental conditions and disturbance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of seed dispersal agents on seed germination and seedling survival rates of Diospyros discolor Willd. The study site is located in Kenting high coral reef forest nature reserve. Macaca cyclopis is the main seed dispersal agents for D. discolor in this forest. Through macaque's frugivorous and social behavior, seeds will be either spitted out singly, drop altogether in clump underneath parent trees or drop intact underneath parent trees. Moreover, seeds can be carried through the forest and dropped in different habitats, such as gaps or mature forest floor and with different distances from the parent trees. My study was organized around the following questions: (1) Are there any differences in seed germination rate and seedling survival rate between different types of seeds caused by M. cyclopis? (2) Are there any differences in seed germination rate and seedling survival rate in different environments? (3) Are there any advantages for seeds being away from their parent trees?
To investigate the effects of M. cyclopis and different environmental conditions on the recruitment of D. discolor, I established twelve 1 x 1 m plots in three different habitats: gap, mature gap and closed canopy. Each plot contains four types of seeds (two types of single seed, clumped seeds and intact fruit) that were collected during the 1997 fruiting season. Germination rates and seedling survival rates were monitored monthly from September 1997 to September 1998. At the same time, seeds and seedlings survival in natural forest were investigated for compared with experimental treatment. The results showed that germination rates were lowest in gap than that of mature gap and closed canopy habitats. Seedling survival rates did not show significant difference between gap, mature gap and closed canopy. In addition, seedling growth rates in gap and mature gap were significantly higher than that of closed canopy. Seedling survival rates of single seed were significantly lower than that of intact fruits and clumped seeds in the experimental treatment. But in natural forest, survival rate of single seed were higher than intact fruits.
To test the relationships between seedling survival rates and the distance from their parent trees, four female trees where their nearest conspecific neighbors were at least 15 meters away were selected in February 1997. All seedlings of 1996 and 1997 cohort of these four trees were tagged, and height of seedlings, number of leaves and seedling survival were monitored monthly from February 1997 to February 1999. The results showed that there was no difference in seedling survival rates between seedlings under the canopy of parent trees and seedlings away from parent trees. This fact did not support Janzen-Connell hypothesis. This indirectly indicates that M. cyclopis may only play a minimum role in the recruitment of D. discolor.

壹、 中文摘要........................................................................................................ 1
貳、 英文摘要.........................................................................................................3
參、 前言..................................................................................................................5
肆、 材料及方法...................................................................................................10
(一)實驗地點.................................................................................................10
(二)實驗材料................................................................................................10
(三)毛柿族群徑級結構與分佈類型..........................................................10
(四)毛柿種子與小苗存活狀況..................................................................12
(五)不同生育環境與不同種子處理之種子與小苗存活狀況..............12
(六)與母樹不同距離之小苗存活率比較----檢測Janzen-Connell
假說.........................................................................................................14
伍、結果................................................................................................................15
(一)毛柿族群徑級結構與分佈類型.........................................................15
(二)毛柿種子與小苗存活狀況.................................................................15
(三)不同生育環境中,種子發芽率與小苗存活率差異......................16
(四)獼猴所造不同型態的種子,其種子發芽率與
小苗存活率差異..................................................................................17
(五)種子死亡原因......................................................................................18
(六)與母樹不同距離之小苗存活率比較----檢測Janzen-Connell
假說.......................................................................................................19
陸、討論...............................................................................................................21
(一)毛柿種子存活狀況.............................................................................21
(二)毛柿小苗存活狀況............................................................................23.
(三)不同生育環境中,種子發芽率與小苗存活率差異....................23
(四)獼猴所造不同型態的種子,其種子發芽率與
小苗存活率差異................................................................................25
(五)被傳播遠離母樹的種子,其生存上是否有任何好處?..........26
(六)小苗在母樹下更新狀況對族群分佈類型的影響.......................27
(七)綜合討論.............................................................................................27
柒、參考文獻...................................................................................................28
捌、表目.............................................................................................................32
玖、圖目.............................................................................................................33

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