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研究生:黃豪聖
研究生(外文):Huang Hao Sheng
論文名稱:臺灣政黨轉型現象之研究─從新制度論角度分析
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Party Transformation in Taiwan: The Perspective of The New Institutionalism
指導教授:王業立王業立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang Yei Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:政黨轉型新制度論制度環境路徑依循否決點臺灣
外文關鍵詞:party transformationnew institutionalisminstitutional environmentpath-dependentveto pointTaiwan
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  就西方民主政治的發展歷程而言,不論時代的特性是因應社會參與要求或如S. M. Lipset與S. Rokkan所言的固有社會分歧已然定型化(frozen cleavage system)的情況,政黨制度一直以來即被視為是國家機器與市民社會之間不可或缺的中介機制。若從較抽象的角度來看,政黨制度的存在實為公民與國家之間無可避免的「距離」界定了某種特殊的聯結模式。
  然而,若欲持平評價政黨制度對民主生活的價值,似乎只能從千緯萬端的民主定義及模式中回溯政黨制度的不同作用。有趣的是,政黨制度的嬗演蘊含另一重要啟示:在民主化過程當中,政黨通常是民主轉型(democratic transition)期政治動力來源,卻往往又是民主鞏固(democratic consolidation)階段民主深化的絆腳石(或稱「雞肋」更恰當些)。難到政黨制度的命運就如Hayek的論斷,「當人沿著曾導致他取得偉大成就之路繼續前進時,他就會陷入最深的泥淖之中」?這是相當有趣及值得思索的問題。
  從新制度論角度來分析這個問題,制度被視為是社會中的遊戲規則,其運作邏輯包括具體的的實際行為與隱晦的符號結構,而這兩者對每個成型的制度秩序而言是「一體之兩面」。因此,在這層意義下,所謂制度轉型嚴格來說乃意味著舊有制度秩序的解構,以及新的行為互動模式與符號意義產生的過程和結果。這個定義最大的優點即在強調進行臺灣政黨轉型現象分析時,除了要注意「形式」或正式制度的變化之外,「實質」或非正式的政治習慣及符號操弄部份究竟發生什麼情況更是不能忽略。而這樣的分析理路,對臺灣民主化過程中特殊的「國家認同」問題在政黨轉型內涵上的制約而言,別具解釋能力:讓研究者去注意政黨的「蛻變」(metamorphosis)究竟是新瓶裝舊酒的「量變」?抑或浴火重生的「質變」?
  因此,本論文借重新制度論關注制度環境、制度與策略行動者之間如何相互影響的分析方式與研究成果來解釋臺灣的政黨轉型動力與過程。
The symbols and organizations of political parties not only influence political orientation of voters, but also help reduce information costs and make political participation accessible. Thus, political parties are the important mechanism in modern representative politics. At the same time, the party transformation, owing to trust between voters and parties, citizens and representative, is a worthing focus.
In this way, this thesis aims to analyze political party transformation in Taiwan from the perspective of the New Institutionalism. In this thesis, “institutions” are viewed as the rules of the game, their logic of operation includes a set of practical behaviour and symbolic constructions. Thus, the term “transformation” is seriously referred to the process and outcome of deconstruction of old institutional orders. Up to this point, this thesis examine the institutional environment, process and “temporal” outcome of party transformation in Taiwan.
The emphasis of this thesis is that part transformation would be constrained to “path-dependent” pattern, so the direction of the transformation would depend on power of various “veto points”.
第一章 緒論   
第一節 問題意識與研究目的
第二節 理論反省與研究策略之提出
第三節 研究架構
第二章 新制度論─社會科學典範的「第三條路」?
第一節 個體與結構分析的分庭抗禮
第二節 新制度論的派別
第三節 新制度論的超越與囿限
第三章 政黨轉型的制度環境
第一節 新制度論的啟發
第二節 社會分歧與政黨區隔
第三節 選舉制度
第四節 憲政體制
第五節 國家攏絡手段
第四章 政黨轉型的過程:制度的延續與斷裂
第一節 新制度論的啟發
第二節 國家論述與政黨定位的糾結
第三節 黨員及選民「存在價值」的弔詭
第四節 政黨組織再造的兩難
第五章 結論
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