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研究生:楊定國
研究生(外文):DingGour Yang
論文名稱:台中地區都會區,近郊區,郊區日夜間懸浮微粒,金屬離子,及酸性陰離子之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Particulate Mass, Chemical Species in Urban, Suburban and Rural Areas During Daytime and Nighttime Period in Central Taiwan, Taichung
指導教授:張鎮南張鎮南引用關係方國權方國權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cneng-Nan ChangGuor-Cheng Fang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:環境科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:總懸浮微粒金屬離子酸性陰離子細顆粒粗顆粒
外文關鍵詞:TSPMetallic elementAcidic anionPM2.5PM2.5-10
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PM2.5(細顆粒),PM2.5-10(粗顆粒)及TSP(總懸浮微粒)分別以Universal及PS-1採樣器收集,採集的時間分為日間及夜間,收集地點為忠明國小、東海大學及弘光技術學院,這三個地點為都會區、近郊區及郊區的代表地點。收集的樣品並以火焰式原子吸收光譜儀分析金屬離子(Ca,Fe,Pb,Zn,Cu,Mn及Cr),同時以離子層析儀分析陰離子(SO42-,NO3-及Cl-)。由細顆粒對粗顆粒的比例顯示在台中地區細顆粒的濃度較粗顆粒為高。平均而言,PM2.5在日間及夜間均佔PM10的64%,PM10在日間部份佔TSP的62%,在夜間部份則佔TSP的58%。在金屬離子細顆粒濃度的部分,都會區及近郊區日間的濃度均高於夜間。近郊區中日間的濃度均高於夜間,郊區中日夜間的濃度則呈現不規則分佈,顯示此地區之污染物可能有不同之污染源。陰離子部分,氯離子在日間部份為粗顆粒為主,夜間部份則以細顆粒居多。硝酸根離子在粗顆粒及細顆粒中均可發現到。硫酸跟則主要以細顆粒的狀態存在。
Aerosol samples for PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 mm), PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5-10 mm) and TSP were collected from June to September 1998 and from February to March 1999 in central Taiwan. The filters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the elemental analysis of Ca, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr. Ion chromatography was used to analyze for the acidic anions: sulphate, nitrate and chloride in the Universal samples. The ratios of fine particle concentrations to coarse particle concentrations displayed that the fine particle concentrations are almost greater than that of coarse particle concentrations in Taichung area. The averaged concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and TSP in urban sites are higher than in suburban and rural sites at both daytime and nighttime. On average, PM2.5 accounted for 64% of the PM10 for both daytime and nighttime period, while PM10 accounted for about 62% of the TSP for daytime and 58% for nighttime across the Taichung. In urban and suburban area, the concentrations of metallic elements in PM2.5 particulate mode at daytime were all higher than that at nighttime. Chloride was dominated in coarse mode in daytime and in fine mode in nighttime. Nitrate can be found in both the coarse and fine modes. Sulfate was dominated in fine mode in both daytime and nighttime.
1. INTRODUCTION ……1
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 3
2.1 PARTICULATE 3
2.1.1 The Sources of Particulate 3
2.1.2 Meteorological Factors 4
2.1.3Health Effect of Particulate 5
2.2 METALLIC ELEMENTS 6
2.2.1 The Sources of Metallic Elements 6
2.2.2 Harm of Metallic Elements 9
2.3 ACID AEROSOL 10
2.3.1 The Sources of Acidic Aerosols 10
2.3.2 Aerosols Acidity and Health Effect 11
2.3.3 Ms ratio 12
2.4 SEASONAL, DIURNAL AND URBAN/RURAL VARIATIONS 12
2.5 ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION 14
3. MATERIAL AND METHOD 18
3.1 MOUDI SAMPLER 18
3.2 PS-1 SAMPLER 21
3.3 UNIVERSAL SAMPLER 22
3.4 SENSITIVITY OF WEIGHTING 24
3.5 VOLUMETRIC FLOW CONTROL 24
3.5.1 MOUDI Volumetric Flow Control 24
3.5.2 PS-1 Volumetric Flow Control 25
3.6 SAMPLING PROGRAM 27
3.7 SAMPLE TREATMENT 29
3.7.1 Mass Measurement 29
3.7.2 Chemical Analysis 29
3.8 QUALITY CONTROL 30
3.8.1 Blank Test 30
3.8.2 Recovery Efficient Test 30
3.8.3 Reprocucibility Test 31
3.8.4 Detection Limit 31
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 34
4.1 URBAN AREA 34
4.1.1 Ambient Air Particulate Concentration 34
4.1.2 Distribution and Composition of Metallic Elements 37
4.1.3 Particulate Composition 44
4.2 SUBURBAN AREA 47
4.2.1 Ambient Air Particle Concentration 47
4.2.2 Distribution and Composition of Metallic Elements 48
4.2.3 Particulate Composition 61
4.3 RURAL AREA 64
4.3.1 Ambient Air Particle Concetnration 64
4.3.2 Distribution and Composition of Metallic Elements 66
4.3.3 Particulate Composition 76
4.4 COMPARISON OF THREE AREAS 79
4.4.1 Particulate Concentration 79
4.4.2 Metallic Element 83
4.4.3 Acidic Anion 84
5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 92
5.1 CONCLUSION 92
5.2 SUGGESTION 95
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