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研究生:梅方奇
研究生(外文):Fang-Chi Mei
論文名稱:基礎開挖土釘加勁支撐行為之探討
論文名稱(外文):Behavior of Reinforced Soil Nailing Excavation
指導教授:吳朝賢
指導教授(外文):Cho-Sen Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:土釘基礎開挖模型試驗形狀函數
外文關鍵詞:Soil NailingExcavationModel TestShape Function
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本研究主要目的,在模擬開挖過程土釘擋土結構之行為,根據模型試驗結果定義土體內之破壞區域,並與現行設計方法所選用破壞面進行比較。
試驗藉由1.8*0.82*1.5 m 及1.0*0.345*1.0 m的大、小型模型砂箱,進行高度各為1.0m與 0.7m的模擬基礎開挖試驗,土釘分為五層埋設於砂箱內,並以傾角0°、15°、30°置放以執行土釘傾角影響分析,牆面版厚度1.5mm與3mm可對牆面版勁度不同的影響進行探討。土體應變的變化係藉由比較開挖前、後,砂箱兩側所舖設的橡皮網格之相對位移量,利用形狀函數計算土體內部各點應變量,並據以定義土體破壞區域。每一開挖階段各土釘的應力則經由黏貼於土釘上的應變計直接量測。
試驗結果顯示:(1)大型砂箱牆面版最大水平位移量與牆高之比值會隨土釘傾角增加而增加;但小型砂箱試驗結果卻相反,土釘傾角愈大,牆面最大水平位移與牆高的比值愈小。(2)土釘牆面版的變形行為與牆面版勁度有關,牆面版勁度增大時最大水平位移處從牆頂往下移。(3)近牆面版處土釘軸力,在大型砂箱中隨深度增加而增大,在小型砂箱中最大值發生在第四階處;不同深度土釘末端之軸力在兩種砂箱中皆趨於定值。(4) 開挖完成後土釘所受張力,上層土釘較接近靜止土壓力,愈往下層較接近Rankine側向主動土壓力。(5) 淺基礎開挖或土壓力較小的情況時,由於土體的可能破壞面較接近直線,德國設計法所假設的破壞面與模型實驗的土體破壞面較接近。
The purpose of this research is to simulate the behavior of soil nailing structure during excavating procedure, define the destroyed area in earth based on experimental result, and to compare the result with those of current method.
The experiment is to simulate two excavations of 1.0m and 0.7m high in two sandboxes of 1.8m * 0.82m * 1.5m and 1.0m * 0.345m * 1.0m respectively. Nails are buried in five levels with obliquity of 0°, 15°, and 30° in order to test influence of different nail obliquity. Two kinds of boards with thickness of 1.5mm and 3mm, help analyze influence of different board thickness strength. Fail area of earth is measured by calculating relative movement of rubber net in both sides of sandboxes on different spots before and after excavating procedure. The nail strength of each excavating procedure is measured directly from the strain gages attached on nails.
Experimental result shows that: (1) The ratio of horizontal board movement and excavated height of big sandbox rises with increment of nail obliquity; but result is opposite with small sandbox for the ratio of horizontal board movement and excavated height decrease while nail obliquity increase. (2) Distortion of board is related with the board strength. Position of maximum board movement moves down to the lower part of the wall while board strength increases. (3) Axial strength of nail near boards increases with increasing depth in big sandbox while the maximum axial strength occurs in the forth level in small sandbox. The value of axial strength in both sandboxes is apt to be fixed in different depth. (4) After excavating procedure, tensile stress of upper level nail is close to at-rest lateral earth stress, tensile stress of lower level is close to Rankine active lateral earth stress. (5) In situation of shallow base excavation or lesser earth pressure, and due to possible fail area is closer to straight line, failure hypothesis of German design is close to that observed in model tests.
中文摘要………………………………………………………….i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………ii
目錄……………………………………………………………..一
表目錄…………………………………………………………..四
圖目錄…………………………………………………………..五
照片目錄………………………………………………………..十
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………..1
1-1 研究動機與目的……………………………………….1
1-2 研究方法……………………………………………….1
1-3 研究內容……………………………………………….2
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………..3
2-1 土釘工法之發展歷史………………………………….3
2-2 土釘擋土結構之特性………………………………….6
2-2-1 土釘工法的施工方式……………………………..6
2-2-2 土釘工法與地錨工法之比較……………………..7
2-2-3 土釘工法與傳統加勁材工法之比較……………..8
2-2-4 土釘工法的優點及限制…………………………..9
2-2-5 土釘的種類……………………………………….10
2-3 土釘的受力機制……………………………………….11
2-4 土釘擋土結構之行為………………………………….13
2-4-1 牆面厚度之影響………………………………….13
2-4-2 土釘傾角………………………………………….13
2-4-3 施工方式的影響………………………………….14
2-5 土釘擋土結構現地試驗……………………………….14
2-5-1 法國CEBTP的大型試驗…………………………15
2-5-2 德國永久支撐試驗………………………………..20
2-5-3 美國的工程開挖觀測……………………………..26
2-6 土釘擋土結構之設計方法…………………………….27
2-6-1 法國法…………………………………………….29
2-6-2 德國法…………………………………………….32
2-6-3 Davis法…………………………………………..36
第三章 試驗計劃與內容…………………………………….40
3-1 砂土基本性質試驗……………………………………40
3-1-1 含水量及比重試驗……………………………….40
3-1-2 粒徑分析試驗…………………………………….43
3-1-3 最大與最小乾密度試驗………………………….43
3-2 模型土釘拉出試驗……………………………………44
3-2-1 模型土釘之製作…………………………………45
3-2-2 拉出試驗之相關設備……………………………48
3-2-3 拉出試驗之步驟…………………………………49
3-2-4 拉出試驗之結果…………………………………49
3-3 大、小模型砂箱試驗…………………………………55
3-3-1 試驗設備…………………………………………55
3-3-2 量測系統的校正…………………………………64
3-3-3 模型砂箱試驗步驟………………………………73
3-4 網格變化之分析………………………………………75
3-5 土釘擋土牆原型與模型間相似性分析………………79
第四章 結果與討論………………………………………….81
4-1 牆面之水平位移量……………………………………81
4-2 土釘軸力………………………………………………93
4-3 乳膠網格應變之分析…………………………………99
4-4 土釘牆頂部沉陷量…………………………………..107
4-5 試驗結果討論………………………………………..108
4-5-1 土釘傾角的影響………………………………..108
4-5-2 土釘型式的影響………………………………..109
4-5-3 土釘牆面版勁度的影響………………………..110
4-5-4 破壞區域與破壞面之比較……………………..114
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………...116
5-1 結論………………………………………………….116
5-2 建議………………………………………………….118
參考資料……………………………………………………..119
附錄…………………………………………………………..123
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