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研究生:謝政峰
研究生(外文):Cheng-Feng Hsieh
論文名稱:焚化底灰再利用於燒製紅磚可行性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Feasibility study of Incinerator Bottom Ash regeneration for Red Bick Manufacturing
指導教授:高思懷高思懷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sue-huai Gau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:水資源及環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:底灰燒結再利用紅磚
外文關鍵詞:bottom ashsinteringreusered brick
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台灣地區都市垃圾未來將以焚化處理為主,隨垃圾焚化將有大量之焚化灰渣產生。預估在民國九十年22座垃圾焚化廠陸續興建完成後,都市垃圾之焚化處理率將達到75%以上,屆時每日將有5000噸以上之灰渣需加以處理與處置。現階段國內的灰渣處理方式仍以掩埋方式處理,而灰渣中底灰之數量龐大,但重金屬溶出現象大多符合法規標準,單純的掩埋處置則有違資源回收之趨勢。
本研究先選定兩座大型都市垃圾焚化廠,針對其底灰進行基本特性分析,區分底灰各粒徑間物化特性之差異。進而選取其中某廠焚化底灰細粒徑部份,添加黏土於進行燒結試驗,分析燒結試體之物化特性。另製成等比例試體磚,於實廠隧道窯燒成,探討底灰燒結再利用之可行性。
經由實驗結果顯示,焚化底灰之重金屬總量分析中,以Pb、Zn及Cu含量較高,而Pb含量可達6,000 mg/kg以上,Zn、Cu含量則多在1,000-3,000 mg/kg範圍,Cd含量則在20 mg/kg以下,Cr多在100 mg/kg以下。在重金屬溶出特性中唯Pb有超出溶出標準之虞,其餘重金屬之溶出值均低於有害事業廢棄物認定標準。兩廠Zn之溶出率約30%左右,Cu之溶出率均在5%以下;Cd、Cr之溶出率及變動量雖較其它重金屬高,但溶出量均符合標準。在高溫爐燒結實驗中,試體之燒失量維持在4-7%,膨脹率變動在±1%以下;在1000 oC、24 hr的燒結條件下,底灰添加量低於10%,燒結試體即可達CNS二等磚的標準。以隧道窯燒成之試體磚強度均大於120 kg/cm2,且有部份試體磚強度已達到CNS一等磚150 kg/cm2之標準。試體磚之吸水率大多符合一等磚15%之規範。由實驗結果可知,以實廠之製程燒製紅磚可獲得較實驗室更佳之物理特性,以燒成品之物理特性而言,已具資源化之可行性。
Till 2001, there will be 22 large municipal solid waste incineration plants in Taiwan, the incineration ratio will exceed 75%, and more than 5000 tons incinerator ashes will produced which need to be treated and disposed each day. Although, bottom ash occupied most of the incinerator ashes, and the heavy metals leaching potency could meet TCLP standard usually, it was disposed directly to landfill in many countries, which could not meet the trend of resource recovery policy.
In this research, two incineration plants were studied, the basic characteristics of bottom ash were examined to identify the physico-chemical properties in different particle size. Fine size of bottom ash was mixed with clay to proceed the sintering test both in lab furnace and field tunnel furnace. The physical and chemical properties of sintering samples were examined to evaluate the possibility of recovery of the bottom ash.
The results showed that, Pb, Zn and Cu have high quantity in bottom ash, Pb is more than 6000 mg/kg, Zn and Cu are around of 1000 to 3000 mg/kg. Cd is lower than 20 mg/kg. Cr is less than 100 mg/kg. In heavy metal leaching characteristics, Pb is the only one has the possibility to exceed the TCLP standard. The leaching ratio of Zn is about 30%. Cr is lower than 5%. Cd and Cr higher than others, but leaching concentration could meet the standards. In lab high temperature furnace sintering test, the weight loss of sintered samples are 4 to 7%. The expansion ratio is lower than±1%. In the condition of 1000℃ and 24 hr sintering, the addition of bottom ash to clay lower than 10%, the sintered sample will correspond to the CNS second grade red brick standard. The strength of the samples sintered in field tunnel furnace were all over 120 kg/cm2, and some could reach 150 kg/cm2, correspond to the first grade red brick standard. Most of the samples could meet the 15% water absorption ratio of first grade standard. It was found that, red brick manufacturing in full-scale process have better physical property than the results in the lab furnace, it is feasible to recover the bottom ash as a resource.
目 錄
頁 次
目錄i
表目錄iv
圖目錄xi
第一章 緒論1
1-1研究緣起1
1-2研究目的2
1-3研究內容2
第二章 文獻回顧3
2-1焚化底灰之來源及特性3
2-1-1焚化底灰之來源3
2-1-2焚化底灰之物理特性4
2-1-3焚化底灰之化學特性5
2-1-4焚化底灰之粒徑分佈7
2-1-5底灰中重金屬分佈特性、總量及溶出情形9
2-2國內外焚化灰渣相關法令及管理方式14
2-2-1國內既有法令14
2-2-2國外相關法規及管理方式19
2-3焚化底灰資源再利用技術29
2-3-1燒結資源化技術30
2-3-2熔融資源化技術35
2-3-3固化資源化技術39
2-3-4直接材料化42
2-4國外底灰應用實例與趨勢44
2-5磚類燒製相關文獻51
2-5-1坏體燒成之熱化學反應52
2-5-2影響陶瓷燒成之操作因子54
第三章 研究方法57
3-1實驗設計57
3-1-1焚化底灰之基本特性分析57
3-1-2底灰細粒徑添加紅磚土燒成試驗58
3-2實驗設備62
3-2-1研究設備62
3-2-2實驗分析設備63
3-3分析項目及方法64
3-3-1焚化底灰之基本特性分析64
3-3-2底灰細粒徑添加紅磚土燒成試驗67
第四章 結果與討論73
4-1焚化底灰之基本特性分析73
4-1-1焚化廠之處理流程及操作條件73
4-1-2焚化底灰之物化特性77
4-1-3焚化底灰重金屬總量分析84
4-1-4焚化底灰重金屬溶出特性分析93
4-1-5結語102
4-2紅磚土與添加底灰基本特性分析104
4-2-1紅磚土樣及添加底灰基本特性分析104
4-2-2焚化底灰與紅磚土之化學組成與物種形態109
4-3高溫爐燒結試體之物化特性分析114
4-3-1燒失量變化114
4-3-2膨脹率變化117
4-3-3吸水率變化121
4-3-4抗壓強度之變化124
4-3-5微結構變化128
4-3-6燒結試體TCLP溶出特性之變化130
4-3-7結語137
4-4等比例試體磚於隧道窯燒成之物理性質140
第五章 結論與建議143
5-1結論143
5-2建議144
參考文獻146
附錄一 A廠各月份底灰之基本特性153
附錄二 A廠底灰重金屬總量及TCLP溶出特性154
附錄三 試驗土樣之阿太堡試驗161
附錄四 燒結試體之抗壓強度162
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