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研究生:王怡如
研究生(外文):Wang Yi-Ju
論文名稱:美洲間人權體系之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Inter-American Human Rights
指導教授:王秀琦王秀琦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang Hsiu-Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:拉丁美洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:232
中文關鍵詞:美洲間體系美洲國家組織人權拉丁美洲區域性人權體系美洲人權公約美洲間人權委員會美洲間人權法院
外文關鍵詞:Inter-American SystemOrganization of American StatesHuman RightsLatin AmericaRegional Human Rights SystemAmerican Convention on Human RightsInter-American Commission of Humn RightsInter-American Court of Human Rights
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國際上對尊重、保障人權的觀念雖發軔極早,但是直到第二次世界大戰結束後,世人才廣泛地關注國際人權保障問題,並逐漸完成一系列宣言、條約及人權保障機構。
國際人權保障機構中可大致區分為:聯合國人權體系、區域性人權體系;以及非政府組織三類。在眾多機構中,區域性的人權體系由於其所包含的國家有共同的社會、文化、宗教等歷史背景,因此以區域的連帶為基礎,更容易在國際主義與民族主義中取得平衡,所以實行起來是最具有成效,例如歐洲人權體系。
「人權保護」雖是美洲國家組織憲章中的基本方針之一,一九四八年《美洲人民權利與義務宣言》公佈,為美洲人權體系建立之開端,然而在早期由美國主導之美洲國家組織發展的過程中,並未特別關注此議題,因為在冷戰時代,該組織重視「區域安全」的程度更甚於「人權保護」,加上受到傳統以來「非干涉原則」之影響,所以對於當時在拉丁美洲國家之威權政權迫害人權的狀況,不予深究。直到一九七八年《美洲人權公約》生效後,增強美洲間人權委員會功能並成立了美洲間人權法院,人權體系的發展才告完備,加上八O年代拉丁美洲國家紛紛由威權體制轉換成民主體制的過程,大多數的人權協定均在此時通過,「人權保護」此時已成為該區域發展之重點了。
美洲間人權體系雖是模仿歐洲人權體系而來,但所施行的成效卻不如歐洲人權體系,主要由於其歷史發展、文化差異的因素而使之擁有迥異於西方國家的經濟政治發展水準,因此連帶的,產生其特殊的人權觀念,加上人委會與人權法院也有若干制度上的缺失,以及受到拉丁美洲地區社會結構問題的影響…等等因素均會限制該人權體系在保護人權上的成就。
由於「人權保護」已成為國際上之主流焦點,因此美洲間人權體系在未來的發展上除了要針對缺失作若干修正後,可再與聯合國及非政府組織共同合作。當然最重要的仍是有賴各國立法保護,並設立國內的人權委員會,才能真正落實保障人權。
Although the worldwide awareness of the notion of respecting and defending human rights was initiated very early on, it was not until the end of the World War II that the Common People started to develop an extensive interest in human rights issues. A series of declarations, pacts and organizations was constructed along the way to further preserve the essence of human rights.
There are three main types of international organizations concerning the defending of human rights: the human rights system within the United Nations, the Regional Human Rights Systems and the non-governmental organizations for human rights. Among these organizations, the regional ones such as in Europe are more efficient in carrying out policies due to the fact that the member countries have similar social, religious and cultural backgrounds and thus it is easier for them to achieve an equilibrium between internationalism and nationalism.
Even though the “Protection of Human Rights”, one of the basic policies in the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS), along with the “American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Men” in 1948 established the inception of the Inter-American Human Rights System, the concept “Protection of Human Rights” was not given special attention during the development of OAS led by the United States of America at an earlier period. The main reason was due to the fact that during the Cold War Era, OAS valued “regional security” more than “protection of human rights”. Moreover, due to the traditional attitude of “nonintervention”, OAS did not interfere with the persecution of human rights by the authoritarian governments in Latin America. It was not until the “American Convention on Human Rights” became valid, which strengthened the function of the Inter-American Human Rights Commission (IACHR), and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights was established that the human rights development was finally complete. In addition, during the 1980’s when the countries of Latin America began to convert from authoritarianism to democracy, most of the agreements on human rights issues were reached. The “Protection of Human Rights” was now the focal point of development in the region.
Although the Inter-American Human Rights System was an imitation of the one in Europe, it has not reached the level of effectiveness as in Europe. The rationale behind it was due to the fact that the historical development, cultural backgrounds, economic and political standards were different between Europe and Latin America; therefore, the concept of human rights was not thought highly of in Latin America. Moreover, the systematic deficiency in the IACHR and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and problems in the social structure in the Latin American region have limited the Organization’s ability to protect human rights.
Because the issue on protecting human rights has become an international concern, Inter-American Human Rights System could join forces with the United Nations and non-governmental organizations in the future after it has rectified the loophole in the system. Of course, the most needed establishments concerning human rights remain to be the policies on human rights issues implemented and the development of Human Rights Commission within each country. Until then, the concept of protecting human rights can truly be realized.
目 錄
第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究動機與目的1
第二節 研究方法、範圍架構與限定2
第三節 資料來源與限制6
第二章 人權概論8
第一節 人權基本觀念8
壹、人權的意義8
貳、西方人權之思想起源與發展12
第二節 國際法上人權保障制度之發展16
壹、二次大戰前的國際人權保障之發展17
貳、二次大戰後的國際人權保障之發展23
第三節 第三世界-拉丁美洲人權觀32
壹、發展中國家有關人權一般性概念32
貳、影響拉丁美洲人權觀念的因素38
小結43
第三章 美洲間人權體系之發展與內容44
第一節 美洲間體系之淵源發展44
壹、體系之源起45
貳、體系之制度化-美洲國家組織50
第二節 美洲間體系下人權保護之發展54
壹、拉美民主人權主張之濫觴54
貳、區域保護人權方面的活動54
參、人權保護與非干涉原則之衝突59
第三節 美洲間人權體系對於權利自由之規範63
壹、政治與公民權利64
貳、經濟社會文化權利74
參、有關人權之減損76
小結79
第四章 美洲間人權委員會80
第一節 美洲間人權委員會發展與組織80
壹、發展背景80
貳、美洲間人權委員會之法源基礎82
參、美洲間人權委員會組織架構84
第二節 美洲間人權委員會之功能86
壹、推廣人權功能86
貳、保護人權功能88
第三節 人委會之主要職權92
壹、研究調查各國人權狀況及準備國家報告書92
貳、個別申訴案之審理104
小結111
第五章 美洲間人權法院112
第一節 人權法院之歷史背景與組織架構112
壹、人權法院之歷史背景112
貳、人權法院法官之組成與工作113
參、人權法院之組織117
第二節 人權法院的職權與功能119
壹、訴訟管轄權119
貳、諮詢權127
參、臨時性的保護措施134
小結138
第六章 結論139
參考書目147
附錄一、美洲人民權利與義務宣言163
附錄二、美洲國家組織憲章(節錄)168
附錄三、美洲人權公約189
附表圖次
圖II-1經濟發展的程度與第一代以及第二代人權之交互關係33
表III-1美洲國家組織成立前召開的九次美洲國家會議之時間、地點與重要決議49
表III-2美洲間人權體系內,所通過的重要人權宣言、公約57
表III-3簽署《美洲人權公約》之國家一覽表58
圖III-1 國家主權與公民權利相對地位圖61
表III-4美洲體系內有關經濟、社會、文化權利之條款與出處76
圖IV-1人委會準備特別國家人權報告書之流程圖96
圖IV-2人委會處理申訴案件之流程圖110
圖V-1人權法院審理訴訟案件之流程圖122
表V-1人權法院至一九九六年止所完成的判例或決議案之件數127
圖V-2人權法院諮詢管轄權程序之流程圖130
表V-2曾向人權法院提出諮詢意見的國家與機構(年代與次數)131
壹、 中文部分
一、書籍
中國人權協會主編,人權呼聲─當代人權論叢,台北:九大文化股份有限公司,民國七十七年。
中國人權協會主編,人權彰顯─當代人權論叢,台北:九大文化股份有限公司,民國七十八年。
丘宏達,現代國際法,台北:三民書局,民國八十四年。
田弘茂、朱雲漢主編,鞏固第三波民主,台北:葉強出版社,一九九七年。
田弘茂、朱雲漢主編,新興民主的機遇與挑戰,台北:葉強出版社,一九九七年。
Laurence Whitehead著,朱柔若譯,民主的代價冷戰後全球的民主化運動,台北:國立編譯館出版,民國八十四年。
Thomas E Skidmore,.and Peter H Smith著,江時學譯,現代拉丁美洲,北京:世界知識出版社,一九九四年。
汪大鑄,現代國際組織與國際關係,台北:中國民族文化所,一九六六年。
Charles Zorgbibe原著,胡祖慶譯,國際關係,台北:五南圖書出版社,民國八十四年。
胡錦光、韓大元,當代人權保障制度,北京:中國政法大學出版社,一九九三年。
翁明賢,國際組織新論,台北:五南圖書出版社,民國八十四年。
孫哲,新人權論,台北:五南圖書出版社,民國八十四年。
徐世澄主編,美國和拉丁美洲關係史,北京:社會科學文獻出版社,一九九三年。
夏勇,人權概論起源,北京:中國政法大學出版社, 一九九二年。
Howard J.Wiarda編著,陳鴻瑜譯,人權與美國人權政策,台北:中國人權協會,民國七十五年。
許慶雄、李明峻,現代國際法入門,台北:日旦出版社,民國八十二年。
常健,人權的理想、爭論與現實,台北:洛克出版社,一九九七年。
梁西,國際組織法,台北:志一出版社,民國八十五年。
張乃維,國際法上人權與其保障問題,台北:台灣商務印書館,民國六十八年。
張金鑑,西洋政治思想史,台北:三民書局,民國七十七年。
華力進,政治學,台北:經世文化事業股份有限公司,民國八十二年。
許崇德、張正釗主編,人權思想與人權立法,北京:中國人民大學出版社,一九九二年。
董云虎、劉武萍編著,世界人權約法總覽,成都:四川人民出版社,一九九O年。
Yoza Yokota編著,楊正綸譯,國際組織論,台北:國立編譯館,民國八十五年。
Samuel P Huntington原著,劉均寧譯,第三波--二十世紀末的民主化浪潮,台北:五南圖書出版社,民國八十三年。
賴彭城、倪世雄、袁錚編著,國際人權論,上海:上海人民出版社,一九九三年。
蘇長庚編著,國際組織與國際現勢,台北:正中書局,民國五十八年。
二、論文
王建凱,歐洲國際人權法之體系與實踐,台北:國立台灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文,民國八十四年。
李明亮,第二次世界大戰後美國對拉丁美洲政策(1945-1966),台北:國立政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,民國六十五年。
吳孟峰,人權與美國外交-卡特的人權外交及對尼加拉瓜之運用,台北:淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,民國八十三年。
吳德揚,歐洲人權運動下之歐洲人權公約,台北:淡江文理學院歐洲研究所碩士論文,民國六十七年。
陳昭雄,美洲國家組織與聯合國關係之研究,台北:國立政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,民國六十五年。
蔣光煌,歐洲保護人權及基本自由公約之研究,台北:國立政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,民國七十一年。
鄭偉靜,卡特政府對中共及尼加拉瓜人權外交政策之個案研究,台北:國立政治大學外交研究所碩士論文,民國八十五年。
三、期刊論文
一知,「美國入侵格林納達的後果」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八四年第二期,頁五十八。
王立人,「從『美洲國家組織』展望美洲政治安定」,憲政思潮,第二十八期,(民國六十三年十月),頁一六五~一七三。
毛相麟,「海地在民主化道路上緩慢前進」,拉丁美洲研究,一九九O年第一期,頁二十三~二十五。
石之瑜,「現實主義以外的人權外交」,美國月刊,第六卷第十期,(民國八十年十月),頁三十四~四十三。
石之瑜,「大陸法學界關於人權理論的爭論─兼論人權觀的政治涵意」,理論與政策,第七卷第四期,(民國八十二年八月),頁一一三~一二七。
安建國,「1826─1948年拉美國際關係之我見」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八七年,頁十六~二十二。
李鴻禧,「現代國際人權的形成與發展概說─兼論『第三代國際人權』問題」,月旦法學,第十二期,(民國八十五年四月),頁八~十五。
洪茂雄,「歐洲理事會擴大組織的背景與意義」,美歐月刊,第十一卷第八期,(民國八十五年八月),頁一百~一一四。
高宣揚,「論後現代主義人權論述的基本策略」,東吳政治學報,第六期,(民國八十五年),頁三十九~七十二。
徐世澄,「戰後拉美國家對外關係發展的特點」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八四年第二期,頁一~十四。
許慶雄,「人權保障之基本觀念~本質、分類、享有主體之探討」,淡江學報,第三十五期,(民國八十五年二月),頁四Ο一~四二一。
陳莉莉,「中外人權理論初探」,東吳法商學報,第二十五期,(民國八十年六月),頁一二三~一五十。
陳瑤華,「康德的人權理念」,東吳政治學報,第六期,(民國八十五年),頁七十三~九十。
Bobbio, Noberto著,戚國雄譯,「論人權」,鵝湖月刊,第十七卷第十二期,(民國八十一年六月),頁四十七~四十八。
張虎生,「論玻利瓦爾提倡拉美團結思想的重大意義」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八三年第三期,頁十一~十八。
張紅路,「肯尼迪的“爭取進步聯盟”」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八七年第二期,頁九~二十二。
黃慧英,「效益主義與人權」,鵝湖,第十八卷第三期,(民國八十一年九月),頁二十五~二十九。
楊西,「評巴美關係和美國對巴拿馬的武裝干涉」,拉丁美洲研究,一九九O年第一期,頁二十六~二十八。
劉德、李和,「泛拉美主義替代泛美主義的新趨勢」,拉丁美洲研究,一九八三年第四期,頁十三~十七。
三、網路資料
“亞洲人權憲章在韓國光州宣佈”, in http://tahr.yam.org.tw/ahrc/index.htm (1999/2/27)
四、報紙
中央日報
中時晚報
中國時報
聯合報
聯合晚報
外文部分
一、書籍
Alegret, Josep Miquel & Joaquin Arriola(ed.), Por la Paz Anuario 1992-1993 El Continente Americano, Barcelona: Fundacio per la Pau, 1993.
Alston, Philip(ed.), The United Nations And Human Rights, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Atkins, G. Pope, Latin America in International Political System, Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1989.
Ball, M. Margaret, The OAS in Transition, Durham: Duke University Press, 1969.
Barreiro Barreiro, Clara, Derechos Humanos: Declaraciones Solemnes, continuas violaciones, Barcelona: Salvat Editores, S.A. , 1985.
Brownlie, Ian(ed.), Basic Documents on Human Rights, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Cingranelli, David Lous (ed.), Human Rights Theory and Measurement, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988.
Coates, Ken, Human Rights in the World, Nottingham: Spokesman, 1992.
Crawford, James(ed.), The Rights of People, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Davidson, Scott, The Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Hants: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited, 1992.
Davidson, Scott, Human Rights, Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993.
Davidson, Scott, The Inter-American Human Rights System, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company, 1997.
Dreier, J.C., The Organization of American States and the Hemisphere Crisis, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1962.
Eide, Asbjorn & Bernt Hagtvet(ed.), Human Rights in Perspective A Global Assessment, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992.
Farer, Tom J., The Grand Strategy of the United States in Latin America, New Brunswick: Transaction, Inc., 1988.
Forsythe, David P.(ed.), Human Rights and Development: International Views, New York: St. Martin’s Press Inc., 1989.
Garcia Bauer, Carlos, Los Derechos Humanos en America, Guatemala City: Tipografia Nacional, 1987.
Gibson, John S., International Organizations, Constitutional Law, and Human Rights, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.
Griffith, Ivelaw L. & Betty N. Sedoc-Dahlberg(ed.), Democracy and Human Rights in the Caribbean, Boulder: Westivew Press, 1997.
Han, Henry H., Problems and Prospects of the Organization of American States, New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1987.
Han, Lih-wu(ed.), Human Rights: Problems and Perspectives, Taipei: Chinese Associat for Human Rights, 1982.
Harris, David J. & Stephen Livingstone(ed.), The Inter-American of Human Rights System, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Inter-American Institute of International Legal Studies, The Inter-American System Its Development and Strengthening, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1966.
Jelin, Elizabeth & Eric Hersheberg(ed.), Constructing Democracy: Human Rights, Citizenship, and Society in Latin America, Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
Kirgis, Frederic L. Jr., International Organizations, St.Paul: West Publishing Company, 1977.
Kratochwil, Friedrich & Edward D. Manshield(ed.), International Orgainzation: A Reader, New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1994.
Leblanc, Lawrence J., The OAS and the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, the Hague, 1977.
Lowenthal, F. Abraham & Gregory F. Treverton(ed.), Latin America in a New World, Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.
Lutz, Ellen L., Hurst Hannum & Kathryn J. Burke(ed.), New Directions in Human Rights, Pennsylvania: the University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
Mahoney, Kathleen E. & Paul Mahoney(ed.), Human Rights in the 21st Century: a Global Challenge, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993.
Medina Quiroga, Cecilia, The Battle of Human Rights: Gross, Systematic Violations and the Inter-American System, Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff Publishers, 1988.
Meron, Theodor, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Mower, A. Glenn, Regional Human Rights: a Comparative Study of the West European and Inter-American Systems, New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Munoz, Heraldo & Joseph S. Tulchin, Latin American Nations in World Politics, Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
Neild, Rachel & Senior Associate, Policing Haiti, Washington DC: TheWashington Office on Latin America, 1995.
Newberg, Paula R.(ed.), The Politics of Human Rights, New York: New York University Press, 1980.
Newman, Frank & David Weissbrodt, International Human Rights: Law, Policy, and Process, Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co., 1996.
Ramcharan, B.G., The Concept and Present Status of the International Protection of Human Rights, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1988.
Robertson, A. H. & J. G. Merrills, Human Rights in the World: an Introduction to the Study of the International Protection of Human Rights, New York: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1989.
Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, Impunty and Human rights in International Law and Practice, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1995.
Rubiera, Fernando Murillo, America y la Dignidad del Hombre-los Derechos del Hombre en la Filosofia de la Historia America, Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE, 1992.
Scheman, L. Ronald, The Inter-American Dilemma : the Search for Inter-American Cooperation at the Centennial of the Inter-American System , New York: Praeger, 1988.
Schoultz, Lars, Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
Seumski, Bonnie(ed.), Latin America and U.S. Foreign Policy, Opposing Viewpoints Series, Minnesota: Greenhaven press Inc., 1988.
Singh, Nagendra, Enforcement of Human Rights, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes, 1986.
Soetetzer, O. Carlos, The Organization of American States, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Steiner, Henry J. & Philip Alston, International Human Rights in Context, New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 1996.
Vaky, Viron P. & Heraldo Munoz, The Future of the Organization of American States, New York:The Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1993.
Vargas, Diego Uribe, Los Derechos Humanos y el Sistema Interamericano, Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, 1972.
Vincent, R.J.(ed.), Foreign Policy and Human Rights, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
二、期刊論文
Abi-Mershed, Elzabeth, “ Thirty- Five Years Defending Human Rights”, Americas, Vol.46, No.6, (Nov-Dec 1994), pp.50-52.
---, “ Agora: U.S. Forces in Panama: Defenders, Aggressors or Human Rights Activists? ”, American Journal of International Law, Vol.84, (April 1990), pp.494-524.
---, “Peru: Bending, maybe”, The Economist, Vol.323, (May 23, 1992), pp.42-43.
Bloomfield, Richard J., “Making the Western Hemisphere Safe for Democracy? The OAS Defense-of-Democracy Regime”, Washington-Quarterly, Vol.17, (Spring 1994), pp.157-169.
Bowen, Ezar, “Strong Message to Censors; an International Court Rules Against the Licensing of Reporters”, Time, Vol. 126, (Dec 16, 1985), p.74.
Buergenthal, Thomas, “ The Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, American Journal of International Law, Vol.76, (April 1982), pp.231-245.
Buergenthal, Thomas, “ The Advisory Proactive of The Inter-American Human Rights Court”, American Journal of International law, Vol.79, (January 1985), pp.1-27.
Connell-Smith, Gordon, “ The OAS and the Falklands Conflict”, World Today, Vol.38, (1982), pp.340-347.
Farer, Tom J., “ Collectively Defending Democracy in a World of Sovereign States: The Western Hemisphere’s Prospect”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.15, (Nov. 1993), pp.716-750.
Farer, Tom J., “ Human Rights and Human Wrongs: Is the Liberal Model Sufficient? ”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.7, (May 1985), pp.189-204.
Farer, Tom J., “ The Inter-American Commission: A Personal Assessment”, The Center Magazine, Vol.17, (May/June 1984), pp.38-60.
Farer, Tom J., “ OAS: Righting Human Wrongs”, Harvard International Review, Vol.8, (December 1985), pp.13-15.
Farer, Tom J., “ The OAS at the Crossroads: Human Rights”, Iowa Law Review, Vol.72, (Jan 1987), pp.401-413.
Forsythe, David, “Human Rights, The United States and The Organization of American States”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.13, (Feb. 1991), pp.66-88.
Frost, Lynda E., “ The Evolution of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Reflections of Present and Former Judges”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.14, (May 1992), pp.171-205.
Grossman, Claudio, “ Disappearances in Honduras: The Need for Direct Victim Representation in Human Rights Litigation”, Hastings International and comparative Law Review, Vol.15, (Spring 1992), pp.363-382.
---, “ Haiti: Lights out” , The Economist, Vol.321, (November 1991), p.52.
Manuel, Anne, “Death Squads Go on Trial”, The Nation, Vol.246, No.7, (Feb 20, 1988), p.224-226.
Medina Quiroga, Cecilia, “The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Reflections on a Joint Venture”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.12, (November 1990), pp.439-464.
---, “Organization of American States: Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture” International Legal Materials, Vol.25, (May 1986), pp.519-526.
---, “Organization of American States Ministers of Foreign Affairs Resolution 3/29*─Restoration of Democracy in Haiti”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol.86, (July 1992), pp.667-669.
Padilla, David J., “Speaking with a Conscience”, Americas, Vol.43, No.5-6, (Sept-Oct 1991), pp.94-95.
Padilla, David J., “ Reparations in Aloeboetoe v. Suriname”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.17, (August 1995), pp.541-555.
Padilla, David J., “A House For Justice in Costa Rica”, Americas, Vol.48, No.1 (Jan-Feb 1996), pp.56-57.
Pasqualucci, Jo M., “ Provisional Measures in the Inter-American Human Rights System: An Innovative Development in International Law”, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol.26, No.4, (November 1993), pp.803-863.
Pasqualucci, Jo M., “ Sonia Picado, First Woman Judge On the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.17, (November 1995), pp.794-806.
Perez, Carlos Andres, “ OAS Opportunities”, Foreign Policy, No.80, (Fall 1990), pp.52-55.
Pierce, John C., “ The Haitian Crisis and the Future of Collective Enforcement of Democratic Governance”, Law & Policy in International Business, Vol.27, (Winter 1996), pp.477-512.
Price, Richard, “ Executing Ethnicity: The Killings in Suriname”, Cultural Anthropology, Vol.10, (November 1995), pp.437-471.
Trindade, A.A. Cancado, “ The Inter-American Juridical Committee: an Overview”, World Today, Vol.38, (November 1982), pp.437-442.
Trindade, A.A. Cancado, “ El Futuro del Sistema Interamericano de Proteccion de los Derechos Humanos: Algunas Reflexiones”, Vol.28, No.109, (Enero-Marzo 1995), pp.3-9.
Vargas, Manuel D., “ Individual Access to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol.16, (Spring 1984), pp.601-617.
Weston, Burns H., “ Regional Human Rights Regimes: A Comparison and Appraisal”, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol.20, No.4, (October 1987), pp.585-637.
Yundt, Keith W., “ The Organization of American States And Legal Protection to Political Refugees in Central America”, International Migration Review, Vol.23, (Summer 1989), pp.201-218.
貳、官方資料
OAS/IACHR, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1994, Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of Organization of American States, 1995.
OAS/IACHR, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1996, Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of Organization of American States, 1997.
OAS/IACHR, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1997, Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of Organization of American States, 1998.
OAS/IACHR, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Ecuador, Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of Organization of American States, 1997.
OAS/IACHR, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Brazil, Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of Organization of American States, 1997.
“Estados Miembros,” in http://www.oas.org/SP/MSTATES/bckgrdms.htm (1998/5/22)
“ La OEA y el Sistema Interamericano,” in http: // www.oas.org/SP/PIN-
FO/soas.htm (1998/5/22)
“ OEA- Carta de la OEA,” in http://www.oas.org/SP/PINFO/charters.htm (1999/5/16)
“Mexico Recognizes Jurisdiction of Inter-American Court of Human Rights, ” in http://www.oas.org/EN/PINFO/WEEK/121698.htm
(1998/12/20)
“Neira Alegria et al. Case, Judgment of January 19, 1995, Inter-Am. Ct. H.R,” in http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr/contntus.htm (1998/12/17)
“Velasquez Rogriguez v Honduras, Judgment of July 29, 1988, Inter-Am Ct. H.R. (Ser. C )No.4 (1988) ,” in http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr/
contntus.htm (1998/12/17)
“Lissardi & Rossi v. Guatemala, case 10.508, Report No.25/94, Inter-Am.C.H.R., OEA/ Ser.L/V/II.88 Doc. 9 rev. at 51 (1994) ,” in .http:// www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/commissn.htm (1998/11/14)
“case 9885 (Haiti) [1988] YAYHR 244,” in http:// www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/commissn.htm (1998/11/14)
“Case 10574(El Salvador)、Case10975(Guatemala), Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 1993 Annual Report, ” in http:// www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/commissn.htm (1998/11/14)
“ Statutes of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,” in http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/oasinstr/zoas4cms.htm (1999/1/13)
“Regulations of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,” in http://www1.umn.edu/humants/oasinstr/zoas5cmr.htm (1999/1/13)
“Introduction to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,” in http://www.oas.org/EN/PROG/iachr/index.htm (1999/1/18)
“ Statutes of Inter-American Court on Human Rights, ” in http://www1.umn.edu/humants/oasinstr/zoas6cts.htm (1999/1/13)
“ Rules of Procedure of Inter-American Court on Human Rights, ” in http://www1.umn.edu/humants/oasinstr/zoas7ctr.htm (1999/1/13)
“ Advisory Opinions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, ” in http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr/seriesa.html (1999/2/5)
“Contentious Cases of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, ” in http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr/seriesa.html (1999/2/5)
“Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Haiti 1993, ” in http://www.oas.org/En/PROG/ichr/countryrep/EnHa93/EngHaiti.htm (1999/2/26)
“Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Haiti 1994,” in http://www.oas.org/En/PROG/ichr/countryrep/EnHa94/EngHaiti.htm (1999/2/26)
“Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Haiti 1995, ” in http://www.oas.org/En/PROG/ichr/countryrep/EnHa95/EngHaiti.htm
(1999/2/26)
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