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研究生:陳武清
研究生(外文):Wu C. Chen
論文名稱:酸淋洗土壤中重金屬之研究
論文名稱(外文):Acid Leaching of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils
指導教授:林勝雄林勝雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng H. Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:化學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:332
中文關鍵詞:酸淋洗土壤重金屬污染土壤土壤復育貫穿曲線重金屬去除鎘去除土壤中輻社區污染土壤
外文關鍵詞:Acid Leaching SoilsHeavy MetalsBreakthrough CurveRemoval Heavy MetalsRemoval CadmiumSoils
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重金屬污染時有所聞,尤其是土壤所受到的重金屬污染最為嚴重,因為土壤成份較複雜,要去除重金屬頗不易,本論文即針對去除土壤中的重金屬為目的。所選用的化學藥劑為三種強酸,探討何者去除重金屬效果高及對土壤性質改變最小。
在批次實驗中發現,三種強酸中以鹽酸去除鎘的效果最好,硝酸與硫酸稍差一點,且硫酸會將土壤中的有機成份萃出,故不建議用硫酸。在恆溫去除實驗方面,Freundlich比Langmuir適合本去除現象的等溫平衡關係。在質傳模式的探討上,以簡單的平方推動力模式,即可合適地表達本實驗之質傳現象。
連續淋洗實驗是將酸溶液流經固定的土壤床,目的是測試此實驗的效能如何,以探討其實用性。在理論方面,Logistic、修正之Wheeler、Gompertz、Richards、Weibull等方程式皆可適切模擬淋洗之去除貫穿曲線;而Logistic、修正之Wheeler與Gompertz方程式更可進一步成功的預測不同通量的去除貫穿曲線。
現地連續淋洗實驗,是以桃園蘆竹鄉新興村中褔社區的鎘污染土壤為樣品,以長30公分寬30公分的管柱填充污染土壤進行酸洗,結果仍是以鹽酸溶液效果最佳;土壤淋洗後,將土壤以石灰中和酸性,試種蔬菜,結果其生長狀況相當良好;另外,流經土壤的淋洗液以氫氧化鈉調至pH 10以上,即有氫氧化鎘與氫氧化鉛沈澱產生,將上層澄清液排放後,沈澱物以水泥固化。這些步驟串在一起即可為現場處理流程的參考,且為土壤復育依據。
Metal contamination is a prevalent and wide-spread problem in Taiwan and the soil contamination is known to be the most serious one. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is not easy due to the complex metrical structure and intricate interactions of heavy metals with various inorganic or organic components present in the soil. The purpose of this research is to investigate the heavy metal leaching by three strong acids (i.e. hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of each acid as a leaching agent and to assess the characteristic changes of soil caused by the acid leaching process.
The results of batch tests revealed that among the three strong acids, hydrochloric acid is more efficient than the other two in removing cadmium from contaminated soil. Test results also showed that significant amount of organic (nutrient) components will be extracted along with cadmium by sulfuric acid and it is not acceptable as leaching agent. The equilibrium test data allowed establishment of the desorption isotherm. The empirical Freundlich model was found to represent the observed data better than the Langmuir model. In the mass transfer aspect, the model based on the squared-driving principle was seen to describe well the overall mass transfer process.
Continuous tests of heavy metal leaching were also carried out in a fixed bed soil column to determine effects of operating variables, including acid concentration and flow rate, leaching time, heavy metal concentration, amount of soil, etc. Various empirical or semi-empirical equations, like logistic, Wheeler, Gompertz, Richard and Weibull model, were employed to represent the leaching breakthrough curves. Goodness of fit of these models to the observed data was evaluated.
A native, contaminated soil was collected from the field located in Chung Fu area, Lu Tsu, Taoyuan County. The soil sample was leaching tested in a pilot plant square column of 30 cm (W) x 30 cm (L) x 100 cm (H) using hydrochloric acid. The soil column after leaching test was neutralized by slacked lime and blended with varying amounts of chicken mature composite. The treated soil was seeded and the vegetables were found to grow quite well. The leaching effluent from the column tests containing cadmium and lead was adjusted by sodium hydroxide to over pH 10. Cadmium and lead hydroxides quickly settled out of the aqueous solution with only trace amounts of heavy metals leaving behind. The metal hydroxides were finally solidified using regular Portland cement mixed with solidifying agent for easy deposal.
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1前 言 1
1.2土壤污染來源與重金屬的危害 3
1.2.1土壤污染來源與影響 3
1.2.2鎘的來源及其危害 6
1.2.3鉛的來源及其危害 13
1.3桃園縣土壤污染概況 22
1.3.1土壤污染防治相關管理法規 22
1.3.2土壤品質現況 26
1.4文獻回顧 31
1.5研究動機與內容 33
第二章 基本理論 35
2.1土壤重金屬之去除 35
2.2恆溫重金屬去除模式 39
2.3質傳係數模式 41
2.3.1質傳模式 41
2.3.2質傳之溫度效應 43
2.4連續淋洗重金屬去除模式 44
2.4.1連續淋洗重金屬之去除 44
2.4.2連續淋洗理論模式 47
第三章 土壤理化性質 53
3.1土壤理化性質簡介與分析方法 53
3.1.1 pH值 53
3.1.2陽離子交換容量 54
3.1.3有機質含量 56
3.1.4土壤質地 59
3.1.5游離氧化鐵、鋁 62
3.2分析儀器、設備與藥品 63
3.3結果與討論 66
第四章 批次實驗 67
4.1實驗設備與藥品 67
4.1.1實驗設備與分析儀器 67
4.1.2實驗藥品 69
4.1.3酸之簡介 69
4.2重金屬污染土壤之製備與檢測方法 72
4.2.1重金屬污染土壤之製備 72
4.2.2重金屬污染土壤之檢測 73
4.3批次實驗步驟 74
4.4結果與討論 74
4.4.1酸種類與濃度之效應 74
4.4.2振盪速率之效應 76
4.4.3反應時間之效應 86
4.4.4溫度之效應 86
4.4.5質傳模式 86
4.4.6恆溫重金屬去除之溫度效應動力模式 91
4.4.7重金屬去除之活化能 93
4.4.8恆溫重金屬去除平衡模式 96
4.5實驗設計 102
4.5.1交互作用之討論 102
4.5.2批次實驗設計 108
第五章 連續淋洗實驗 112
5.1實驗設備與藥品 112
5.1.1實驗設備與分析儀器 112
5.1.2實驗藥品 113
5.1.3酸之簡介 113
5.2連續淋洗實驗步驟 115
5.3結果與討論 116
5.3.1酸種類之效應 116
5.3.2酸濃度之效應 120
5.3.3通量之效應 129
5.3.4溫度之效應 129
5.3.5污染床高度之影響 144
5.3.6污染土壤起始濃度之影響 144
5.3.7連續淋洗理論模式 144
第六章 現地污染土壤連續淋洗實驗 209
6.1中福地區土壤污染概況 209
6.2實驗設備、藥品與檢測方法 215
6.2.1實驗設備與分析儀器 215
6.2.2實驗藥品 218
6.2.3檢測方法 219
6.3現地污染土壤連續淋洗實驗 219
6.3.1直徑2公分管柱淋洗實驗 219
6.3.2直徑4.4公分管柱淋洗實驗 238
6.3.3長30公分寬30公分管柱淋洗實驗 264
6.4淋洗後土壤種植實驗 294
6.5淋洗後液體之處置 307
6.6現場連續淋洗流程設計與經濟評估 310
第七章 結論與建議 313
7.1結論 313
7.2建議 314
參考文獻 316
附錄A 329
附錄B 330
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