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研究生:張尚偉
研究生(外文):S. W. Chang
論文名稱:以機械合金法合成鐵鈮非晶質合金粉末之研究
論文名稱(外文):Preparation of Amorphous Fe-Nb Alloy Powders by Mechanical Alloying
指導教授:林中魁
指導教授(外文):C. K. Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:材料科學學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:機械合金法非晶質
外文關鍵詞:Mechanical alloyingAmorphous
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非晶質為固態原子排列不規則的情形,相對於晶體物質而言,其具有更特殊的性質,如磁性、耐蝕性及機械強度等。傳統上製造非晶質合金將之由氣相或液相以高冷卻速率使之不結晶而固化形成非晶質。機械合金法是固相反應法的一種,利用球磨機帶動磨球使之與其間的金屬粉末發生撞擊,在一連串的碰撞後,球磨初期以冷焊形式表現,在加工硬化的效應下,脆裂的情況出現,晶格亦持續被扭曲,在碰撞所生成的高溫及晶格缺陷的幫助下,原子的擴散亦持續進行,在某些組成之中將可形成非晶質。本實驗用機械合金法以鐵與鈮進行球磨組成比分別為FexNb100-x (X=10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90),使用SPEX8000D球磨機,氬氣,高鉻工具鋼鋼珠、球磨比為5:1,在不同球磨時間取粉,以SEM進行外觀、橫截面的觀測,以XRD可知粉末的結晶性的改變趨勢,量取硬度值,可知其球磨時間與微結構與硬度的相關性,熱分析可知其熱穩定溫度。由外觀測量可知粉末尺寸在球磨初期因純金屬的延性造成相互冷焊而變大,繼續球磨後,加工硬化使粉末脆性升高而發生脆裂,球磨後期粉末存在一臨界尺寸承受磨球撞擊Fe50Nb50為5±2μm。由橫截面觀測可知層狀組織的細化是延性糸統非晶質化的必經途徑。在XRD中可分為兩類﹕中間組成與終端組成,在中間組成中非晶質化的趨勢﹕形成一寬廣的繞射峰被發現其範圍為FexNb100-x (x=0.3~0.7)。但在終端組成下,在球磨後分別形成了10%的固溶體:鐵的晶格常數為0.287nm,Fe90Nb10球磨後,鈮固溶入鐵的晶格內,其晶格常數膨脹為0.290nm。其原子相鄰平均間距為0.2456nm。同樣地﹕鈮的晶格常數為0.33nm,Fe10Nb90經球磨後,鐵原子固溶入鈮的晶格內,其晶格常數減小為0.327nm。其相鄰原子平均間距為0.2747nm。硬度亦隨球磨時間增加而增加,只是在球磨後期存在一極限Hv Fe50Nb50為820±150。熱分析可得其非晶質合金的Tx。Fe50Nb50以SPEX8000D經15小時的球磨後,其結晶溫度為798℃。
Amorphous is random state in microstructure, which has some special properties relative crystalline material in engineer apply, such as magnetic, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. In traditionally, making metal amorphous was by ultra-high cooling rate from high temperature metal vapor or liquid to avoid crystalline when solid reaction happened. Mechanical alloying is a kind of solid state amorphous reaction . The main general idea of mechanical alloying is collision of powder and mill ball. By mill time goes by, the pure metal powders show several process like cold welding, break, rewelding and amorphization. With add of milling time, amorphization will be more complete in some concentration by the diffusion which assist by defect that form by the cold welding, fracturing and rewelding previously and the temperature assist by collision.In this experience, we use Fe and Nb powders, weight corresponding to their chemical compositions, FexNb100-x with X=10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, we use SPEX8000D which of 1725 rpm, in Ar atmosphere, the ball-to-powder ratio is 5:1, getting powders at the setting time, SEM was empleyed to observe particle cross-section and appearance, XRD will show us the crystalline state of the powders, hardness test will help us to know the relation of milling time with micro-structure hardness, thermal analysis is going to tell us the Tx of the powders.We get good result that is mechanical alloying is a useful method for solid state amorphization reaction. In terminal compostion, we get Fe solid solution by Fe90Nb10 after 15 hours MA, and get its(Fe) lattice constant from 0.287nm become 0.290nm. and its nearest distance is 0.2456nm. By the same method, we can find Fe10Nb90 become Nb solid solution after 15 hours milling, and get its(Nb) constant lattice from 0.33nm to 0.3237nm by 10% Fe exist in Nb solid solution. Its average nearest distance will be 0.2747nm. Amorphous FexNb100-x powders were prepared by mechanical alloying pure crystalline iron and niobium powders in the concentration region 30≦x≦70. The process consists of repeated mechanical mixing, cold welding, fracturing, and rewelding of ultrafine alloy powder. By doing so, they can become amorphous alloy or solid solution.We also get microhardness in amorphous Fe50Nb50 is 820±150. Than we use DTA to get Tx of the amorphous alloy powders Fe50Nb50, which was producted by SPEX8000D for 15 hours milling.The Tx of the powders is 798℃.
0-x在各組成球磨15hrs之繞射圖……………... 78圖4-20機械合金法所形成之終端介穩固溶體的晶格常數…... 79圖4-21鐵鈮二元相圖…………………………………………... 80圖4-22 Fe5ONb5O 在各球磨階段經DTA熱分析的DTA曲線圖… 81圖4-23 FeNb合金在不同組成下球磨10小時的DTA比較圖. 82表目錄表1-1非晶質合金與其相似組成之一般合金之機械強度比較。……………………………………………………… 47表1-2非晶質合金與其相似組成之一般合金之抗蝕強度比較。……………………………………………………… 47表1-3適用於變壓器鐵心材料之物理性質比較。…………… 48表1-4非晶質合金與其相似組成之一般合金之磁性質比較。 48表1-5大同公司生產之非晶質合金與方向性矽鋼片之特性比較表。…………………………………………………… 49表2-1機械合金法製備鈮基合金之文獻回顧表。…………… 50表4-1球磨時間Fe50Nb50合金粉末的性質……………….…… 52表4-2球磨時間Fe50Nb50合金粉末的性質變化………………. 52表4-3 FexNb100-x各組成以XRD檢測球磨時間之概況表……… 53
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