跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.169.3) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/12/05 19:59
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:吳佩芳
研究生(外文):Wu,P.F.
論文名稱:台灣雨傘節鍵前神經毒素beta-Bungarotoxin次單元之選殖,表現及基因結構之探討
論文名稱(外文):Cloning, expression and gene structure of the subunits of beta-Bungarotoxins from Taiwan banded krait
指導教授:張榮賢余幸司余幸司引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, L.S.Yu, H.S.
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:183
中文關鍵詞:鍵前神經毒素台灣雨傘節
外文關鍵詞:Presynaptic neurotoxinBungarus multicinctusbeta-bungarotoxin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:160
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本論文主要目的為探討A chain (14 KDa)及B chain (7 KDa)分子對beta-Bungarotoxin (beta-Bgt)活性功能所扮演之角色,以及A chain與B chain基因產物配對產生完整beta-Bgt分子之機制。我們從台灣雨傘節毒腺mRNA中以RT-PCR方法分別選殖A chain及B chain基因,再分別將A chain及B chain裝入表現載體製備重組蛋白質。我們共選殖到A1、A3、A7、B1及B2的cDNA基因,由此cDNA序列修正Kondo et al.(1982)的A1及A3的Protein sequence,而A7則與Danse et al.(1990)所發表的A2 cDNA序列有很高的相似性。另一方面B1及B2的cDNA序列轉譯為胺基酸之後發現應由61個胺基酸所組成。
將B chain裝入pET32a(+)表現載體顯示,將B chain與A chain形成雙硫鍵鍵結的B(C55)突變為B(C15S)後能提昇其蛋白質表現的產率,並且表現的B1(C55S) Fusion protein具有阻斷Voltage-dependent的鉀離子通道之活性,但是卻無法與Synaptosome membrane結合。若將beta1-Bgt之A chain以化學修飾後發現,beta1-Bgt會減少其與Synaptosome上acceptor的結合能力,此一結果似乎也指出A chain可能與Synaptosome membrane的結合有關。
我們亦將選殖的A chain與B chain分別裝入pT7-7及pET20b(+)中以製備重組A chain及B chain蛋白質,其Protein refolding後的產率也因將A chain與B chain形成雙硫鍵鍵結的A(C15)與B(C55)突變為A(C15S)與B(C55S)後被提高。分離及純化後的A(C15S) protein只具有極微弱的磷脂脢酵素活性,且A(C15S)與B(C15S) protein只具Native beta1-Bgt抗原活性的50%,但是無法與Synaptosome membrane結合。另一方面,由二級結構預測的結果顯示,本實驗表現的A1(C15S) protein與Naja naja atra PLA2的CD圖譜相似,而B1(C55S) protein CD圖譜顯示其二級結構主要為beta-sheet,此一結果與beta-Bgt之X光繞射分析結果相符。
先前研究指出台灣雨傘節蛇腺中至少存有16種以上不同的beta-Bgt,為進一步探討A chain及B chain調控與配對之機制,我們進行A chain及B chain染色體基因之選殖,我們以PCR放大選殖到五種不同A chain的基因,其基因結構包含部分的Signal peptide序列及部分的3’UTR序列,其Protein coding region被兩個Intron分成三個Exon;另外我們亦從Genomic library中篩選到一A chain-like基因,與A chain cDNA序列比對後發現,其基因結構亦由3個Exon及2個Intron組成,並且這些A chain基因Intron splicing遵循GT/AG rule。我們比對這些A chain基因時也發現Intron在演化上具有較高的保留性,另外參考已知的突觸前Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)神經毒素的基因結構發現,不同Family的PLA2基因有不同的基因結構(Viperinae PLA2s基因由5個Exon及4個Intron組成; Crotalinae PLA2s基因由4個Exon及3個Intron組成),顯示這些突觸前PLA2神經毒素的基因結構,經演化過程依據其科屬而有不同的變異性。另一方面我們亦篩選到一B1 Genomic gene,其基因結構亦由3個Exon及2個Intron組成,也遵循GT/AG的Splicing機制,此外,分析A chain-like gene及B1 chain gene的Promoter region發現A chain與B chain gene具有不同的轉錄因子結合部位,反應出A chain與B chain基因應透過不同機制來調控產製,並且A chain與B chain雙硫鍵之配對應在A chain與B chain分別轉譯後才有完整beta-Bgt分子之配對產生。
beta-Bungarotoxin (beta-Bgt), the main presynaptic neurotoxin purified from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus consists of two dissimilar polypeptide chains, A chain and B chain, cross-linked by an interchain disulfide bond. The cDNAs encoding the A chain (A1, A3 and A7) and B chain (B1 and B2) of beta-Bgt were constructed from the cellular RNA isolated from the venom glands of B. multicinctus. The deduced amino acid sequences of the A chain and B chains were different from those determined previously by protein sequencing technique. With regards to the protein sequence of A1 and A3 chain, the residues at positions 66-67 (Gln-Ser) are inverted. Moreover, the amino acid residues at positions 103 and 105 are revised. As to A chains, one additional Arg residue is inserted between Val-19 and Arg-20 of the B1 chain. Similarily, the insertion of one additional Val residue between Val-19 and Arg-20 of the B2 chain is noted. Thus the B chains should comprise 61 amino acid residues. The B chain was subcloned into the expression vector pET32a(+) and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The recombinant B chain was expressed as a fusion protein and purified on a His-Bind resin column. The yield of affinity-purified fusion protein was markedly increased by replacing Cys-55 of the B chian with Ser. The B(C15S) chain fusion protein showed an activity in blocking the voltage-depentent K+ channel, but did not inhibit the binding of beta-Bgt to synaptosomal membranes. These results, together with the finding that modification of His-48 of the A chain of beta-Bgt caused a marked decrease in the ability to bind the toxin to its acceptor proteins, suggest that the B chain is involved in the K+ channel blocking action observed with beta-Bgt, and that the binding of beta-Bgt to neuronal receptors is not heavily depentent on the B chain.
Additionally, the A chain and B chian were subcloned into the expression vectors pT7-7 and pET20b(+), respectively. The expressed proteins were isolated from the inclusion bodies of E.coli, and the refolded A chain and B chain were further purified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The purified recombinant A chain exhibited a low phospholipase activity. Both A chain and B chain exhibited 50% antigenicity of beta1-Bgt, but they did not inhibit the binding of beta1-Bgt to synaptosomal membranes. The gross conformation of recombinant A1(C15S) chain is similar to that of Naja naja atra PLA2 as revealed by CD spectra. The fused peptide in the N-terminal region of recombinant B1(C55S) chain appreciably affects the resulting CD spectra. These results suggest that the interaction of beta-Bgt with presynaptic membrane should be associated with the intact A and B chains.
In order to elucidate the evolutionary process of beta-Bgt and the possible pairing mechanism of A chain and B chain, the genetic structures of A chain and B chain were determined in the present study. These results indicate that the A chain and B chain are separately encoded by different genes and share the same organization with three exons and two introns. It is evident that the intact beta-Bgt molecule should be derived from the pairings of A chain and B chain after their mRNAs are translated. Moreover, analyses on the promoter sequence of A chain gene and B chain gene suggest that the A chian and B chain should be regulated by binding with different transcription factors.
封面
目錄
壹:中文摘要
貳:英文摘要
參:第一章 緒論
伍:第二章 β-Bungarotoxin B chain cDNA基因選殖及表現
(a) 實驗方法與步驟
(b) 結果與討論
(c) 圖表
陸:第三章 β-Bungarotoxin A chain cDNA基因選殖及表現
(a) 實驗方法與步驟
(b) 結果與討論
(c) 圖表
柒:第四章 β-Bungarotoxin A chain 與 B chain co-expression
(a) 實驗方法與步驟
(b) 結果與討論
(c) 圖表
捌:第五章 β-Bungarotoxin A chain 與 B chain 基因結構之分析
(a) 實驗方法與步驟
(b) 結果與討論
(c) 圖表
玖:總結
其他
Abe,T., Limbrick,A.R. and Miledi,R. (1976) Acute muscle denervation induced by beta-bungarotoxin. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 194,545-53.
Abe,T., Alema,S. and Miledi,R. (1977) Isolation and characterization of presynaptically acting neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus snake. Eur.J.Biochem. 80,1-12.
Abe,T., Alema,S. and Miledi,R. (1977) Phospholipase activity in -bungarotoxin action. J. Physiol. 270,55-56p.
Aird,S.D., Kaiser,I.I., Lewis,R.V. and Kruggel,W.G. (1985) Rattlesnake presynaptic neurotoxins: primary structure and evolutionary origin of the acidic subunit. Biochemistry 24,7054-7058.
Alderdice,M.T. and Volle,R.L. (1981) Multiple actions of beta-bungarotoxin on acetylcholine release at amphibian motor nerve terminals. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 316,126-30.
Anadon,A. and Martinez-Larranaga,M.R. (1985) Effects of crotoxin on autonomic neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig myenteric plexus and vas deferens. Toxicon 23,963-72.
Andrews,T.D., Jermiin,L.S. and Easteal,S. (1998) Accelerated evolution of cytochrome b in simian promates: adaptive evolution in concert with other mitochondrial proteins? J. Mol. Evol. 47,249-257.
Araujo,A.L.D. and Radvanyi,F. (1987) Determination of phospholipase A2 activity by a pH indicator method. Toxicon 25,1181-1188.
Bachellerier,J.P. and Cavaille,J. (1997) Guiding ribose methylation of rRNA. TIBS. 22,257-161.
Bekkers,A.C., Franken,P.A., Vanden Bergh,C.J., Verbakel,J.M., Verheij,H.M. and deHaas,G.H. (1991) The use of genetic engineering to obtain efficient production of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1089,345-51.
Benishin,C.G. (1990) Potassium channel blockage by the B chain subunit of -bungarotoxin. Mol.Pharmacol. 38,164-169.
Bennett,V., Baines,A.J. and David,J. (1986) Purification of brain analogues of red blood cell skeletal proteins: ankyrin, protein 4.1 (synapsin), spectrin and spectrin subunits. Meth. Enzymol. 134,55-69.
Berndt,K.D., Guntert,P. and Wuthrich,K. (1993) Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of dendrotoxin K from the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis. J. Mol. Biol. 234,735-750.
Bhat,M.K. and Gowda,V. (1989) Purification and characterization of a myotoxic phospholipase A2 from indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom. Toxicon 27,861-873.
Bieber,A.L. (1979) Metal and non-protein constituents in snake venoms. In: Snake venoms, Handbook of experimental pharmacology. (Lee,C.Y. ed) pp.295-306, Springer-Verlag,Berlin.
Bieber,A.L., Becker,R.R., McParland,R., Hunt,D.F., Shabanowitz,J., Yates,J.R., Martino,P.A. and Johnson,G.R. (1990) The complete sequence of the acidic subunit from Mojave toxin determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1037,413-21.
Black,A.R., Breeza,A.L., Othman,I.B. and Dolly,J.O. (1986) Involvement of neuronal acceptors for dendrotoxin in its convulsive action in rat brain. Biochem. J. 237,397-404.
Bradford,M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72,248-54.
Breathnach,R. and Chambon,P. (1981) Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50,349-383.
Brunie,S., Bolin,J., Gewirth,D. and Sigler,P.B. (1985) The refined crystal structure of dimeric phospholipase A2 at 2.5 A. Access to a shielded catalytic center. J. Biol.Chem. 260,9742-9749.
Bruns,T.D., Fogel,R., White,T.J. and Palmer,J.D. (1989) Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor. Nature 339,140-142.
Chang,C.C. and Huang,M.C. (1974) Comparison of the presynaptic actions of botulinum toxin and beta-bungarotoxin on neuromuscular transmission. Naunyn. Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 282,129-42.
Chang,L.S. and Yang,C.C. (1988) Role of N-terminal region of the A chain in 1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). J. Protein Chem. 7,713-727
Chang,L.S. and Yang,C.C. (1993) Separation and characterization of the A chain and B chain in 1-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait) venom. J. Protein Chem. 12,469-475.
Chang,L.S., Lin,J. and Wu,P.F. (1996b) cDNA sequence and expression of cardiotoxin V and a new cardiotoxin VII from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra). Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1295,1-4.
Chang,L.S., Wu,P.F. and Lin,J. (1996c) cDNA sequence analysis and expression of cardiotoxins from Taiwan cobra. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 219,116-121.
Chang,L.S., Wu,P.F. and Chang,C.C. (1996) Expression of Taiwan banded krait phospholipase A2 in Escherichia coli, a fully active enzyme generated by hydrolyzing with aminopeptidase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 225,990-996.
Chang,L.S., Wu,P.F. and Chang,C.C (1996) cDNA sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies on the A chain of -bungarotoxin from Taiwan banded krait. J. Protein Chem. 15,755-761.
Chang,L.S., Lin,S.K. and Wu,P.F. (1998) Differentially expressed snoRNAs in Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 245,397-402.
Chang,L.S. and Lin,S.K. (1999) EMBL accession no. AJ242991
Chang,W.C., Lee,M.L. and Lo,T.B. (1983) Phospholipase A2 activity of long-chain cardiotoxins in the venom of banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus). Toxicon 21,163-165.
Chiou,S.H., Hung,C.C., Huang,H.C., Chen,S.T., Wang,K.T. and Yang,C.C. (1995) Sequence comparison and computer modelling of cardiotoxins and cobrotoxin isolated from Taiwan cobra. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 206,22-32.
Chomczynski,P. and Sacchi,N. (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 162,156-159.
Chu,C.C., Li,S.H. and Chen,Y.H. (1994) Resolution of isotoxins in the -bungarotoxin family. J. Chromatogr. A. 694,492-497.
Chu,C.C., Chu,S.K., Chen,S.W. and Chen,Y.H. (1994) The non-phospholipase A2 subunit of -bungarotoxin plays an important role in the phospholipase A2-independent neurotoxic effect: characterization of three isotoxins with a common phospholipase A2 subunit. Biochem. J. 303,171-176.
Chuman,Y., Nobuhisa,I., Ogawa,T., Deshimaru,M., Chijiwa,T., Tan,N.H., Fukumaki,Y., Shimohigashi,Y., Ducancel,F., Boulain,J.C., Menez,A. and Ohno,M. (2000) Regional and accelerated molecular evolution on group I snake venom gland phospholipase A2 isozymes. Toxicon 38,449-462.
Csank,C., Taylor,F.M. and Martindale,D.W. (1990) Nuclear pre-mRNA introns: analysis and comparison of intron sequences from Terahymena thermophila and other eukaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res. 18,5133-5141.
Chu,S.T. and Chen,Y.H. (1991) Role of the N-terminal region of phospholipase A2 subunit of 1-bungarotoxin in the toxin-Ca2+ complex-formation. Biochem. J. 278,481-486.
Danse,J.M., Toussaint,J.L. and Kempf,J. (1990a) Nucleotide sequence encoding -bungarotoxin A2-chain from the venom gland of Bungarus multicinctus. Nucleic Acids Res. 18,4609.
Danse,J.M., Garnier,j.m. and Kempf,J. (1990) cDNA deduced-amino acid sequence of a new phospholipase from Bungarus multicinctus. Nucleic Acids Res. 18,4610.
DeGeus,P., Vande Bergh,C.J., Kuipers,O., Verheij,H.M., Hoekstra,W.P.M. and DeHass,G.H. (1987) Expression of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2. Generation of active enzyme by sequence-specific cleavage of a hybrid protein from Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acid Res. 15,3743-3759.
Dennis,E.A. (1983) Phospholipases. In: The enzymes. (Boyer,P.D.,ed.), pp. 307-353. Academic Press, New York.
Deshimaru,M., Ogawa,T., Nakashima,K., Nobuhisa,I., Chijiwa,T., Shimohigashi,Y., Fukumaki,Y., Niwa,M., Yamashina,I., Hattori,S. and Ohno,M. (1996) Accelerated evolution of Crotalinae snake venom gland serine proteases. FEBS Lett. 397,83-88.
Devi,A. (1968) The protein and non-protein constituents of snake venoms. In: Venomous animals and their venoms. (Bucherl,W., Buckley,E.E. and Deulofeu,V. eds) pp. 119-165. Academic, London.
Dijkstra,B.W., Kalk,K.H., Hol,W.G. and Drenth,J. (1981) Structure of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 at 1.7A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 147,97-123.
Dowdall,M.J., Fohlman,J.P. and Watts,A. (1979) Presynaptic action of snake venom neurotoxins on cholinergic systems. In: Neurotoxins: Tools in neurobiology. (Ceccarelli,B. and Clementi,F. eds) pp. 63-76. Raven, New York.
Dufton,M.J. (1985) Protease inhibitors and dendrotoxins. Sequence classification, structural prediction and structure/activity. Eur. J. Biochem. 153,647-654.
Dufton,M.J. and Hider,R.C. (1983) Classification of phospholipase A2 according to sequence: Evolutionary and pharmacological implications. Eur. J. Biochem. 137,545-552.
Ducancel,F., Guignery-Frelat,G., Bouchier,C., Menez,A. and Boulain,J.C. (1988) Complete amino acid sequence of a PLA2 from the tiger snake Notechis scutatus scutatus as deduced from a complementary DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 16,9049.
Ducancel,F., Bouchier,C., Tamiya,T., Boulain,J.C. and Menez,A. (1991) Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding snake toxins. In: Snake toxins. (Harvey,A.L., ed.) pp. 385-414. Pergamon Press, New York.
Franken,P.A., Vanden Berg,L., Huang,J., Gunyuzlu,P., Lugtigheid,R.B., Verheij,H.M. and De Haas,G.H. (1992) Purification and characterization of a mutant human platelet phospholipase A2 expressed in Escherichia coli. Cleavage of a fusion protein with cyanogen bromide. Eur. J. Biochem. 203,89-98.
Fohlman,J., Eaker,D., Karlsson,E. and Thesleff,S. (1976) Taipoxin, an extremely potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the Australian snake taipan (Oxyuranuss Scutellatus). Isolation, characterization, quaternary structure and pharmacological properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 68,457-469.
Gulya,K., Budai,D., Kasa,P. and Rakonczay,Z. (1984) In vivo effects of -bungarotoxins on the acetylcholine system in different brain areas of the rat. J. Neurochem. 43,112-119.
Halliwell,J.V. and Dolly,J.O. (1982) Electrophysiological analysis of the presynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in the central nervous system. Toxicon 21,121-127.
Halpert,J. and Eaker,D. (1975) Amino acid sequence of a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake). J. Biol. Chem. 250,6990-6997.
Harris,J.B. and Zar,M.A. (1978) The effects of a toxin isolated from Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus scutatus) venom on autonomic neuromuscular transmission. Br. J. Pharmacol. 62,349-58.
Heinrikson,R.L. (1982) Structure-function relationships in phospholipase. In: Proteins in Biology and Medicine. (Bradshaw,R.A., Hill,R.L., Tang,J., Liang,C. and Tsou, C.L. eds) pp 132-. Academic, New York.
Hider,R.C., Karlsson,E. and Namiranian,S. (1991) Separation and purification of toxins from snake venoms. In: Snake toxins. (Harvey,A.L., ed.) pp 1-34. Pergamon Press, New York.
Ho,C.L., Teng,C.M. and Lee,C.Y. (1984) Presynaptic and musculotropic effects of a basic phospholipase A2 from the Formosan habu (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus) venom. Toxicon 22,813-816.
Hodgson,D., Gasparini,S., Drevet,P., Ducancel,F., Bouet,F., Boulain,J.C., Harris,J.B. and Menez,A. (1993) Production of recombinant notechis 11’2L, an enzymatically active mutant of a phospholipase A2 from Notechis scutatus scutatus venom, as directly generated by cleavage of a fusion protein produced in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 212,441-446.
Hollecker,M., Marshall,D.L. and Harvey,A.L. (1993) Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins. Br. J. Pharmacol. 110,790-794.
Hung,C.C., Wu,S.H. and Chiou,S.H. (1993) Sequence characterization of cardiotoxins from Taiwan cobra: isolation of a new isoform. Biochem. Mol. Bio. Int. 31,1031-1040.
Jeng,T.W. and Fraenkel-Conrat,H. (1976) Activation of crotoxin B by volvatoxin A2. Biochem. Biophys. Res.Commun. 70,1324-1329.
John,T.R., Smith,L.A. and Kaiser,I.I. (1994) Genomic sequences encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin: unusually high sequence identity of non-coding regions. Gene 139,229-234.
Johnson,G.R. and Bieber,A.L. (1988) Mojave toxin: rapid purification, heterogeneity and resistance to denaturation by urea. Toxicon 26,337-351.
Karlsson,E. (1979) Chemistry of protein toxins in snake venoms. In: Snake venoms. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. (Lee,C.Y., ed), pp, 159-212. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Keith,C., Feldman,D.S., Deganello,S., Glick,J., Ward,K.B., Jones,E.O. and Sigler,P.B. (1981) The 2.5 A crystal structure of a dimeric phospholipase A2 from the venom of Crotalus atrox. J. Biol. Chem. 256,8602-8607.
Kelly,R.B. and Brown,F.R. (1974) Biochemical and physiological properties of a purified snake venom neurotoxin which acts presynaptically. J. Neurobiol. 5,135-50.
Kelley,M.J., Crowl,R.M. and Dennis,E.A. (1992) Renaturation of cobra venom phospholipase A2 expressed from a synthetic gene in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1118,107-15.
Kenmochi,N., Higa,S., Yoshihama, M. and Tanaka,T. (1996) U14 snoRNAs are encoded in introns of human ribosomal protein S13 gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 12,371-374.
Kini,R.M. and Iwanaga,S. (1986) Structure-function relationships of phospholipases I: Prediction of presynaptic neurotoxicity. Toxicon 24,527-541.
Kondo,K., Narita,K. and Lee,C.Y. (1978a) Chemical properties and amino acid composition of 1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus (Formosan banded krait). J. Biochem. 83,91-99.
Kondo,K., Narita,K. and Lee,C.Y. (1978b) Amino acid sequences of the two polypeptide chains in 1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. J. Biochem. 83,101-115.
Kondo,K., Toda,H., Narita,K. and Lee,C.Y. (1982a) Amino acid sequence of 2-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus venom. The amino acid substitution in the B chains. J. Biochem. 91,1519-1530.
Kondo,K., Toda,H., Narita,K. and Lee,C.Y. (1982b) Amino acid sequence of three -bungarotoxins (3-, 4-, and 5-bungarotoxins) from bungarus venom. Amino acid substitutions in the A chains. J. Biochem. 91,1531-1548.
Kordis,D. and Gubensek,F. (1996) Ammodytoxin C gene helps to elucidate the irregular structure of Crotalinae group II phospholipase A2 genes. Eur. J. Biochem. 240,83-90.
Kramer,M.D., Fruth,U., Simon,H.G. and Simon,M.M. (1989) Expression of cytoplasmic granules with T cell-associated serine proteinase-1 activity in Ly-2+(CD8+) T lymphocytes responding to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in vivo. Eur. J. Immunol. 19,151-6.
Kwong,P.D., McDonald,N.Q., Sigler,P.B. and Hendrickson,W.A. (1995) Structure of 2-bungarotoxin: potassium channel binding by Kunitz modules and targeted phospholipase action. Structure 3,1109-1119.
Laemmli,U.K. (1970) Cleavage of structural prpteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227,680-685.
Laszlo,P. (1987) Intron-dependent evolution: preferred types of exons and introns. FEBS Lett. 214,1-7.
Lee,C., Yang,E., and Katz,R.L. (1978) Interactions of neuromuscular effects of edrophonium, alpha-bungarotoxin and beta-bungarotoxin. Anesthesiology 48,311-314.
Liang,N.S., Pungercar,J., Krizaj,I., Strukelj,B. and Gubensek,F. (1993) Expression of fully active ammodytoxin A, a potent presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipase A2, in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 334,55-59.
Lin,W.Z., Chu,S.T., and Chen, T.H. (1984) Optical activity and conformation of -bungarotoxin in solution. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC 8, 113-118.
Magazanik,L.G. and Slavnova,T.I. (1978) Effects of presynaptic polypeptide neurotoxins from tiger snake venom (notechis-II-5 and notexin) on frog neuromuscular junction. Physiol. Bohemoslov. 27,421-429.
Mattick,J.S. (1994) Introns: evolution and function. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development. 4,823-831.
Maxwell,E.S. and Fournier,M.J. (1995) The small nucleolar RNAs. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64,897-934.
Mollier,P., Chwetzoff,S., Bouet,F., Harvey,A.L. and Menez,A. (1989b) Tryptophan 110, a residue involved in the toxic activity but not in the enzymatic activity of notexin. Eur. J. Biochem. 185,263-270.
Moran,N.A. (1996) Accelerated evolution and Muller’s rachet in endosymbiotic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93,2873-2878.
Myers,T.W. and Gelfand,D.H. (1991) Reverse transcription and DNA amplification by a thermus thermophilus DNA polymerase. Biochemistry 30,7661-7666.
Nakashima,K.I., Ogawa,T., Oda,N., Hattori,M., Sakaki,Y., Kihara,H. and Ohno,M. (1993) Accelerated evolution of Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom gland phospholipase A2 isozymes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90,5964-5968.
Nigel,S.C. (1988) The pharmacology of potassium channels and their therapeutic potential. TIPS. 9,21-28.
Nakashima,K.I., Nobuhisa,I., Deshimaru,M., Nakai,M., Ogawa,T., Shimohigashi,Y., Fukumali,Y., Hattori,M., Sakaki,Y., Hattori,S. and
Ohno,M. (1995) Accelerated evolution in the protein-coding regions is universal in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 isozyme genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.92,5605-5609.
Nobuhisa,I., Nakashima,K.I., Deshimaru,M., Ogawa,T., Shimohigashi,Y., Fukumaki,Y., Sakaki,Y., Hattori,S., Kihara,H. and Ohno,M. (1996) Accelerated evolution in Trimeresurus okinavensis venom gland phospholipase A2 isozyme-encoding genes. Gene 172,267-272.
Nicholls,D., Snelling,R. and Dolly,O. (1985) Bioenergetic actions of beta-bungarotoxin, dendrotoxin and bee-venom phospholipase A2 on guinea-pig synaptosomes. Biochem. J. 229,653-62.
Nicoloso,M., Qu,L.H., Michot,B. and Bachellerie,J.P. (1996) Intron-encoded, antisense small nucleolar RNAs: the characterization of nine novel species points to their direct role as guides for the 2''-O-ribose methylation of rRNAs. J. Mol. Biol. 260,178-95.
Noel,J.P., Bingman,C.A., Deng,T., Dupureur,C.M., Hamilton,K.J., Jiang,R.T., Kwak,J.G., Sekharudu,C., Sundaralingam,M and Tsai,M.D. (1991) Phospholipase A2 engineering. X-ray structural and functional evidence for the interaction of lysin-56 with substrates. Biochemistry 30,11801-11811.
Ohno,M., Menez,R., Ogawa,T., Danse,J.M., Shimohigashi,Y., Fromen,., Ducancel,F., Zinn-J.S., LeDu,M.H., Boulain,J.C., Tamiya,T. and Menez,A. (1998) Molecular evolution of snake toxins: Is the functional diversity of snake toxins associated with a mechanism of accelerated evolution? Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 59,307-364.
Ouyang,C., Jy,W., Zan,Y.P. and Teng,C.M. (1981) Mechanism of the anticoagulant action of phospholipase A purified from Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus (Formosan habu) snake venom. Toxicon 19,113-20.
Pan,F.M., Chang,W.C. and Chiou,S.H. (1994a) cDNA and protein sequences coding for the precursor of phospholipase A2 from Taiwan cobra, Naja naja atra. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 33,187-194.
Pan,F.M., Yeh,M.S., Chang,W.C., Hung,C.C. and Chiou,S.H. (1994b) Sequence analysis and expression of phospholipase A2 from Taiwan cobra. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199,969-976.
Pernas,P., Masliah,J., Olivier,J.L., Salvat,C., Rybkine,T. and Bereziat,G. (1991) Type II phospholipase A2 recombinant overexpression enhances stimulated arachidonic acid release. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 178,1298-305.
Petersen,M., Penner,R., Pierau,FK. and Dreyer,F. (1986) Beta-bungarotoxin inhibits a non-inactivating potassium current in guinea pig dorsal root ganglion neurones. Neurosci. Lett. 68,141-145.
Qu,L.H., Nicoloso,M., Michot,B., Azum,M.C., Caizergues-Ferrer,M,M., Renalier,M.H. and Bachellerie,J.P. (1994) U21, a novel small nucleolar RNA with a 13nt. Complementarity to 28S rRNA, is encoded in an intron of ribosomal protein L5 gene in chicken and mammals. Nucleic Acids Res. 11,4073-4081.
Rehm,H. and Betz,H. (1982) Binding of beta-bungarotoxin to synaptic membrane fractions of chick brain. J. Biol. Chem. 257,10015-10022.
Rehm,H. and Betz,H. (1984) Solubilization and characterization of the -bungarotoxin-binding protein of chick brain membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 259,6865-6569.
Renalier,M.H., Nicoloso,M., Qu,L.H. and Bachellerie,J.P. (1996) SnoRNA U21 is also intron-encoded in Drosophila melanogaster but in a different host-gene as compared to warm-blooded vertebrates. FEBS Lett. 379,212-216.
Renetseder,R., Brunie,S., Dijkstra,B.W., Drenth,J. and Sigler,P.B. (1985) A comparison of the crystal structures of phospholipase A2 from bovine pancreas and Crotalus atrox venom. J. Biol. Chem. 260,11627-11634.
Rooney,A.P. and Zhang,J. (1999) Rapid evolution of a primate sperm protein: relaxation of functional constraint or positive Darwinian selection? Mol. Biol. Evol. 16,706-710.
Rosenberg,P., Ghassemi,A., Condrea,E., Dhillon,D. and Yang,C.C. (1989) Do chemical modifications dissociate between the enzymatic and pharmacological activities of beta-bungarotoxin and notexin? Toxicon 27,137-159.
Rowan, E.G. and Harvey, A.L. (1988) Potassium channel blocking actions of beta-bungarotoxin and related toxins on mouse and frog motor nerve terminals. Br. J. Pharmacol. 94,839-847.
Rudy,B. (1988) Diversity and ubiquity of k channels. Neuroscience 25,729-749.
Rugolo,M., Dolly,J.O. and Nicholls,D.G. (1986) The mechanism of action of -bungarotoxin at the presynaptic plasma membrane. Biochem. J. 233,519-523.
Shields,D.C. and Wolfe,K.H. (1997) Accelerated evolution of sites undergoing mRNA editing in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14,344-349.
Schmidt,R.R., Betz,H. and Rehm,H (1988) Inhibition of -bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by mast cell degranulating peptide, toxin I and ethyleneglycol bis (-aminoethylether)-N,N,N’,N’-teraacetic acid. Biochemistry 27,963-967.
Scott,D.L., Achari,A., Vidal,J.C. and Sigler,P.B. (1992) Crystallographic and biochemical studies of the inactive Lys-49 phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus. J. Biol. Chem. 267,22645-22657.
Skarzynski,T. (1992) Crystal structure of -dendrotoxin from the green mamba venom and its comparison with the structure of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. J. Mol. Biol. 224,671-683.
Smith,L.A., Lafaye,P.J., LaPenotiere,H.F., Spain,T. and Dolly,J.O. (1993) Cloning and functional expression of dendrotoxin K from black mamba, K+ channel blocker. Biochemistry 32,5692-5697.
Strong,P.N., Goerke,J., Oberg,S.G. and Kelly,R.B. (1976) -Bungarotoxin, a pre-synaptic toxin with enzymatic activity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 73,178-182.
Suzuki,A., Matsueda,E., Yamane,T., Ashida,T., Kihara,H. Ohno,M. (1995) Crystal structure analysis of phospholipase A2 from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Habu snake) venom at 1.5 A resolution. J. Biochem. 117,730-740.
Tamiya,N. and Yagi,T. (1985) Non-divergence theory of evolution: sequence comparison of some proteins from snakes and bacteria. J Biochem. 98,289-303.
Tamiya,T., Lamouroux,A., Julien,J.F., Grima,B., Mallet,J., Fromageot,P. and Menez,A. (1985) Cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding a snake neurotoxin precursor. Biochimie 67,185-189.
Tanaka,T., Kimura,S. and Ota,Y. (1988) Secretion of the proenzyme and active bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 enzyme by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: design and use of a synthetic gene. Gene 64,257-64.
Teng,C.M., Chen,Y.H. and Ouyang,C. (1984) Biphasic effect on platelet aggregation by phospholipase a purified from Vipera russellii snake venom. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 772,393-402.
Teng,C.M., Wang,J.P., Peng,H.C. and Ouyang,C. (1989) Edema-producing proteins isolated from Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus snake venom. Toxicon 27,899-905.
Tollervey,D. (1987) A yeast small nuclear RNA is required for normal processing of pre-ribosomal RNA. EMBO J. 6,4169-4175.
Tollervey,D. and Kiss,T. (1997) Function and synthesis of small nuclear RNAs. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 9,337-342.
Tomoo,K., Ohishi,H., Doi,M., Ishida,T., Inoue,M., Ikeda,K. and Mizuno,H. (1992) Interaction of n-dodecylphosphorylcholine, a substrate analogue, with bovine pancrease phospholipase A2 as determined by X-ray crystal analysis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 187,821-827.
Tsai,I.H., Lu,P.J., Wang,Y.M., Ho,C.L. and Liaw,L.L. (1995) Molecular cloning and characterization of a neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Taiwan habu (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus). Biochem. J. 311,895-900.
Waite,M. (1987) In: The phospholipases, Handbook of lipid research (Hanahan,D.J.,ed.), pp. 155-205. Plenum Press, New York.
Wang,Y.M., Lu,P.J., Ho,C.L. and Tsai,I.H. (1992) Characterization and molecular cloning of neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from Taiwan viper (Vipera russelli formosensis). Eur. J. Biochem. 209,635-641.
Wang,Y.M., Lu,P.J. and Tsai,I.H. (1994) Cloning and sequencing of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus venom. Chinese Biochem. Soc. 23,53-58.
Wernicke,J.F., Vanker,A.D. and Howard,B.D. (1975) The mechanism of action of -bungarotoxin. J. Neurochem. 25,483-496.
White,S.P., Scott,D.L., Otwinowski,Z., Gelb,M.H. and Sigler,P.B. (1990) Crystal structure of cobra-venom phospholipase A2 in a complex with a transition-state analogue. Science 250,1560-1562.
Wu,S.S., Tseng,M.J. and Wang,K.T. (1982) Separation of four cardiotoxins of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 242,396-373.
Yang,C.C. (1994) Structure-function relationship of phospholipase A2 from snake venoms. J. Toxicol. 13,125-177.
Yang,C.C. and Lee,H.J. (1986) Selective modification of tyrosin-68 in 1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). J. Protein Chem. 5,15-28.
Zeller,E.A. (1977) Snake venom action: Are enzymes involved in it ? Experientia. 33,143-150.
Zi,J., Tien,A.L. and Fournier,M.J. (1997) Small nucleolar RNAs direct site-specific synthesis of pseudouridine in ribosomal RNA. Cell 16,565-573.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top