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研究生:周馥瑩
研究生(外文):Chou, Fu-in
論文名稱:銀葉粉蝨之快速鑑定與族群介量
論文名稱(外文):Rapid identification of the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and its population parameters
指導教授:陳秋男王重雄
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chiou-NanWang, Chung-Hsiung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:銀葉粉蝨快速鑑定族群介量生命表
外文關鍵詞:silverleaf whiteflyrapid identificationpopulation parameterslife tableRAPD-PCR
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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確認採集之粉蝨即為銀葉粉蝨 (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) 後,於實驗室內建立族群以供探討其生活史特徵及族群介量。在15-35℃不同定溫下以苦瓜飼育銀葉粉蝨,結果顯示銀葉粉蝨在15℃及35℃下不能完成發育,由卵發育至成蟲的存活率以28℃最高為68.6﹪。各發育期所需日數,隨著溫度升高而縮短,超過28℃後有延長的趨勢。由直線迴歸方程式估算卵至成蟲期在20-28℃時其發育臨界溫度及有效積溫,分別為14.21℃及307.27日-度。在溫度20℃時成蟲壽命最長,雌成蟲平均可活27.4日,雄成蟲平均可活9.0日。繁殖力以25℃及28℃時最大,平均每隻雌蟲一生可產13.1粒卵。而20-30℃不同定溫中之族群介量具有顯著性差異,其中20-28℃之內在增殖率 (rm)、期限增殖率 (λ) 及繁殖淨值 (R0) 會隨著溫度升高而遞增,在28℃其值分別為0.0587、1.0588及5.41,而平均世代 (Τ) 和倍增時間 (Doubling time)分別僅需28.41日及11.81日。
在實驗室28℃定溫中,觀察銀葉粉蝨在七種不同寄主植物上之發育及存活率,發現銀葉粉蝨由卵到成蟲所需發育時間,以茄科作物之龍葵、茄子、番茄最短,發育期分別為16.7、17.4及17.7日,而在苦瓜上發育期最長為25.2日。存活率以在扁蒲上者最高為93﹪,而在苦瓜上者最低為54﹪。就成蟲壽命及平均產卵量而言,以在茄子上者壽命最長,雌雄分別為32.1日及15.7日,平均產卵量也以在茄子上者最高179.9粒卵,其次為番茄124.6粒卵,而以苦瓜上者最低,僅12.8粒卵。在各寄主植物上所得族群介量亦具有顯著差異,其中rm、λ及R0值皆以茄子飼育者最高依序為0.1497、1.1587及62.97;以苦瓜飼育最低,依序為0.0520、1.0555及4.68。Τ值則以龍葵飼育者最短23.78日,以苦瓜飼育者最長29.25日,倍增時間則是以茄子飼育者最短4.63日,而以苦瓜飼育者最長13.33日。
依據De Barro and Driver於1997年發表之方法,利用四種primer (F2、F12、H9、H16) 進行RAPD-PCR,皆可區分台灣三種具經濟重要性之粉蝨,包括溫室粉蝨 (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)、螺旋粉蝨 (Aleurodicus dispersus) 及銀葉粉蝨。進一步,分析不同齡期及雌雄蟲之銀葉粉蝨,結果電泳圖譜皆相同,並且利用1隻銀葉粉蝨即可進行RAPD-PCR分析。從不同地方及作物上採集之標本進行RAPD-PCR分析,初步結果亦顯示皆與實驗室內飼養之銀葉粉蝨相同,至於本省是否有其他生物小種存在,則仍有待進一步研究確定。
The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, after being properly identified, was reared on balsam pear under various constant temperatures to study its life history traits and construct its life-tables on seven different hosts. Results showed that the silverleaf whitefly could not complete its development under 15℃ and 35℃. The highest survival rate from egg to adult was 68.6﹪at 28℃. The duration for each of the developmental stages decreased with the increase of the temperature from 20℃ to 28℃. By linear regression analysis, the lower temperature threshold for the development from egg to adult was 14.21℃ with an effective thermal summation of 307.27 day-degrees to complete its development. At 20℃ the adult longevity was the longest, being 27.4 days for female and 9.0 days for male. The highest fecundity was observed at 25℃ and 28℃ with an average of 13.1 eggs per female. The population parameters were significantly different at 20℃-30℃. At 20℃-28℃, the intrinsic rate of natural increase ( rm), finite rate of increase (λ) and net reproductive rate (R0) increased with the raise of temperature, the highest being 0.0587, 1.0588 and 5.41, respectively at 28℃. The mean generation time and the doubling time were the shortest at 28℃ with 28.41 days and 11.81 days, respectively.
The life history and the life tables of B. argentifolii on seven different host plants were also studied in the laboratory at 28℃, RH 80 ± 5﹪. Results showed that B. argentifolii developed fast from egg to adult on three host plants of Solanaceae, namely black nightshade, eggplant and tomato, being 16.7, 17.7 and 17.6 days, respectively. The slowest development was 25.2 days on balsam pear. The highest survival rate was 93﹪on bottle gourd and the lowest was 54﹪on balsam pear. The longest lifespan of female and male was 32.1 and 15.7 days respectively on eggplant. The fecundity was the highest on eggplant with 179.9 eggs per female and then followed by tomato with 124.6 eggs per female. The fecundity was the lowest with 12.8 eggs per female on balsam pear. The population parameters on seven host plants were significantly different. The highest rm, λ, and R0 were 0.1497, 1.1587, and 62.97, respectively on eggplant, and the lowest 0.0520, 1.0555, and 4.68, respectively on balsam pear. Whereas, the shortest mean generation time was 23.78 days on black nightshade, and the longest 29.25 days on balsam pear. Furthermore, the shortest doubling time was 4.63 days on eggplant and the longest on balsam pear 13.33 days.
The three whiteflies of economic importance, including Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Aleurodicus dispersus, and B. argentifolii, could be easily discriminated by using four primers (F2, F12, H9, H16) with the RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic-DNA-polymerase chain reaction) method developed by De Barro and Driver in 1997. Analysis of the different developmental stages and both sexes of B. argentifolii showed that the electrophoretic patterns were the same. And using just one silverleaf whitefly specimen was sufficient for analysis by RAPD-PCR. Analysis of the specimens collected from different locations and plants by using RAPD-PCR indicated that they were not different from that of the laboratory colony. However, much more work is needed to confirm whether or not there are any other biotypes existed in Taiwan.
中文摘要
英文摘要
目錄…………………………………………………………………………i
表次…………………………………………………………………………ii
圖次…………………………………………………………………………iii
壹、前言……………………………………………………………………1
貳、往昔研究………………………………………………………………3
一、正名……………………………………………………………………3
二、鑑定……………………………………………………………………4
三、經濟重要性……………………………………………………………5
四、生活史與生態…………………………………………………………7
五、生命表資料收集與族群介量…………………………………………11
參、材料與方法……………………………………………………………13
一、RAPD-PCR分析試驗……………………………………………………13
二、銀葉粉蝨之建立與繁殖………………………………………………15
三、生命表資料之收集……………………………………………………18
四、生命表資料分析………………………………………………………21
肆、結果與討論……………………………………………………………23
一、銀葉粉蝨的確認………………………………………………………23
二、若蟲期之形態觀察……………………………………………………23
三、生活史特徵與兩性生命表……………………………………………24
四、RAPD-PCR分析試驗……………………………………………………44
伍、參考文獻………………………………………………………………46
陸、誌謝……………………………………………………………………56
柒、表………………………………………………………………………57
捌、圖………………………………………………………………………70
玖、附錄……………………………………………………………………132
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