跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 01:23
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:許惠怡
研究生(外文):Huei-Yi Hsu
論文名稱:理想自由分佈與豆象產卵選擇
論文名稱(外文):Oviposition Decision of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) : Test of Ideal Free Distribution Theory
指導教授:洪淑彬洪淑彬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shwu-Bin Horng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:豆象移動花費理想自由分佈
外文關鍵詞:bean weeviltravel costsideal free distribution
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:160
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:17
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
動物在環境中的分佈與其資源的獲得息息相關,往往對個體的存活與生殖有決定性的作用,因此是研究族群生態學很重要的一部份。而本實驗目的是以理想自由分佈模式(ideal free distribution, IFD)為理論基礎,透過豆象對資源區中寄主豆的搜尋與利用能力,探討不均質的資源和資源區間距離的不同,以及個體間競爭對個體的分佈及資源利用的作用。實驗中以四紋豆象(Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.))為材料,以紅豆(Vigna angularis)為其產卵資源。首先所探討的問題是:在符合IFD的條件下,即沒有移動花費,則豆象之產卵分佈是否會符合IFD之預測?試驗結果為在沒有移動花費處理下,不論是一隻或是兩隻豆象雌蟲之產卵分佈,在經過一段時間之後,就會符合IFD之預測,即產卵分佈比與資源分佈比一致。
然而在有移動花費處理下,也就是違背「自由」的前提下,一隻雌蟲之產卵分佈就不會符合IFD之預測。而且,移動之花費,與四紋豆象之壽命和總產卵量減少有明顯相關。然而,在有移動花費處理下,若同時接入十隻雌蟲,則其產卵分佈,在經過一段時間之後,就會符合IFD之預測。原因可能為十隻雌蟲彼此互相競爭與干擾的結果,而使得所有的寄主豆被充分利用,所以才達到IFD預測之分佈。又在以豆象產卵偏離IFD預測分佈之比例的分析中,發現隨著轉換資源區次數的增加,則偏離IFD預測之分佈比例也會隨之減少。
在更進一步探討移動花費的試驗,即三種不同資源區距離處理,基於之前的試驗結果預測,雌蟲壽命和總產卵量均與資源區間距離大小呈負相關。而試驗分析結果中,資源區間距離最大的處理組,雌蟲之壽命最短。相對地,資源區間距離最小的處理組,雌蟲之壽命最長,符合該預測。然而,在雌蟲產卵量的部分,只有距離中間和最遠的組別符合,而距離最小的組別,雌蟲之總產卵量卻最少。
為回答為甚麼資源區間距離最小的處理組,雌蟲之總產卵量反而會最少?因此,又針對同樣的處理之中距離和最小距離組,進行了行為錄影試驗。結果發現兩種距離處理之雌蟲均在進入所遭遇第一個資源區後,開始產卵,而在產下一定卵數後,便開始有離開資源區之行為。中距離處理組,較少同時在數個資源區間轉換,而每進入一個資源區,均停留較長時間之後,才會有轉換資源區之行為;相對地,距離最小之處理組,較常在各個資源區間遷移,因此致總產卵量較少。
至於豆象離開資源區的機制,則同時與載卵壓力和資源劣化達某一臨界值,以及找到可以接受產卵寄主豆的時間有關。又從行為錄影觀察中,也發現與進入至離開資源區的時間,以及資源區間大小及距離有關。
The distribution of animals depends heavily on the resource distribution in the environment. It means that the animal is very sensitive to the distribution and quality of the resource. The theory of ideal free distribution (IFD) proposed by Fretwell and Lucas (1970) predicts that numbers of individuals in a specific patch of resource should be linearly related to the fitness gain from that patch. In this study, we tried to explore how the quality of different patches, the costs of traveling between patches, and individual''s ability of competition might affect searching ability and hence the distribution of eggs laid by the bean weevil (Callosobruchus maculates (Fab.)). In the low-travel-cost treatment, no matter on condition that provided with one female or two females that entails competition, when there was one egg per seed on average, the distribution of eggs laid were concordant with the prediction of IFD. Whereas in the high-travel-cost treatment, the distribution of eggs laid by one female was not concordant with the prediction of IFD. Besides, the costs of traveling between patches had decreased the longevity and fecundity of the female bean weevil. It was also found that in the high-travel-cost treatment, the eggs laid by ten females simultaneously were dispersed as the prediction of IFD. The result showed that number of times of patch leaving had significant effect on the distribution of eggs laid. While the mechanism of patch leaving were not due to the pressure of egg-load or the resource quality decreased to a specific threshold level. Our data qualitatively supported the prediction of optimal foraging theory. In the different patch distance experiment, we predicted that longevity and fecundity of female bean weevil should be inversely correlated with the distance between patches. The result showed that the deviation of egg dispersion from IFD in the three different distance treatments is concordant with our prediction. But the total number of eggs laid by the female in the shortest distance treatment was the lowest. In the videotape analysis, we found that the patch quality, the distance between patches, and number of times of entering a patch would affect the time stay in a patch for a female. Meanwhile, the patch quality and the distance between patches had significant effect on the time of patch transferring. These behaviors may cause decreasing number of eggs laid for the female in the shortest distance treatment.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………… i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………… iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………… v
表次……………………………………………………………………… vii
圖次……………………………………………………………………… viii
壹、緒言………………………………………………………………… 1
貳、往昔研究…………………………………………………………… 3
一、四紋豆象的一般生活史…………………………………………… 3
二、理想自由分佈……………………………………………………… 4
三、資源防禦模式……………………………………………………… 5
四、競爭干擾模式……………………………………………………… 5
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………… 7
一、供試蟲源及飼育方法……………………………………………… 7
二、低移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 7
三、高移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 8
四、不同資源區距離處理……………………………………………… 9
五、行為錄影…………………………………………………………… 9
肆、結果………………………………………………………………… 13
一、低移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 13
二、高移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 16
三、離開資源區之機制………………………………………………… 19
四、不同資源區距離處理……………………………………………… 21
五、行為錄影…………………………………………………………… 25
伍、討論………………………………………………………………… 30
一、低移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 30
(一)產卵分佈………………………………………………………… 30
(二)產卵偏離IFD的比例…………………………………………… 30
(三)豆上卵數與豆象之產卵行為…………………………………… 31
二、高移動花費處理…………………………………………………… 32
(一)低與高移動花費處理之雌蟲壽命與總產卵量的比較………… 32
(二)雌蟲產卵分佈…………………………………………………… 32
(三)雌蟲間干擾競爭對產卵分佈之影響…………………………… 33
(四)轉換資源區次數與產卵分佈之關係…………………………… 34
三、豆象離開資源區之機制…………………………………………… 35
(一)臨界假說………………………………………………………… 35
(二)載卵壓力假說…………………………………………………… 35
(三)最佳覓食假說…………………………………………………… 36
(四)動機假說………………………………………………………… 36
四、不同資源區距離處理……………………………………………… 37
(一)雌蟲壽命與總產卵量之比較…………………………………… 37
(二)產卵偏離IFD的比例…………………………………………… 38
五、行為錄影…………………………………………………………… 39
(一)在資源區中停留時間分析……………………………………… 40
(二)轉換資源區所花費之時間分析………………………………… 41
陸、引用文獻…………………………………………………………… 43
柒、致謝………………………………………………………………… 47
表次
表一 在高移動花費處理下一隻雌蟲在離開第一個進入資源區前之利用情形…………………………………………………………………… 19
表二 以廣用線性模式分析處理效應、資源區中寄主豆數和進入同一資源區之次數對在資源區中停留時間的影響………………………… 27
表三 以廣用線性模式分析處理效應和資源區中的寄主豆數對豆象轉換資源區所花費之時間的影響………………………………………… 27
圖次
圖一 A、低移動花費處理之試驗設計…………………………………… 11
B、高移動花費處理之試驗設計…………………………………… 11
圖二 不同資源區距離處理之試驗設計…………………………………… 12
圖三 A、四紋豆象一隻雌蟲在不同區域內產卵比例之變動趨勢……… 14
B、四紋豆象二隻雌蟲在不同區域內產卵比例之變動趨勢……… 14
圖四 四紋豆象雌蟲產卵偏離IFD與每豆上卵數的關係………………… 15
圖五 A、高移動花費處理組一隻四紋豆象雌蟲在不同區域內產卵比例之變動趨勢………………………………………………………… 17
B、高移動花費處理組十隻四紋豆象雌蟲在不同區域內產卵比例之變動趨勢………………………………………………………… 17
圖六 低與高移動花費處理組間四紋豆象壽命與產卵量之比…………… 18
圖七 轉換資源區的次數與產卵分佈偏離IFD的關係…………………… 20
圖八 不同資源區距離處理下四紋豆象壽命與產卵量之比較…………… 22
圖九 不同資源區距離處理下雌蟲產卵偏離IFD之比例的變化情形…… 23
圖十 不同資源區距離處理下雌蟲產卵分佈是否符合IFD分佈之卡方分析結果……………………………………………………………… 24
圖十一 不同資源區距離、不同豐度之資源量和進入同一資源區之次數對在資源區中停留時間之影響…………………………………… 28
圖十二 不同資源區距離處理及資源區中寄主豆數量對豆象由一個資源區進入下一個資源區之時間的影響……………………………… 29
林慧中。1993。四紋豆象產卵行為對子代競爭之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。58頁。
胡燦。1989。加馬照射四紋豆象之效應。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所博士論文。127頁。
Bell, W. J. 1991. Searching Behaviour: the Behavioural Ecology of Finding Resources. Chapman and Hall. 358 pp.
Brown, J. L. 1969. Territorial behavior and population regulation in birds. Wilson Bulletin 81:293-329.
Charnov, E. L. 1976. Optimal foraging: the marginal value theorem. Theor. Popul. Biol. 9: 129-136.
Crawley, M. J. 1993. GLIM for ecologists. Blackwell, Oxlord. 379 pp.
Credland, P. F. 1990. Biotype variation and host change in bruchids: causes and effects in the evolution of bruchid pests. pp. 271-287. in, K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell and T. Yoshida. (eds) Bruchids and Legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht. 407 pp.
Credland, P. F., and A. W. Wright. 1989. Factors affecting female fecundity in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. stored Prod. Res. 25: 125-136.
Credland, P. F., K. M. Dick and A. W. Wright. 1986. Relationships between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecol. Entomol. 11: 41-50.
Dick, K. M. and P. F. Credland. 1984. Egg production and development of three strains of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. stored Pred. Res. 20: 221-227.
Fretwell, S. D., and H. J. Jr. Lucas. 1970. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. Acta Biotheor. 19: 16-36.
Houston, A. I., and J. M. McNamara. 1988. The ideal free distribution when competitive abilities differ: an approach based on statistical mechanics. Anim. Behav. 36: 166-174.
Kacelnik, A., J. R. Krebs, and C. Bernstein. 1992. The ideal free distribution and predator-prey populations. TREE 7: 50-55.
Korona, R. 1989a. Ideal free distribution of unequal competitors can be determined by the form of competition. J. Theor. Biol. 138: 347-352.
Korona, R. 1989b. Travel costs and ideal free distribution of ovipositing female flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. Amin. Behav. 40: 186-187.
Krebs, J. R. 1971. Territory and breeding density in the great tit, Parus major L. Ecology 52: 2-22.
Lan, Y. C. 1999. Trade-offs in cost of reproduction and adaptation of oviposition behaviour of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) Graduate institute of Entomology, National Taiwan University Ph. D. Dissertation 110 pp.
McCullagh, P., and J. A. Nelder. 1989. Generalized linear models. Chapman and Hall, London 511 pp.
Messina, F. J., and R. Mitchell. 1989. Intraspicfic variation in the egg-spacing behavior of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. J. Insect Behav. 2: 727-742.
Milinski, M. 1979. An evolutionarily stable feeding strategy in sticklebacks. Z. Tierpsychol. 51: 36-40.
Milinski, M. 1988. Games fish play: making decisions as a social forager. TREE 3: 325-330.
Milinski, M., and Parker, G. A. 1991. Competition for resources. pp. 137-168. in, J. R. Krebs, and N. B. Davies. (eds) Behavioural Ecology: an evolutionary approach, 3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford.
Mitchell, R. 1975. The evolution of oviposition tactics in the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ecology 56: 696-702.
Mitchell, R. 1990. Behavioral ecology of Callosobruchus maculatus. pp. 317-330. in K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell and T. Yoshida. (eds) Bruchids and Legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht. 407 pp.
Mitchell, R. and C. Thanthianga. 1990. Are the oviposition traits of the South India strain of Callosobruchus maculatus maintained by natural selection? Entomol. Exp. Appl. 57: 143-150.
Moller, H., R. H. Smith and R. M. Sibly. 1989a. Evolutionary demography of a bruchid beetle. Ⅰ. quantitative genetical analysis of the female life history. Funct. Ecol. 3: 673-681.
Moller, H., R. H. Smith and R. M. Sibly. 1989b. Evolutionary demograpy of a bruchid beetle. Ⅱ. physiological manipulation. Funct. Ecol. 3: 683-691.
Parker, G. A. 1970. The reproductive behaviour and the nature of sexual selection in Scatophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scatophagidae). II. The fertilization rate and the spatial and temporal relationships of each sex around the site of mating and oviposition. J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 205-228.
Parker, G. A. 1974. The reproductive behaviour and the nature of sexual selection in Scatophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scatophagidae). IX. Spatial distribution of fertilization rates and evolution of male search strategy within the reproductive area. Evolution 28: 93-108.
Parker, G. A., and R. A. Stuart. 1976. Animal behavior as a strategy optimizer: evolution of resource assessment strategies and optimal emigration thresholds. Am. Nat. 110: 1055-1076.
Parker, G. A., and W. J. Sutherland. 1986. Ideal free distributions when individuals differ in competitive ability: phenotype limited ideal free models. Anim. Behav. 34: 1222-1242.
SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N. C.
Smith, R. H. 1990. Adaptations of Callosobruchus species to competition. pp. 351-360. in: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell and T. Yoshida. (eds) Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht. 407 pp.
Sutherland, W. J. 1996. From individual behaviour to population ecology. Oxford University Press. 213 pp.
Thanthianga, C. and R. Mitchell. 1987. Vibrations mediate prudent resource exploitation by competing larvae of the bruchid bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 44: 15-21.
Umeya, Kenji. 1966. Studies on the comparative ecology of bean weevils on the egg distribution and the oviposition behaviors of three species of bean weevils infesting azuki bean. Plant Protect. Ser. Jap. 3: 1-11.
Waage, J. K. 1979. Foraging for patchily-distributed hosts by the parasitoid Nemeritis canescens. J. Anim. Ecol. 48: 353-371.
Weber, T. P. 1998. News from the realm of the ideal free distribution. TREE 13: 89-90.
Wilson, K. 1988. Egg laying decision by bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecol. Entomol. 13: 107-118.
Wilson, K., and L. Hill. 1989. Factors affecting egg maturation in the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Physiol. Entomol. 14: 115-126.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top