跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.229.142.104) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/27 05:15
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:連紋乾
研究生(外文):Wen-Chian Lian
論文名稱:保健膳食補助品之製備-利用阿拉伯膠及脫脂奶粉低溫噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌
論文名稱(外文):Preparation of a probiotic dietary adjunct : Encapsulation of bifidobacteria in gum arabic and skim milk by low-temperature spray-drying
指導教授:周正俊周正俊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Chun Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:雙叉桿菌阿拉伯膠脫脂奶粉微膠囊化脫氧劑乾燥劑
外文關鍵詞:Bifidobacteriumgum arabicskim milkmicroencapsulationdeoxidantdesiccant
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:928
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Bifidobacterium (雙叉桿菌) 具有抑制病原菌生長、維持正常腸道微生物族群、增加免疫反應與幫助乳製品之消化等功能。本研究乃在探討以阿拉伯膠及脫脂奶粉為被覆材質利用低溫噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌後對耐酸、耐膽鹽及貯存安定性之影響。雙叉桿菌以低溫噴霧乾燥進行之微膠囊化時,所試之五株菌株中,B. longum B6有最高之存活率。利用B. infantis CCRC14633及B. longum B6進一步探討,結果顯示以脫脂奶粉(10%)為被覆材質時,微膠囊化菌株之存活率高於以阿拉伯膠(10%)為被覆材質者。提高阿拉伯膠之濃度或噴霧乾燥時之出口溫度均造成存活率之下降。以阿拉伯膠或脫脂奶粉微膠囊化B. infantis CCRC14633和B. longum B6均具有減少菌體在胃酸(pH 2.0)及膽鹽(2.0%)下敏感性之效果,其中以阿拉伯膠微膠囊化者抗酸性之效果大於以脫脂奶粉微膠囊化者,而抗膽鹽效果則相反。在4℃下,雙叉桿菌之存活菌數高於在25℃下貯存者。置放在玻璃瓶或同時添加脫氧劑及乾燥劑,可提高貯存時菌體之存活,經脫脂奶粉微膠囊化之B. longum B6,於4℃下,置於有脫氧劑及乾燥劑之玻璃瓶中,經42天貯存後其存活率達70.62%,菌數僅下降0.15 Log cfu/g。
Bifidobacteria possesses the probiotic effects including maintenance of intestinal normal microflora, activation of immune system and increasing the digestibility of milk products. In this study, bifidobacteria were microencapsulated in skim milk or gum arabic by low temperature spray drying. Susceptibility of the microencapsulated bifidobacterium to stimulated gastric juice and bile solution as well as their stability during storage was examined.
After spray drying, it was noted that B. longum B6 has the highest survival rate among the five bifidobacterium strains tested. Further study with B. longum B6 and B. infantis CCRC14633 revealed that the survival rate of the test organism was higher with skim milk(10%)than gum arabic(10%)as the microencapsulants. Increasing the concentration of gum arabic or raising the outlet temperature during spray drying resulted in the reduced survival rate. Microencapsulation with gum arabic or skim milk reduced the susceptibility of test organisms to stimulated gastric juice(pH 2.0)and bile solution(2.0%). Gum arabic exerted more marked effect than skim milk on increasing the resistance of the encapsulated bifidobacterium to acid. While the former was less effective than the letter on increasing the resistance of test organisms to bile salt. Bifidobacteria survived better at 4℃ than at 25℃. Additions of deoxidant and desiccant to the containers increased the survival of bifidobacterium during storage. Keeping in the deoxidant and desiccant containing glass bottle, a survival rate of ca 70.62% with a population reduction of ca 0.15 Log cfu/g was noted for the skim milk-microencapsulated B. longum B6 after a 42-day storage at 4℃.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
英文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅱ
壹、前言---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、文獻整理---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
(壹)原生保健性菌種(probiotics)---------------------------------------------- 3
(貳)雙叉桿菌(Bifidobacterium spp.)------------------------------------------ 6
一、雙叉桿菌之分類、分佈及生長特性-------------------------------------- 6
二、雙叉桿菌之環境耐性-------------------------------------------------------- 9
(一)對氧之耐性--------------------------------------------------------------- 9
(二)酸耐性--------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
(三)膽鹽耐性------------------------------------------------------------------ 12
三、人體腸道中正常菌群之消長----------------------------------------------- 13
四、雙叉桿菌與人體健康之關係----------------------------------------------- 18
(一)維持腸道中正常之微生物菌相--------------------------------------- 18
(二)抗腫瘤活化免疫系統--------------------------------------------------- 19
(三)提高營養價值及合成維生素------------------------------------------ 20
(四)促進乳酸之代謝--------------------------------------------------------- 21
(五)改善臨床病症------------------------------------------------------------ 21
(六)降低血液中膽固醇的量------------------------------------------------ 22
(七)改善腹瀉及便秘--------------------------------------------------------- 23
五、雙叉桿菌菌體之微膠囊化-------------------------------------------------- 23
(參)噴霧乾燥微膠囊化------------------------------------------------------------- 26
一、微膠囊化原理----------------------------------------------------------------- 26
二、噴霧乾燥法-------------------------------------------------------------------- 28
三、被覆材質----------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
(一)阿拉伯膠------------------------------------------------------------------ 29
(二)蛋白質--------------------------------------------------------------------- 31
(肆)雙叉桿菌在台灣食品產業上之應用---------------------------------------- 31
一、乳製品類----------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
二、糖果點心類-------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
三、乾燥粉體類-------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
參、材料與方法------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
(壹)實驗材料------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
一、菌種----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
二、實驗藥品----------------------------------------------------------------------- 34
三、儀器及器材-------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
(貳)實驗方法------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35
一、雙叉桿菌之保存及更新----------------------------------------------------- 35
二、菌體之培養與菌泥收集----------------------------------------------------- 36
三、低溫噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌前菌懸液之製備-------------------- 36
四、低溫噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌----------------------------------------- 37
五、微膠囊化粉末收集及粉末產率之計算----------------------------------- 37
六、微膠囊粉末及雙叉桿菌菌泥水分測定----------------------------------- 39
七、雙叉桿菌菌數之測定及存活率計算-------------------------------------- 39
八、雙叉桿菌在模擬胃酸及膽鹽下之耐受性試驗-------------------------- 39
(一)模擬胃酸之配製--------------------------------------------------------- 40
(二)膽鹽之配製--------------------------------------------------------------- 40
(三)耐受性實驗之進行------------------------------------------------------ 40
九、貯存試驗----------------------------------------------------------------------- 41
十、掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析----------------------------------------- 41
十一、統計分析-------------------------------------------------------------------- 41
肆、結果與討論------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
一、試驗菌株之選擇與菌泥之產率-------------------------------------------- 42
二、噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌菌體之存活-------------------------------- 44
三、被覆材質濃度對雙叉桿菌存活之影響----------------------------------- 51
四、使用不同被覆材質進行噴霧乾燥時出口溫度對雙叉桿菌存活率
之影響-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
五、雙叉桿菌在模擬胃酸中之耐性-------------------------------------------- 54
六、 雙叉桿菌在膽鹽(Oxgall)中之耐性----------------------------------- 58
七、微膠囊化雙叉桿菌在不同包裝與貯存條件下之存活----------------- 62
伍、結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68
陸、參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
表 次
頁次
表一、原生保健性菌種(probiotics)須符合之要件---------------------------- 5
表二、雙叉桿菌與乳酸菌菌種------------------------------------------------------- 8
表三、Bifidobacterium sp.之H2O2分解活性--------------------------------------- 10
表四、不同雙叉桿菌培養於MRSC broth到達定常期之培養時間----------- 43
表五、不同雙叉桿菌株菌泥之產率、含菌量及含水量------------------------- 45
表六、利用不同被覆材質噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌之存活率------------- 46
表七、利用不同被覆材質進行噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌菌數之變化---- 47
表八、雙叉桿菌以不同阿拉伯膠濃度進行噴霧乾燥時之存活率------------- 52
表九、不同出口溫度及不同被覆材質進行噴霧乾燥時對雙叉桿菌存活之
影響-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
55
圖 次
頁次
圖一、人體消化道不同區域存在的主要菌種及數量---------------------------- 16
圖二、腸內菌群與人體之關係------------------------------------------------------- 17
圖三,本實驗所使用之噴霧乾燥機------------------------------------------------- 38
圖四、脫脂奶粉經低溫(50℃)噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌後之微膠囊顆粒表面掃瞄式電子顯微鏡圖片-------------------------------------------
49
圖五、阿拉伯膠經低溫(50℃)噴霧乾燥微膠囊化雙叉桿菌後之微膠囊顆粒表面掃瞄式電子顯微鏡圖片-------------------------------------------
50
圖六、B. longum B6與B. infantis CCRC 14633在模擬胃酸耐受性下之存活情形----------------------------------------------------------------------------
57
圖七、B. longum B6與B. infantis CCRC 14633其膽鹽耐受性情形--------- 60
圖八、微膠囊化B. longum B6菌體在不同包裝貯存條件下之存活--------- 63
圖九、微膠囊化B. infantis CCRC 14633菌體在不同包裝貯存條件下之存活----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
64
陸、參考文獻
沈立言。1990。羅勒、蒜、薑精油為膠囊之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所博士論文。台中。
沈明來。1993。試驗設計學。九州圖書公司。台北。pp. 48-50。
張為憲、李敏雄、呂政義、張永和、陳昭雄、孫璐西、陳怡宏、張基郁、顏國欽、林志城、林慶文。1995。食品化學。華香園出版社。台北。pp. 60-61。
李國鏞。1992。普通微生物學。九州圖書文物有限公司。台北。pp. 173-176。
淺野行藏、修司吉川、吉史田村。1998。乳酸菌流動層乾燥技術及其應用。生物產業。9 (4): 234-238。
陳昭誠。1999。牛乳免疫球蛋白安定性之研究。國立台灣大學食品科技研究所博士論文。台北。
黃麗玲。1994。各種膳食纖維與人工合成多醣類對大白鼠鋅、銅代謝之影響。輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文。台北。
楊媛絢、陳美菁、廖啟成。1998。臺灣雙叉桿菌研究介紹及食品產業上之應用。生物產業。9(4): 246-257。
楊媛絢。1998。雙岐桿菌環境耐性株之相關研究及專利。食品工業。30: 33-47。
楊雅清。1992。難消化性醣類對消化道與脂質代謝之影響。輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文。台北。
廖啟成。乳酸菌之分類及應用。1998。食品工業。30: 1-10。
賴滋漢,金安兒,柯文慶。1993。食品加工學(方法篇)。精華出版社。台中。pp. 310-323。
賴滋漢、賴業超。1994。食品科技辭典。富林出版社。台中。p. 1044。
Arai, O., Sasaki, M. and Sugimoto, T. 1996. Effectiveness of yogurt incorporated with enteric bifidobacteria capsules. Food Ind. 39 (6): 53-58.
Arunachalam, K. D. 1999. Role of bifidobacteria in nutrition, medicine and technology. Nutr. Res. 19(10): 1559-1597.
Bakan, J. A. 1973. Microencapsulation of foods and related products. Food Technol. 27 (11): 34-44.
Bangs, W. E. and Reineccius, G. A. 1981. Influence of dryer infeed matrices on the retation of volatile flavor compounds during spray drying. J. Food Sci. 47: 254-259.
Barbero, G. J., Runge, G., Fischer, D., Crawford, M. N., Torres, F. E. and Gyorgy, P. 1952. Investigation the bacterial flora, pH and sugar content in the intestinal tract of infants. J. Pediatr. 40: 152-163.
Bauer, H., Sigarlakie, E. and Faure, J. C. 1975. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of three strains of Bifidobacterium. Can. J. Microbiol. 21: 1305-1307.
Benno, Y., Sawada K. and Mitsuoka T. 1984. The intestinal microflora of infants: composition of fecal flora in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Microbiol. Immunol. 28: 975-986.
Berrada, N., Lemeland, J. F., Laroche, G., Thovenot, P. and Piaia, M. 1991. Bifidobacterium from fermented milks : survival during gastric transit. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 409-413.
Blanchette, L. and Roy, D. 1995. Production of cultured cottage cheese dressing by bifidobacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 1421-1424. Carbohyd. Chem. 16: 239-241.
Charteris, W. P., Kelly, P. M., Morelli, L. and Collins, J. K. 1998. Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84: 759-768.
Charteris, W. P., Kelly, P. M., Morelli, L. and Collins, J. K. 1997. Selective detection, enumeration and identification of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in mixed bacterial populations. Int. J. Food Microbio. 35: 1-27.
Chateau, N., Deschamps, A. M. and HadjSassi, A. 1994. Heterogeneity of bile salts resistance in the Lactobacillus isolates of a probiotic consortium. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.
Chung, H. S., Kim, Y. B., Chun, S. L. and Ji, G. E. 1999. Screening and selection of acid and bile resistant bifidobacteris. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47: 25-32. 18: 42-44.
Clark, P. A. and Martin, J. H. 1994. Selection of bifidobacteria for use as dietary adjuncts in cultured dairy foods: Ⅲ-Tolerance to simulated bile concentrations of human small intestines. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 29(3): 18-21.
Clark, P. A., Cotton, L. N. and Martin, J. H. 1993. Selection of bifidobacteria for use as dietary adjuncts in cultured dairy foods:Ⅱ-Tolerance to simulated pH of human stomachs. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 28(4): 11-14.
Collins, E. B. and Hall, B. 1984. Growth of bifidobacteria in milk and preparation of Bifidobacterium infantis for a dietary adjuncts. J. Dairy Sci. 67: 1376-1380.
Collins, J. K., Thornton, G. and Sullivan, G. O. 1998. Selection of probiotic strains for human applications. Int. Dairy J. 8: 487-490.
Conway, P. L., Gorbach, S. L. and Godin, B. R. 1987. Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells. J. Dairy Sci. 70: 1-12.
Davenport, H. W. 1977. Intestinal digestion and absorption of fat. In Physiology of the Digestive Tract 4th. Davenport, H. W. (ed.), Year Book Medical Publishers Incorporated, Chicago, London. P.232.
Deguchi, Y., Morishita, T. and Mutai, M. 1985. Comparative studies on synthesis of water-soluble vitamins among human species of Bifidobacteria. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 13-19.
Dziezak, J. D. 1988. Microencapsulation and encapsulated ingredients. Food Technol. 4: 136-151.
Elizondo, H. and Labuza, T. P. 1974. Death kinetics of yeast in spray drying. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 16: 1245-1259.
Espina, F. and Packard, V. S. 1979. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus in a spray-drying process. J. Food Prot. 42: 149-152.
Fernandes, C. F. and Shahani, K. M. 1988. Effect of nutrient media and bile salts on growth and antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acdiophilus. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 3222-3229.
Fisher, K., Johnson, M. C. and Ray, B. 1985. Lactose hydrolyzing enzymes in Lactobacillus acdiophilus strains. Food Microbiol. 2: 23.
Floch, M. H., Binder, H. J., Filburn, B. and Gershengoren, W. 1972. The effect of bile acids on intestinal microflora. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 1418-1426.
Fu, W. Y. and Etzel, M. R. 1995. Spray drying of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 and cellular injury. J. Food Sci. 60: 195-200.
Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66: 365-378.
Gilliland, S. E. 1989. Acidophilus milk products: A review of potential benefits to consumers. J. Dairy Sci. 72: 2483-2494.
Gilliland, S. E. and Kim, H. S. 1984. Effect of viable starter culture bacteria in yogurt on lactose utilization in humans. J. Dairy Sci. 67: 1-6.
Gilliland, S. E. and Rich, C. N. 1990. Stability during frozen and subsequent refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus grown at different pH. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 1187-1192.
Gilliland, S. E. and Walker, D. K. 1990. Factors to consider when selecting a culture of Lactobacillus acdiophilus as a hypocholesterolemic effect in humans. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 905-911.
Gilliland, S. E., Nelson, C. R. and Maxwell, C. 1985. Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acdiophilus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 377-381.
Gilliland, S. E., Staley, T. E. and Bush, L. J. 1984. Importance of bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acdiophilus used as dietary adjunct. J. Dairy Sci. 67: 3045-3051.
Gomes, A. M. P. and Malcata, F. X. 1999. Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus : biological、biochemical、technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10: 139-157.
Goodenough, E. R. and Kleyn, D. H. 1976. Influence of viable yogurt microflora on digestion of lactose by rat. J. Dairy Sci. 59: 601-606.
Griffiths, R. P. and Haigh, R. D. 1973. Reversible heat injury in the marine psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio marinus. Can. J. Microbiol. 19: 557-561.
Hawkins, S. M. 1993. Bifidobacteria in dairy products. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 28(4): 16-18.
Hirota, T. 1990. The anticipating bioactivity functions of Lactobacillus in dairy products. New Food Ind. 32 (10): 9-17.
Holcomb, J. E., Frank, J. F. and Mc Gregor, J. U. 1991. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in soft-serve frozen yogurt. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 26(3): 4-5.
Hoover, D. G. 1993. Bifidobacteria: Activity and potential benefits. Food Technol. 6: 120-124.
Hori, S. 1983. The properties of bifidus yogurt E. New Food Ind. 23(3): 25-32.
Hose, H. and Sozzi, T. 1991. Biotechnology group meeting probiotics-Fact or Fiction. J. Chem. Technol. Biotech. 51: 540-544.
Hughes, D. B. and Dallas, G. H. 1991. Bifidobacteria: Their potential for use in American dairy products. Food Technol. 4: 74-80.
Hull, R. R., Conway, P. L. and Evans, A. J. 1992. Probiotic food a new opportunity. Food Aust. 44(3): 112-113.
Hurst, A. and Collins, D. L. 1974. The effect of sublethal heating on Stapholococcus aureus at different physiological ages. Can. J. Microbiol. 20: 765-768.
Ibrahim, S. A. and Bezkorovainy, A. 1993. Inhibition of Escherichia coli by bifidobacteria. J. Food Prot. 56(8): 713-715.
Ibrahim, S. A. and Bezkorovainy, A. 1993. Survival of bifidobacteria in the presence of bile salt. J. Sci Food Agric. 62: 351-354.
Ishibashi, N., and Shimamura, S. 1993. Bifidobacteria: Research and Development in Japan. Food technol. 6: 126-136.
Jiang, T., Mustapha, A. and Savaiano, D. A. 1996. Improvement of lactose digestion in humans by injection of unfermented milk containing Bifidobacterium longum. J. Dairy Sci. 79: 750-757.
Johnson, J. A. C. and Etzel, M. R. 1995. Properties of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ-32 attenuated by Spray-Drying, Freeze- Drying, or Freezing. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 761-768.
Kawashima, Y., Lin, S. Y. and Takenaka, H. 1983. Polymorphism and drug release behavior of spray-dried microcapsule of sulfamethoxazole with polysaccharide gum and colloidal silica. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 9: 1445-1463.
Khalil, A. H. and Mansour, E. H. 1998. Alginate encapsulated Bifidobacteria survival in Mayonnaise. J. Food Sci. 63: 702-705.
Khattab, A. A. and Abou, S. A. 1987. The effect of bile on the growth of some lactic acid cultures. J. Dairy Sci. 70: 51-56.
Kim, H. S., Kamara, B. J., Good, I. C. and Enders, G. L. Jr. 1988. Method for the preparation of stabile microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria. J. Indust. Microbiol. 3: 253-257.
Kim, S. S. and Bhowmilk, S. R. 1990. Survival of lactic acid bacteria during spray drying of plain yogurt. J. Food Sci. 55: 1008-1010, 1048.
Klaenhammer, T. R. and Kullen, M. J. 1999. Selection and design of probiotics. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 50: 45-47.
Klaver, F. A. M. and Meer, R. V. 1993. The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt-deconjugating activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (4): 1120-1124.
Kohwi, Y., Imai, K., Tamura, Z. and Hashimato, Y. 1978. Antitumor effect of Bifidobacterium infantis in mice. Gann. 69: 613-618.
Labuza, T. P., Jones, K. A., Sinskey, A. J., Gomez, R., Wilson, S. and Miller, B. 1972. Effects of drying conditions on cell viability and functional properties of single cell protein. J. Food Sci. 37: 103-107.
Labuza, T. P., LeRoux, J. P., Fan, S. T. and Tannenbaum, S. R. 1970. Engineering factors in single-cell protein production.Ⅱ. Spray drying and cell viability. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 12: 135-140.
Laroia, S. and Martin, J. H. 1990. Bifidobacteria as possible dietary adjuncts in cultured products-A review. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 25: 18-22.
Laroia, S. and Martin, J. H. 1991. Effect of pH on survival of Bifdobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus in frozen fermented dairy dessert. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 26: 13-21
Lee. Y. K. and Salminen, S. 1995. The coming of age of probiotics. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6 (7): 241-245.
LiChari, J. J. and Potter, N. N. 1970. Salmonella survival during spray drying and subsequent handling of skim milk powder.Ⅱ. Effect of drying conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 53: 871-876.
Marshall, V. M. 1991. Gut-Derived organisms for milk fermentations. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 51: 548-553.
Marteau, P., Pochart, P., Flourie, P., Pellier, P., Santos, L. and Desjeaux, J. F. 1990. Effect of chronic ingestion of a fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on metabolic activities of the colonic flora in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 685-688.
Mary, P. N., Moschetto, and Tailliez. 1993. Production and survival during storage of spray-dried Bradyrhizobium japonicum cell concentrates. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 74: 340-344.
McNamee, B. F., O’Riordan, E. D. and O’Sullivan, M. 1998. Emulsification and microencapsulation properties of gum arabic. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4551-4555.
Misra, A. K. and Kuila, R. K. 1991. Intensified growth of Bifidobacterium and preparation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum for a dietary adjunct. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 10: 4-6.
Mitsuhashi, S. and Murata, N. 1991. Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium on the growth of gram-negative and gram-posive bacteria. J. Jpn. Soc. Nutr. Food Sci. 44(5): 365-372.
Mitsuoka, T. 1990. Intestinal flora and human health. New Food Ind. 32 (10): 1-8.
Modler, H. W., McKellar, R. C. and Yaguchi, M. 1990a. Bifidobacteria and bifidogenic factors. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 23: 29-41.
Modler, H. W., McKellar, R. C., Goff, H. D. and Mackie, D. A. 1990b. Using ice cream as a mechanism to incorporate Bifidobacteria and fructo-oligosaccharides into human diet. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 25: 4-8.
Nagawa, M., Nakabayash, A. and Fujino, S. 1988. Preparation of the bifidus milk powder. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 1777-1782.
Nil. 1994. Establishing a scientific basis for probiotic R&D. Trends Biotechnol. 12(1): 6-8.
Noh, D. O. And Gilliland, S. E. 1993. Influence of bile on cellular integrity and β-galactosidase activity of Lactobacillus acdiophilus. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1253-1259.
O’sullivan, M. G., Thornton, G., Osullivan, G. C. and Collins, J. K. 1992. Probiotic bacteria: myth or reality? Trends Food Sci. Technol. 3(12): 309-314.
Obara, S. and McGinity, J. W. 1995. Influence of processing variables on the properties of free films prepared from aqueous polymeric dispersions by a spray technique. Int. J. Pharm. 126: 1-10.
Phillips, M. C. 1981. Protein conformation at liquid interfaces and its role in stabilizing emulsion and foams. Food Technol. 35(1): 50-53
Pochart, P., Marteau, P., Goderel, B. Y., Bourlioux, P. I. and Rambaud, J. C. 1992. Survival of bifidobacteria ingested via fermented milk during their passage through the human small intestine : an in vivo study using intestinal perfusion. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 78-80.
Prasad, J., Gill, H., Smart, J. and Gopal, P. K. 1999. Selection and characterisation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for use as probiotics. Int. Dairy J. 8: 993-1002.
Rao, A., Shiwnarain, V. N. and Maharaj, I. 1989. Survival of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Can. Inst. Food Technol. J. 22: 345-349.
Reilly, S. S. and Gilliland, S. E. 1999. Bifidobacterium longum Survival during frozen and refrigerated storage as related to pH during growth. J. Food Sci. 64: 714-718.
Reineccius, G. A. and Coulter, S. T. 1969. Flavor retention during drying. J. Dairy Sci. 52(8): 1219-1221.
Reineccius, G. A. and Rich, S. J. 1986. Encapsulation of artificial flavors by beta-cyclodextrin. Perfum. Flavor. 11 (4): 1-6.
Salminen, S., Wright, A. V., Morelli, L., Marteau, P., Brassart, D., Vos, W. M., Fonden, R., Saxelin, K. C., Mogensen, G., Birkeland, S. E. and Mattila, S. Tiina. 1998. Demonstration of safety of probiotics------a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 44: 93-106.
Sanders, M. E. 1998. Overview of functional foods: Emphasis on Probiotic bacteria. Int. Dairy. J. 8: 341-347.
Scardovi, V. 1986. The genus Bifidobacterium. In“Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.” ed. J. G. Holt. Williams and Wilkins, Co., Baltimore, P. 1951-1961.
Schuler-Malyoth, R., Ruppert, A. and Muller, F. 1968. The microorganisms of the bifidus group(Lactobacillus bifidus). I. Historical review, nutritional, physiological and therapeutic aspects, morphology, culture procedures and taxonomy. Milchwissenschaft 23: 356-360.
Sheu, T. Y. and Marshall, R. T. 1993. Microenentrapment of lactobacilli in calcium alginate gels. J. Food Sci. 54: 557-561.
Shimamura, S., Abe, F., Ishibashi, N., Miyakawa, H., Yaeshima, T. and Tomita, M. 1990. Endogenous oxygen uptake and polysaccharide accumulation in Bifidobacterium. Agric. Biol. Chem. 54: 2869-2874.
Shimamura, S., Abe, F., Ishibashi, N., Miyakawa, H., Yaeshima, T. and Tomita, M. 1992. Relationship between oxygen sensitivity and oxygen metabolism of Bifidobacterium species. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 3296-3306.
Tahri, K., Crociani, J., Ballongue, J. and Schneider, F. 1995. Effects of three strains of Bifidobacteria on cholesterol. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21: 149-151.
Tallym, F. P., Goldin, B. R. and Gorbach, S. L. 1977. Superoxide dismutase in anaeroic bacteria of clinical significance. Infect. Immun. 16: 20-22.
Tannock, G. W. 1997. Probiotic properties of lactic-acid bacteria: plenty of scope for fundamental R & D. Tibech. 15 (7): 270-274.
Tannock, G. W. 1998. Studies of the Intestinal Microflora: A Prerequisite for the Development of Probiotics. Int. Dairy J. 8: 527-533.
Teixeira, P., Castro, H. and Kirby, R. 1994. Inducible thermotolerance in Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 218-221.
Teixeira, P., Castro, H. and Kirby, R. 1995. Spray Drying as a method for preparing concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 78: 456-462.
Thomas, E. L. and Pera, K. A. 1983. Oxygen metabolism of Streptococcus mutans: uptake of oxygen and release of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. J. Bacteriol. 154: 1236-1244.
To, B. C. S. and Etzel, M. R. 1997. Survial of Brevibacterium linens ATCC9174 after spray drying, freeze drying, or freezing. J. Food Sci. 62: 167-170.
To, B. C. S. and Etzel, M. R. 1997a. Spray drying, freeze drying, or freezing of three different lactic acid bacteria species. J. Food Sci. 62: 576-578.
Tomioka, H., Sato, K. and Saito, H. 1992. The protective activity of immunostimulants against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 36: 112-116.
Tzan, Y. L., Lin, S. Y., Weng, C. N. and Lee, C. J. 1991. Preparation of enteric-coated microspheres of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine with cellulose acetate phthalate: The effect of swine serum on micromeritic properties. Biotechnol. Tech. 5: 139-144.
Walker, D. K. and Gilliland, S. E. 1993. Relationships among bile tolerance , bile salt deconjugation and assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acdiophilus. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 956-961.
Yamamoto, A. 1975. Proteolytic enzymes. In Enzyme in food processing 2nd. Reed, G. (ed.), Academic Press, Inc. Wisconsin. p. 153.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top