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研究生:洪陶玉
研究生(外文):Taur-Yuh Hung
論文名稱:紅茶除口臭成分及其作用機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the deodorant principles and mechanism of black tea
指導教授:孫璐西孫璐西引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lucy Sun Hwang, Ph. D
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:紅茶除口臭茶黃質
外文關鍵詞:black teadeodoranttheaflavins
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:1275
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本論文研究之目的在探討紅茶的除口臭成分,並與綠茶之除口臭成分-兒茶素類做一比較。首先探討最適當的萃取溶劑及萃取條件,再將萃取物經區分、純化及鑑定其除口臭成分,最後以模式系統探討其作用機制。
以不同溶劑萃取紅茶時,其除臭率是以水(67.9±3.27%)、乙醇(60.2±3.78%)及甲醇(58.3±3.96%)。其萃出率及總酚類含量則為水>甲醇>乙醇。紅茶經過沸水浸泡5分鐘或以沸水迴流萃取30、60及90分鐘後,其除口臭率隨萃取時間之增加而提高;除了浸泡5分鐘外,萃取時間對萃出率與總酚類含量之影響不大。以50、85℃及沸點溫度之熱水萃取30分鐘後,其萃出率、總酚類含量及除口臭率皆以沸點溫度最高。
紅茶水萃取物中除臭物質的區分,先以氯仿清洗去除咖啡因,再以 methyl isobutyl ketone萃取,得茶紅質、兒茶素及茶黃質之粗萃取物,進而以Sephadex LH 20液相管柱層析法區分茶黃質之粗萃取物,得四種具除口臭效果較佳之區分物,經HPLC分析,發現四區分物中含大量的gallic acid 及茶黃質theaflavin(TF1)、theaflavin—3-gallate (TF2)、theaflavin—3’-gallate (TF3)及theaflavin—3,3’-digallate (TF4)。以製備型HPLC純化,再經photodiode-array 及LC-MS鑑定紅茶中除臭物質,確定為gallic acid及茶黃質(TF1、TF2、TF3及TF4)。
以高效能液相層析法分析紅茶的多酚含量, gallic acid 及茶黃質 (TF1、TF2、TF3 及TF4)的含量於每克紅茶中各為4.403±0.046、0.833+0.021、1.052+0.031、0.317+0.018、0.925+0.018 mg,紅茶中多酚含量以 gallic acid最高。
紅茶水萃物之除口臭效果隨其用量及除臭系統pH值之上升而增加,紅茶中0.1 mg多酚化合物之除口臭能力次序為EGCg>TF4>EGC、gallic acid >TF2>TF3>TF1>ECg、EC>catechin。
本研究以紅茶中含量較高及除臭效果較佳的gallic acid 與茶黃質TF4為試驗對象,於甲硫醇反應模式系統中探討紅茶成分之除臭機制。將gallic acid 與甲硫醇在鹼性緩衝溶液下反應,再以液相層析質譜儀分析反應產物,發現gallic acid 在鹼性環境下會失去電子形成類化合物,並由其質譜之斷片推斷gallic acid 之第2 C與 6C皆可與甲硫醇結合。當茶黃質TF4與甲硫醇作用時,由其質譜斷片推斷茶黃質TF4之七碳環或其galloyl基皆可與甲硫醇結合。
In this study, the malodor-removing substances (deodorants) in black tea were investigated. The differences in the deodorants between black tea and green tea were compared. The best solvent and conditions for extracting the deodorants from black tea were first studied. The extract was then fractionated and purified, and the deodorizing substances were identified. Finally, the mode of action of black tea deodorant was postulated.
The strength of the deodorizing activities of black tea extracts from various solvents was water (67.9±1.49%), ethanol (60.2±2.80%) and methanol (58.3±2.61%). There were no significantly differences by least significant difference test. But the extraction yield and the total phenolic contents were in the following order: water>methanol>ethanol . When black tea was extracted for 5, 30, 60, and 90 minutes with boiling water, there was good correlation between deodorizing activity and extraction time. However, there were no differences in the extraction yield and the total phenolic contents when black tea was extracted at boiling temperature for 30 to 90 minutes. Boiling temperature to be the best extraction temperature among 50℃, 85℃, and boiling, with respect to extraction yield, total phenolic contents, and deodorizing activity.
After removing caffeine by chloroform, the black tea water extract was fractionated by methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The deodorizing activity of MIBK fraction was the best among different solvent fractions. MIBK fraction was separated by Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography, four fractions with good deodorizing activities were found. Further purification by HPLC were conducted on these four fractions and the deodorizing activities were determined. The compounds possessing deodorant activity were identified by LC-MS and UV-Vis spectrum obtained with photodiode-array detector. Results showed that gallic acid and theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3’-gallate (TF3), and theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TF4) in black tea possessed good deodorizing activities.
The contents of gallic acid and theaflavins (TF1 , TF2 , TF3 , TF4) in black tea were 4.403±0.046、0.833±0.021、1.052±0.031、0.317±0.018、0.925±0.018 mg/ g of tea . Gallic acid was the highest among the phenolic compounds of black tea. The deodorizing activities from black tea deodorants showed good relationship with the quantity of deodorants and pH value of the test medium. The deodorizing activity of black tea deodorants was higher in the alkaline condition. The strength of the deodorizing activities of 0.1 mg black tea deodorants was in the following order: EGCg>TF4>EGC, gallic acid >TF2>TF3>TF1>ECg, EC>catechin.
Mass spectra data and proposed fragmentation of the product from gallic acid or theaflavin (TF4) and methyl mercaptan reaction at different lenghth of time by atmosphere pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode, the mechanism of black tea deodorant was postulated.
封面

頁次
中文摘要
英文摘要
壹、前言
貳、文獻整理
一、茶樹在植物學上的分類與茶葉種類
(一)茶樹在植物學上的分類
(二)茶葉的種類
二、茶葉的化學組成
(一)多酚化合物 (polyphenolic compounds)
1.黃烷醇類 (flavanols)
2.黃銅醇類(flavonols)及其配糖□體
3.無色花青素(leucoanthocyanins)
4.酚酸(phenolic acids)和縮酚酸(depsides)
(二)揮發性香味成分
(三)色素成分
(四)植物□(alkaloids)
(五)蛋白質與游離胺基酸
(六)碳水化合物 (carbohydrates)
(七)脂肪酸
(八)有機酸
(九)礦物質
三、紅茶之製造
(一)萎凋(withering)
(二)揉捻(rolling)
(三)發酵 (fermentation)
(四)乾燥(drying)
四、製茶過程中多酚化合物的轉變及香氣成分的產生
(一)多酚化合物的轉變
1.茶黃質類(theaflavins)的生成
2.茶紅質類 (thearubigins)的生成
3.Bisflavanols 的生成
4.Epitheaflavic acids 的生成
(二)茶葉香氣的生成機制
1.生合成反應
2.酵素直接催化的反應
3.酵素間接催化的反應
4.加熱或炒焙產生的香氣
五、紅茶的生理功能
(一)紅茶的生理功能
(二)抗氧化作用
(三)防癌作用
(四)降血糖作用
(五)除口臭作用
六、口臭的來源
(一)生理的口臭
(二)疾病產生的口臭
(三)食物來源的口臭 
 七、口臭發生的機制
八、口臭的偵測
九、口臭的消除
(一)感覺遮蓋方式
(二)化學方式
(三)物理方式
(四)生物方式
(五)其他方式
十、天然除口臭劑
(一)百里香(
(二(薔薇科植物( 萃出物
(三)海藻萃出物
(四)茶葉萃山物
十一、茶葉除口臭之機制
十二、實驗目的
參、材料與方法
一、實驗流程
(一)紅茶中除口臭物質之萃取
(二)紅茶中除口臭物質之萃取區分及區分物之成分分析
(三)紅茶除臭物各區分物之純化與鑑定
(四)酵素反應模式系統中探討紅茶成分變化及除臭效果
(五)甲硫醇反應模式系統中探討紅茶成分變化及除臭效果
二、藥品
三、儀器設備
四、試驗材料
五、實驗方法
(一)萃取條件對紅茶口臭效果之影響
1.不同溶劑
2.不同時間
3.不同溫度
(二)不同製備方法對紅茶萃出物的除口臭率之影響
1.減壓濃縮乾燥
2.冷卻後減壓濃度乾燥
3.冷凍乾燥
4.減壓濃縮乾燥
(三)除口臭效果之測定
(四)總酚類含量之測定
(五)萃出率之計算
(六)紅茶除臭物質之區分
(七)管柱液相層析
1.樣品之製備及處理
2.管柱層析條件
(八)茶葉萃出物高效能液相層析
1.樣品之製備及處理
2.HPLC分析條件
A.兒茶素的分析
B.茶黃質的分析
(九)茶黃質之純化及製備
1.樣品之製備及處理
2.HPLC分析條件
(十)紅茶除口臭物質之鑑定
1.UV-Vislbe光譜
2.液相質譜儀(LC-MS)
(十一)酸鹼值對紅茶除臭效果之影響
(十二)不同濃度的紅茶成分對除臭效果之影響
(十三)紅茶中除口臭物質之定量分析
1.樣品之製備及處理
2.HPLC分析條件
A.兒茶素分析
B:茶黃質的分析
C:gallicacid的分析
(十四)酵素反應模式系統中探討紅茶成分變化及除臭效果
1.樣品
2.方法
A.紫外線及可見光吸收光測定
B.高效能液相層析分析成分之分析
C:除臭率之測定
(十五)甲硫醇反應模戈系統中探討紅茶成分之除臭機制
1.Gallic acid與甲醇的反應
A.HLPC分析條件
B.液相層析質譜儀
2.茶黃質TF4與甲硫醅的反應
A.HPLC分析條件
B.液相層析質譜儀(LC-MS)
(十六)統計分析
肆、結果與討論
一、紅茶中除口臭物質之萃取與萃取液之除口臭效果評估
(一)不同萃取溶劑對紅茶萃出液除口臭效果之影響
(二)不同萃取時間對紅茶除口臭效果之影響
(三)不同萃取溫度及時間對紅茶萃出液酸鹼值之影響
二、不同製備方法對紅茶萃出物之除口臭率之影響
三、紅茶中除口臭物質之區分、區分物除口臭效果之評估以及成分分析
(一)有機溶劑之區分、區分物除口臭效果之評估以及成分分析
(二)液相層析管柱區分及區分物除口臭效果之評估
(三)紅茶除口臭物各區分物之成分分析
四、紅茶中除口臭物質之鑑定
(一)紅茶中除口臭物photodiode-array 紫外線可視光光譜之測定
(二)紅茶中除口臭物質液相層析質譜議(LC-MS)之分析
(三)影響紅茶成分除口臭效果之因素
1.不同酸鹼值對紅茶成分之除口臭效果影響
2.紅茶成分之除口臭能力及不同濃度的紅茶成分對除口臭效果影響
五、紅茶中除口臭成分之定量分析
六、酵素反應模式系統中討論紅茶成分變化及除口臭效果比較
(一)除口臭效果比較
(二)酵素反應模式系統中紫外線及可見光光譜之測定
(三)酵素反應模式系統高效能液相層析分析成分之分析
七、甲硫醇反應模式系統中討論紅茶成分除臭機制
(一)Gallic acid 與甲醇的反應
(二)茶黃質TF4與甲醇的反應
(三)Gallic acid 與甲醇的反應機制之推制
(四)茶黃質TF4與甲硫醇的反應機制的推斷
伍、結論
陸、文獻整理
柒、附錄
陸、參考文獻
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