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研究生:吳珊珊
研究生(外文):shan-shan Wu
論文名稱:茶多酚之萃取及其除口臭效果之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the extraction of tea polyphenolic compounds and their malodor removal activities
指導教授:孫璐西孫璐西引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lucy Sun Hwang, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:不同發酵程度茶除臭率兒茶素類茶黃質類
外文關鍵詞:different fermentative teasmalodor removalactivitycatechinstheaflavin
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本論文研究之目的在探討不同發酵程度茶葉之除口臭效果來源,研究內容包括三部分:第一部份為茶多酚之萃取,乃針對可能影響萃取茶多酚之因子加以探討,以求得最適之萃取條件;第二部分為探討不同發酵程度茶葉萃出物及其區分物之除口臭效果;第三部份則是針對茶中的除口臭物質,探討其基本特性並探討其於模擬茶湯中之除口臭效果。
茶多酚之最適萃取條件以綠茶作為試驗材料,兒茶素類之萃出量作為指標,以效應曲面法(Response Surface Method;RSM)探討最適之萃取溶劑濃度、萃取時間、萃取溫度及溶劑的使用量,所得之最適萃取條件為添加茶重(g)85倍體積(ml)之 45%乙醇水溶液於95℃下萃取22分鐘,則可萃出較高量之兒茶素類。
利用上述最適之萃取條件萃取不同發酵程度茶,探討不同發酵程度茶之除口臭效果與劑量之關係,其結果顯示:各茶種之除口臭效果皆隨萃出物添加劑量的增加而增加,且與總酚類及兒茶素類含量間之相關性亦佳,唯在不同茶間則以綠茶及部分發酵茶較紅茶效果好。
將不同發酵程度茶之萃出物回溶於水中後以氯仿及Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK)加以區分,來探討各種茶可能除口臭效果的來源,結果發現氯仿層以咖啡因為主,不具除口臭活性;含兒茶素類及茶黃質類的MIBK層其除口臭活性最高,但由於其量不多,故對添加0.5mg茶萃出物於pH7.5時的除口臭效果貢獻僅有29.97%(綠茶)、30.54%(部分發酵茶)及26.40%(紅茶)。水層之量最大,其對除口臭之貢獻隨著添加劑量的增加而明顯升高,此現象以紅茶之水層萃出物最為顯著。另以薄層層析法分析各種茶之水層萃出物,可粗略看出各種茶水層萃出物之組成並不相同,參考文獻之報導推測,紅茶之水層萃出物應以茶紅質為主,而這些茶紅質可能是紅茶於高劑量時具有較佳除口臭效果之來源。
探討兒茶素類(EC、ECg、EGC、EGCg)、茶黃質類(TF1、TF2、TF3、TF4)及沒食子酸(GA)等之標準品於酸鹼值7.5下,添加不同重量及莫耳數所表現之除口臭效果時,發現於添加0.2mg時,其除口臭活性之順序為 EGCg,GA,EGC>TF4,TF2>TF3>TF1>ECg,EC;而於添加0.2μmole時,其除口臭效果為 EGCg>TF4,TF2>EGC,TF3>GA>TF1>ECg,EC,其中差異較大者為GA,推測乃因GA之分子量較其餘者小,在相同乾重下,所佔有的莫耳數較多,造成除口臭效果較佳之現象。
將兒茶素類及茶黃質類標準品依其於萃出物中之含量,加以配製成模擬茶湯來探討各種不同發酵程度茶中除口臭效果之來源,其中綠茶與部分發酵茶之除口臭效果與真實茶湯相近,而紅茶之模擬茶湯則不如真實茶湯,因此推測綠茶與部分發酵茶之除口臭物質主要為兒茶素類及茶黃質類,而紅茶之除口臭效果除了少量兒茶素類及茶黃質類外,尚有其他具有除臭效果之物質,如GA及茶紅質等以及其他尚未鑑定出的活性成分。
In this study, the proper extraction condition of tea polyphenols and the sources of malodor removal activity in various fermentative teas were investigated. The study consisted of parts: the first part was to find the proper extraction condition; in the second part, the malodor removal activities of tea extracts and their fractions were examined; the third part was to investigate the basic properties of malodor removal substances in real and formulated teas.
The proper extraction condition of tea polyphenols was investigated with green tea and the extraction yield of tea catechins was used as indicator to locate the optimal extracting time, temperature, solvent composition and quantity. Response surface method was employed in this investigation. The best yield of tea catechins was obtained with 85 times ( v / w ) 45% ( v / v ) ethanol at 95℃ for 22 minutes.
The relationship between dosages and malodor removal activities of various fermentative teas was explored. Results showed that malodor removal activities of each tea increased with the increment of dosages, and there was good correlation between malodor removal activity and total phenolic compounds or catechins in various fermentative teas. However, the malodor removal activities of green tea and semi-fermentative tea were better than that of black tea.
The active components responsible for the malodor removal activity of various fermentative teas were investigated by fractionation with chloroform and methyl isobutyl ketone. Chloroform layer showed no malodor removal activity and was composed mainly of caffeine. MIBK layer had the best malodor removal activity and was composed mainly of catechins and theaflavins. However, owing to the lower extraction yield, the contributions of MIBK layers fractionated from various fermentative teas to the malodor removal activities were only 29.97% ( green tea )、30.54% ( semi-fermentative tea ) and 26.40% ( black tea ) at pH 7.5. Aqueous layer of the tea extracts, which was the most abundant fraction, contributed to the malodor removal activity significantly at high dosage, especially for black tea. The compositions of aqueous layer of each tea extract were generally different for different fermentative teas as shown by the result of thin layer chromatography. By comparing with the literature data, thearubigins were found to the major compounds in the aqueous layer of black tea extract. Therefore, thearubigins could be the possible sources of malodor removal activity in black tea at higher dosages.
The malodor removal activities of different tea extracts were influenced by the dry weights and moles of the active components (i.e. gallic acid (GA)、catechins、theaflavins etc.). The strength of the malodor removal activities of the active components at 0.2mg use level was in the following order: EGCg,GA,EGC>TF4,TF2>TF3>TF1>ECg,EC;and it was in the following order: EGCg>TF4,TF2>EGC,TF3>GA>TF1>ECg,EC, when used at 0.2μmole level. GA showed different order possibly due to its small molecular weight.
To make sure the sources of malodor removal activity in various fermentative teas were found, the formulated tea infusions composed of catechins and theaflavins standards were compared with the real tea infusions. The trends of the malodor removal activities change with dosages in formulated green and semi-fermentative tea infusions were close, while the black tea showed discrepancy. It was assumed that there were other deodorants (besides catechins and theaflavins) such as GA、thearubigins and other unidentified compounds existed in black tea.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要................................................................................................
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………
壹、前言.............................................................................................…….. 1
貳、文獻整理.......................................................................................……. 3
一、 茶葉的簡介......................................................................…… 3
(一)茶樹的分類與命名........................................................……. 3
(二)台灣茶樹之品種............................................................…… 3
(三)茶葉的分類 .................................................................…… 4
(四)台灣茶業的現況與特色................................................…….. 5
二、茶菁的化學成分...............................................................……. 6
(一)多酚類化合物(polyphenolic compounds)..................……. 8
(1)黃烷醇類(flavanols).............................................……..8
(2)黃酮醇類(flavonols)及其配醣體.………..........................11
(3)無色花青素(leucoanthocyanines)..............………….............11
(4)酚酸類(phenolic acids)及縮酚酸類(depsides)………….... 12
(二)植物鹼(alkaloids)...........................…………......................15
(三)蛋白質和游離胺基酸(proteins and free amino acids)….…….15
(四)碳水化合物(carbohydrates)...….........……...........................16
(五)植物色素(plant pigments)…………...............................…....16
(六)脂質(lipids)............................................................………...17
(七)微量成分.....................................................................……..17
三、 茶葉的製造及其原理..............…….........................................18
(一)產品特性...............................……........................................18
(二)製造流程..................................…….....................................20
(1)採摘茶菁.................................……..................................20
(2)萎凋...............................….......……….............................21
(3)殺菁.............................…….............................................22
(4)揉捻................................……..........................................22
(5)發酵...................................…….......................................23
(6)乾燥......................................……....................................23
四、茶葉可溶性成分之萃取......................……….….........................24
(一)原物料自身的影響................................………..............................24
(二)萃取條件的影響.........................................………........................24
五、茶葉的生理功效...................................................………....................26
(一)抗氧化................................….....................………..............26
(二)抑菌..............................................................………............28
(三)抗突變及抗腫瘤.................……...........................................28
(四)降低血脂、血膽固醇 ............………......................................29
(五)消臭作用........................….…............…..............................29
六、口臭的來源及其形成的原因...................…….............................30
(一)口臭的來源......................................…….............................30
(1)非病理性口臭.................................………...............................30
(2)病理性口臭...............................……….............................30
(二)口臭發生的機轉.........................………............................…33
(三)消除口臭的方法.............................……….................................... 36
七、茶葉除口臭之研究......................……….................................... 36參、材料與方法.....................................................…....................…….... 40
一、實驗材料...................................................………........................... 40
二、試藥與試劑........................................................................……..... 40
(一)標準品...............................…………….........................…............. 40
(二)一般試藥.........................………………......................…............. 41
(三)有機溶劑.......................………………........…..............…............. 42
(四)其他............................………………..........................…............. 42
三、儀器設備..........................………………............................…............ 43
(一)高效能液相層析儀-1...................………..................................... 43
(二)高效能液相層析儀-2........................………................................ 44
(三)氣相層析儀 .......................................………............................. 44
(四)液相管柱層析.........................................………......................... 45
(五)光電二矩陣檢出器.....................................………...................... 45
(六)液相層析質譜儀.............................................……….................. 45
(七)分光光度計..............................………........................................ 45
(八)低溫保溫試驗器.............................……….................................. 45
(九)冷凍乾燥機...................................….………….......................... 46(十)磨粉機...................................…...............…........................……46
(十一)迴流萃取設備........................................……......................... 46
(十二)減壓濃縮機..............................................……….................... 46(十三)紫外光檢出器..............................................……................... 46
肆、實驗方法..................................................................………............... 47
一、茶多酚最適萃取條件之找尋......................................……............... 47
(一)茶中可溶性成分之萃取方法.........................……………........... 47
(二)兒茶素類之萃取...............................................……………........ 47
(三)茶葉之萃出率…………………………................……………..... 47
(四)乙酸乙酯萃取茶湯中兒茶素類之回收率....................…………….48
(五)兒茶素類之高效能液相層析......................…………................. 50
(1)樣品之前處理.....…………………………………........... 50
(2)HPLC之分析條件..............................................…........ 50
(3)兒茶素類之含量分析............................................…...... 50
(六)萃取條件之統計分析............................................…………….. 51
二、茶中可溶性固形物之區分......................................................……... 52
三、總酚類化合物含量之測定.......................................................…….. 54
四、不同發酵程度茶除口臭效果之測定..............................……............ 54
(一)樣品之前處理........……......................................…………....... 54
(二)除口臭效果之測定......................................................……....... 54
(三)GC定量分析甲硫醇之條件...........................…............……..... 55
五、酸鹼值對茶葉萃出物除口臭效果之影響...............…..............……... 56
六、薄層層析................................................................................…….. 56
(一)樣品前處理............................................................……………56
(二)展開溶劑...................................................……………............ 56
(三)檢測分法..............................................……………................. 57
(1)紫外光檢測法...........…….................................................. 57
(2)酚類檢測法.................................……..................................... 57七、茶黃質標準品之製備.............……................................................... 57
(一)茶黃質之萃取.............……………............................................. 57
(二)茶黃質之管柱層析區分..…………….......................................... 58
(1)Sephadex 層析管之製備.....…............................................ 58
(2)茶黃質粗萃出物之管柱層析....…........................................... 58
(3)茶黃質粗區分物之高效能液相層析純化…............................. 59
1、茶黃質之純化.................................…….......................... 59
2、茶黃質高效能液相層析收集液之脫酸處理….................... 59
3、製備型 HPLC之條件...............................……................ 60
4、分析型 HPLC之條件.................................….................. 60
5、茶黃質類之含量分析....................................…............... 61
(4)茶黃質之鑑定.....................................................……............. 61
1、光電二矩陣檢測器(PDA)之判讀.................……............. 61
2、液相層析質譜儀(LC-MS)之分析..................……............ 62
八、以標準品模擬茶湯進行除口臭試驗..................................…............ 62
九、由不同發酵程度茶葉中兒茶素及茶黃質類含量推算除口臭之計算….62
十、統計分析..........................................................................….......... 63
伍、結果與討論.............................................................................……....... 64
一、茶多酚之萃取................................................................................. 64
(一)反應曲面數學模式之建立...................................................…........ 64
(二)最適萃取條件之取決.........................................................…....... 66
(三)各萃取條件對兒茶素類總產量之影響...................................…….. 71
(1)乙醇濃度和萃取時間對兒茶素類總產量之影響...................… 71
(2)溶劑添加量和萃取時間對兒茶素類總產量之影響................... 71
二、不同發酵程度茶除口臭效果之探討..............................................…74
(一)不同發酵程度茶除口臭效果之評估............................................ 74
(1)酸鹼值對於茶葉萃出物除口臭效果之影響...........…….......... 74
(2)添加不同劑量之茶葉萃出物對於除口臭效果之影響.……....... 75
(二)多元酚類化合物含量與茶葉萃出物除口臭效果之比較....……........ 80
(1)總酚類含量與茶葉萃出物除口臭效果之比較...............…....... 80
(2)兒茶素類與茶葉萃出物除口臭效果之比較......…................... 81
(三)茶葉萃出物各區分物之除口臭效果..................................……......85
(1)各區分物之兒茶素類組成萃出率及總酚類含量......................85
(2)各區分物之除口臭效果..........................................................90
三、茶葉萃出物中有效除口臭物質之探討..........................................……96
(一) 茶中有效除口臭物質之探討...........................................…….. 96
(二) 模擬茶湯中各成分含量之討................................................104
(1)綠茶...................….......................................................…...104
(2)部分發酵茶…......….............................................................105
(3)紅茶......................…...........................................................106
陸、結論.......................................….........................................................113
柒、參考文獻..................................…......................................................115
捌、附錄…………………………………………………………………………127
圖 次
頁次
圖一 茶菁中各兒茶素之化學結構……………………………………. 10
圖二 茶黃質之生合成………………………………………………… 13
圖三 茶紅質之生成途徑……………………………………………… 14
圖四 各種成茶之製造流程圖……………………………………… 19
圖五 口臭形成的原因……………………………………………… 32
圖六 口臭發生的機制………………………………………………… 34
圖七 口臭強度與甲硫醇濃度之關係………………………………… 35
圖八 利用EGCg與CH3SH作用產物來推測除臭可能之機制……… 38
圖九 茶中可溶性固形物之區分流程圖……………………………… 53
圖十 綠茶乙醇萃出液與利用乙酸乙酯再萃出之HPLC圖譜……… 67
圖十一 於萃取溫度95℃,溶劑 / 溶質比率為85時,45 %乙醇溶液濃度與萃取時間對兒茶素類總萃出率之影響………………… 72
圖十二 於萃取時間22分鐘,乙醇溶液濃度為45%時,萃取溫度與溶劑/溶質比率對兒茶素類總萃出率之影響.……………………… 73
圖十三 酸鹼值對不同發酵程度茶除口臭效果之影響(0.5mg).………………………………………………………… 76
圖十四 不同發酵程度茶之萃出物在酸鹼值7.5時各劑量之除口臭效果 78
圖十五 不同發酵程度茶之萃出物在酸鹼值7.0時各劑量之除口臭效果 79
圖十六 於酸鹼值7.0(A)和7.5(B)下不同發酵程度茶之除臭率與總酚類含量之相關性………............................ 82
圖十七 於酸鹼值7.0(A)和7.5(B)下不同發酵程度茶之除臭率與兒茶素類及茶黃質類含量之相關性……….………….. 84
圖十八 綠茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物中兒茶素類之HPLC圖譜………………………………………………………………….. 86
圖十九 紅茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物中茶黃質類之HPLC圖譜..............................................……. 87
圖二十 茶湯經氯仿及MIBK區分得各區分層之總酚類含量....………. 89
圖二十一 不同發酵程度茶萃出物之水層於酸鹼值7.5時其除口臭效果隨劑量之變化……………………………………………......... 94
圖二十二 不同發酵程度茶水層萃出物之薄層層析圖................ 95
圖二十三 兒茶素類和茶黃質類標準品於不同酸鹼值下之除臭率………. 97
圖二十四 各劑量之兒茶素類標準品於酸鹼值7.5時之除口臭效果……… 99
圖二十五 各劑量之茶黃質類標準品於酸鹼值7.5時之除口臭效果……. 100
圖二十六 各劑量之兒茶素類標準品於酸鹼值7.5時之除臭率(以毫莫耳數表示).........................……………………............ 102
圖二十七 各劑量之茶黃質類標準品於酸鹼值7.5時之除臭率(以毫莫耳數表示)...............................……. 103
圖二十八 利用兒茶素類、茶黃質類及咖啡因標準品配製之綠茶模擬茶湯之除口臭與劑量之關係圖..........…....…. 108
圖二十九 利用兒茶素類、茶黃質類標準品配製之部分發酵茶模擬茶湯之除口臭與劑量之關係圖...........………….... 110
圖三十 利用兒茶素類、茶黃質類及沒食子酸標準品配製之紅茶模擬茶湯之除口臭與劑量之關係圖....................... 112
附圖一 Theaflavin(TF1)之PDA圖譜………………………………..…. 127
附圖二 Theaflavin-3-gallate(TF2)之PDA圖譜……..………………. 128
附圖三 Theaflavin-3''-gallate(TF3)之PDA圖譜……………………….. 129
附圖四 Theaflavin-3,3''-digallate(TF4)之PDA圖譜…………………... 130
附圖五 各茶黃質之質譜圖……………………………………………….. 131
附圖六 部分發酵茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物兒茶素類之HPLC圖譜………………………………………………………………. 132
附圖七 紅茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物兒茶素類之HPLC圖譜………………………………………………………………….. 133
附圖八 綠茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物中茶黃質類之HPLC圖譜………………………………………………………………. 134
附圖九 部分發酵茶萃出物經溶劑區分所得各區分物中茶黃質類之HPLC圖譜………………………………………………………. 135
附圖十 於RSM設計表中最接近最適萃取條件處理之HPLC圖譜……. 136
表 次
頁次
表一 茶菁的一般組成份………………………………………………. 7
表二 茶菁中酚類化合物之種類及含量……………………………… 9
表三 兒茶素類之生理功能……………………………………………. 27
表四 利用球狀中心複合設計探討酒精含量、溶劑比、溫度及時間對茶多酚萃取之影響……………………………………………………. 49
表五 茶葉中多酚成分的標準曲線……………………………………… 67
表六 效應曲面脊分析法中球面半徑及較適最取條件之結果…………. 70
表七 不同發酵程度茶中各多酚類物質之含量(mg / g萃出物)…………………………………………………………………… 83
表八 茶湯經氯仿及MIBK區分得各區分層之萃出率及其所佔有 之百分比…………………………………………………………… 88
表九 不同發酵程度茶各區分物之萃出率與在酸鹼值7.0下之除臭率及其貢獻度………………………………………………………… 91
表十 不同發酵程度茶各區分物之萃出率與在酸鹼值7.5下之 除臭率及其貢獻度…………………………………………………………. 92
表十一 由綠茶萃出物中兒茶素類及茶黃質類含量推算其具有之除口臭效果…………………………………………………………………. 107
表十二 由部分發酵茶萃出物中兒茶素類及茶黃質類含量推算其具有之除口臭效果…………………………………………………………. 109
表十三 由紅茶萃出物中兒茶素類及茶黃質類含量推算其具有之除口臭效果…………………………………………………………………. 111
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