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研究生:吳淑貞
研究生(外文):Shu-Chen Wu
論文名稱:高粱酒糟殘留澱粉之再利用
論文名稱(外文):Reutilization of residual starch in sorghum distillers' stillage
指導教授:李錦楓李錦楓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Fung Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:高粱酒酒糟粕液化糖化發酵
外文關鍵詞:SorghumDistillers' stillageLiquefactionSaccharificationfermentatio
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傳統高粱酒的製造屬混合固態發酵方式,大多需經三釀三蒸方可將其基質有效利用,具耗費時間長、人力投入量大及不易機械自動化等困難,且第三次發酵與蒸餾對酒的收率、官能品質與蒸餾操作均比不上前次 ,因此金門酒廠乃將二次發酵蒸餾後的酒糟粕做為飼料使用或不再利用,然第二次發酵蒸餾後的酒糟粕澱粉及蛋白質含量仍高,有其再利用之價值。本研究擬在發酵過程添加商業化之液化或糖化酵素以固、液態發酵方式試製高粱酒,並探討不同的菌種於發酵過程中酒醪的成分變化情形,盼能有效降低酒糟粕中殘澱粉含量。結果顯示,固態發酵過程中添加商業化酵素確可有效降低酒糟粕之殘澱粉量,並提升酒精之生成,其發酵率為傳統固態發酵的1.54倍。於澱粉含量13%的酒醪基質中添加0.75%鹽酸或0.1%的液化酵素及0.07%的糖化酵素,可將澱粉充分液化、糖化,還原糖生成量達86%。以Saccharomyces cerevisiae、Saccharomyces peka Takeda進行純粹培養時酒精生成情形良好且酒醪殘澱粉量可降至1%以下,成品酒有較高之酯類生成。利用麴粉進行發酵時則有最高之酒精生成,酒醪殘澱粉量為1-2%。以高粱麴粉所製成之液體麴並不適於液態發酵高粱酒之釀製,因其酒精生成量低,且成品酒的酸度高酯類含量少。而額外添加氮源亦無法有效提升酒精之發酵率。

The traditional sorghum spirit must utilize the raw materials three times for fermentation and distillation, which can make the great use of the substrate. It has several drawbacks such as low utilization rate of raw materials, low production yields, many labors involved and not easy to be automatically operated. But the yield, sensory quality of the spirit from the third fermentation and the distillation efficiency are not so good as the first and second one. So the brewer used the distillers’ stillage for animals feeds. But the distillage after the second distillation can be utilized again, because it is rich in starch and proteins. In order to resolve these problems, this study investigates the possibility of solid and submerged fermentation to brew sorghum spirit with commercial enzymes such as α-amylase and glucoamylase. It is expected to reduce the starch content in the distillage. The results indicated that to add commercial enzymes really reduced the starch residues and raised the amount of alcohol formed during the solid state fermentation. The mash that contained 13.0% starch, 0.75% hydrochloric acid or 0.1% α-amylase, and 0.07% glucoamylase was proceeded liquefaction and saccharification, and it could achieve 86% conversion of the starch into reducing sugar. The quantity of alcohol formed was higher during the submerged fermentation of sorghum grain with Saccharomyces peka Takeda or Saccraromyces cerevisiae. The starch residues of mash decreased to below 1%, and the formation of ester is better in the test fermentation. In this experiment , maximal alcohol production was achieved when the liquefaction was done by α-amylase and fermented with sorghum spirit koji. The starch residual of mash decreased to 1-2% when the α-amylase was used for liquefaction and the liquid sorghum spirit koji for fermentation, then the yield of ethanol was lower, and the esters formation were less in the test sorghum spirit fermentation. Addition of nitrogen sources was also tried in the fermentation, but it could not effectively raise the fermentation rate.

頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅳ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅶ
表目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
壹、 前言……………………………………………………...…..1
貳、 文獻回顧…………………………………………….……....2
一、 固態發酵………………………………………….………....2
二、 液態發酵……………………………………….……….…...7
1. 液態發酵高粱酒之研究…………………….……………......7
2. 酒糟之應用研究………………………….………………......8
三、 澱粉分解酵素……………………………………………..…10
四、 影響酒精發酵之因子……….……………………………...14
1. 主要因子……………………………….………………….....14
1.1菌種特性………………………………………………........14
1.2接種量………………………………………………..........14
2. 次要因子………………………………….……………….....15
2.1營養素……………………………………………………......15
(1) 糖類代謝………………………………….………........15
(2) 脂質代謝………………………………………….…......16
(3) 胺基酸…………………………………………….......…17
(4) 無機成分……………………………………….…........20
2.2 pH值………………………………………………….…......23
參、 材料與方法…………………………………………………..24
一、 實驗材料…………………………………………………....24
1. 原料………………………………………………………......24
2. 使用菌種…………………………………………………......24
3. 酵素…………………………………………….………….....24
4. 化學藥品…………………………………………….…….....25
二、 儀器………………………………………………….……...25
三、 方法…………………………………….…………………...26
1. 菌種培養………………………………………….……….....26
2. 發酵醪之製備……………………………………….…….....26
3. pH值測定………………………………………….……….....27
4. 水分含量之測定…………………………….…….……......27
5. 粗蛋白含量……….……………………………………….....28
6. 粗脂肪含量……………………………………….……….....28
7. 粗纖維含量………………………………………………......28
8. 酸度之測定……………………………………….……….....29
9. 總酸之測定……………………………….……………….....30
10. 還原糖之測定……………………………………….……....30
11. 澱粉之測定……….………………………………………....31
12. 總酯之測定….……………………………………………....32
13. 酒精度分析…………………………….…………………....32
14. 試驗酒回收………….……………………………………....33
15. 實際酒精發酵率………………………….………………....33
肆、 結果與討論…………………………………………….…...35
一、 固態發酵高粱酒之釀製…………………………….……...35
1.酒醪之水分含量變化…………………………….…………..37
2.酒醪中澱粉及還原糖之變化…………………..……….…..40
3.固態發酵過程酒醪其酸度及pH值之變化……………..…...42
4.固態發酵之發酵速率及發酵效率……………….………...44
二、 液態發酵高粱酒之釀製……………………………….…...47
1. 液體醪最適液化糖化條件之探討…………………….….....47
1.1液化………………………………………………………......47
1.2糖化………………………………………………………......51
2. 液態發酵之探討……….………………………………….....53
2.1以Saccharomyces peka Takeda 及Sacchar-
omyces cerevisiae進行液態發酵酒醪之成分變化............53
2.2以麴粉進行液態培養過程酒醪之成分變化……………......59
2.3以高粱液體麴進行液態培養過程酒醪之成分變化……......61
2.4添加氮源對酒醪發酵之影響……………………….….......63
三、 試驗酒之蒸餾與分析………………………………….…...69
伍、 結論…………………………………………………….…...75
陸、 參考文獻………………………………………….………...77

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