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研究生:傅杏芳
研究生(外文):Hing-Fang Fu
論文名稱:高粱及高粱酒糟萃出物之抗氧化性質及溶劑萃取對高粱酒發酵的影響
論文名稱(外文):Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Sorghum and Sorghum Distillers'''' Stillage, and Their Effects on Fermentation
指導教授:李錦楓李錦楓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin Fung Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:高粱高粱酒糟萃取單寧多酚類抗氧化發酵
外文關鍵詞:sorghumsorghum distillers'''' stillageextractiontanninpolyphenolantioxidativefermentation
相關次數:
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高單寧品種的高粱種皮中含有豐富的多酚類物質,造成食用上口感不佳及營養價值降低等問題,然而絕大部分的多酚類物質皆具有抗氧化活性,可做為天然抗氧化物質的來源。本研究以與金門酒廠的合作計畫為基礎,擬將高粱及高粱酒糟中的多酚類成分抽出,應用其在抗氧化方面的功能性,進而增加高粱酒糟的應用性以解決廢棄物堆積的問題,另一方面則得以提高高粱製酒工業上的附加價值及其經濟效益。
實驗中將高粱及高粱酒糟中的多酚類物質以甲醇進行萃取;分別得到甲醇萃出物(MES)及高粱酒糟甲醇萃出物(MED)。萃取物定量後進行抗氧化性質的試驗,研究方法包括硫氰酸鐵模式系統;DPPH自由基捕捉能力、超氧陰離子清除效應的測定;金屬離子螯合能力及還原性質的評估。並探討甲醇萃取後高粱之發酵製酒能力。
結果顯示:高粱甲醇萃出物(MES)及高粱酒糟甲醇萃出物(MED)皆具有抗氧化能力,但因多元酚含量差異甚大,因此在抗氧化能力、清除自由基等效果上也有顯著的差異。DPPH自由基清除能力方面,MES及MED的IC50分別為3ppm及180ppm;捕捉超氧陰離子則需要較高濃度的成分物質,IC50約為100ppm及2000ppm;而在金屬離子螯合方面MES對亞鐵離子的螯合能力較銅離子為佳,IC50在800 ppm時達到。MED不具亞鐵離子螯合能力,銅離子螯合在此系統中不被證實,需進一步探討。還原性質部分,多酚類化合物多羥基的結構提供了MES極佳的還原能力,MED之還原力則相對略差。
發酵試驗結果顯示,不論在固態發酵或液態發酵實驗中,甲醇萃取後高粱具有跟原料高粱相當的發酵能力;固態發酵初期會有較佳的澱粉利用率,而液態發酵的第一天發酵情形較差,但以整體的發酵情況而言,溶劑萃取並不影響發酵過程中酒精產率及基質利用率。
The abundant polyphenols exist at the inert peel of high tannin content sorghum grain, results in its bad taste and low nutrition values. However, the polyphenols have good antioxidative activity, and applied as natural antioxidants. This research project is granted by Kin-Men Kaoliang Wine Co., to extract the polyphenols from sorghum and sorghum distillers’ stillage, and study their antioxidative property. The purpose is to increase the additional value of waste from sorghum wine industry.
In this research, sorghum and sorghum distillers’ stillage were extracted by methanol to obtain the polyphenols. These methanol extracts, MES (methanol extracts of sorghum) and MED (methanol extracts of sorghum distillers’ stillage), were tested for their antioxidative activity.
The results obtained here as follows: both of MES and MED had the antioxidative activities, but differ with the polyphenol contents, so the ability to scavenge DPPH and superoxide anions were different, too. About scavenging ability to DPPH free radicals, IC50 for MES and MED were 3 ppm and 180 ppm respectively. While it needed higher concentration to scavenge superoxide anions, the IC50 were 100 ppm and 2000 ppm for MES and MED.
As the chelating agents, MES showed better chelating ability to ferrous ions than to copper ions, and its IC50 was about 800 ppm. MED had no chelating ability to ferrous ions, but it was not sure to copper ions. It needs more study about this property. MES and MED had reducing power, too. But MES showed better results than that of MED, it may be caused as it is rich in OH group in polyphenols.
In this research, the sorghum after methanol extraction can be fermented as well as ordinary sorghum grain. At the initial stage of solid fermentation, the starch utilizing ratio for sorghum after extraction was somewhat better. While at the first day of liquid fermentation, the process is slower than unextracted sorghum grain. But as a whole, solvent extraction didn’t affect the alcohol production and raw material utilization during the fermentation periods.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅹ
壹、 前言………………………………………………………………….1
貳、 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………….2
1. 高粱及高粱酒糟之相關性質……………………………….........2
1.1高粱與高粱酒糟之介紹及現況…………………………….......2
1.2高粱之品種及其營養價值…………….……………………......4
2. 多酚類化合物及單寧…………………………………………….....6
2.1植物中的多酚類化合物……………………………………….......6
2.2高粱中的多酚類物質………………………………………….......6
2.3單寧及多酚類之特性…………………………………………......11
3. 氧化作用、抗氧化性質的相關研究……………………………....12
3.1自由基與氧化的關係…………………………………………......12
3.1.1自由基的定義及其反應形式…………………………….12
3.1.2自由基的來源、反應、對人體的傷害………………….13
3.1.3自由基氧化的作用模式………………………………….20
3.2抗氧化劑作用的原理及機制…………………………………20
3.3抗氧化活性測定原理…………………………………………23
3.4多酚類化合物的抗氧化性質及與心血管疾病、癌症的關係26
4. 高粱酒之製造……………………………………………………..32
4.1固態及液態發酵高粱酒………………………………………...32
4.2高粱中多酚類物質與發酵的關係……………………………...33
參、 材料與方法………………………………………………………….34
1. 實驗材料…………………………………………………………..34
2. 實驗儀器…………………………………………………………..35
3. 實驗大綱…………………………………………………………..36
3.1成分分析及抗氧化性質分析…………………………………36
3.2發酵試驗………………………………………………………37
4. 實驗方法…………………………………………………………..37
4.1成分分析………………………………………………………37
4.2整體抗氧化能力測定…………………………………………39
4.3自由基DPPH清除能力………………………………………40
4.4捕捉超氧陰離子能力測定……………………………………40
4.5還原力測定……………………………………………………41
4.6金屬螯合能力測定……………………………………………41
4.7發酵試驗………………………………………………………41
4.7.1固態發酵……………………………………………….…41
4.7.2液態發酵……………………………………………….…42
4.8還原糖及殘留澱粉…………………………………….………42
4.9酸度…………………………………………………………….42
4.10酒精度………………………………………….……………..43
肆、 結果與討論………………………………………………………….44
第一部分:高粱及高粱酒糟中甲醇萃出物之抗氧化性質…………….44
1. 高粱及高粱酒糟中分析…………………………………………44
1.1高粱及高粱酒糟萃取試驗…………………………………..47
1.2高粱及高粱酒糟成分分析…………………………………..48
2. 高粱及高粱酒糟中甲醇萃出物之抗氧化性質…………………50
2.1硫氰酸鐵試驗法……………………………………………..50
2.2 DPPH自由基清除能力……………………………………...52
2.3 超氧陰離子捕捉能力………………………………………..54
2.4 金屬離子螯合能力…………………………………………..56
2.5 還原能力……………………………………………………..59
2.6 高粱甲醇萃出物在水溶液系統中的抗氧化能力…………..60
第二部分:甲醇萃取高粱之發酵試驗………………………………….68
1.一般高粱及甲醇萃取高粱………………………………...…….68
2.發酵試驗…………………………………………………...…….69
2.1固態發酵試驗………………………………………………..69
2.2液態發酵試驗………………………………………………..71
2.2.1液化及糖化之較適條件………………………………...71
2.2.2發酵過程中一般性質之變化情形……………………...74
伍、 結論………………………………………………………………….80
陸、 參考文獻…………………………………………………………….82
圖目錄
頁次
圖一、高粱酒及高粱酒麴之製作流程………………………………..3
圖二、高粱之剖面圖…………………………………………………..5
圖三、類黃酮之基本架構及其分類…………………………………..7
圖四、酚酸之結構……………………………………………………..9
圖五、單寧之結構……………………………………………………..9
圖六、細胞內產生自由基的來源……………………………………..15
圖七、Haber-Weiss反應式……………………………………………16
圖八、抗氧化劑之結構………………………………………………..18
圖九、自由基之氧化程序……………………………………………..19
圖十、活性氧分子之氧化還原及其毒性……………………………..24
圖十一、高粱外觀之比較……………………………………………..47
圖十二、甲醇萃出物之外觀…………………………………………..47
圖十三、高粱及高梁酒糟中甲醇萃出物對雅麻油酸之抗氧化活性..51
圖十四、高梁甲醇萃出物及高梁酒糟甲醇萃出物對DPPH之清
除能力………………………………………………………..53
圖十五、高梁甲醇萃出物及高梁酒糟甲醇萃出物對超氧陰離子
之清除能力………………..…………………………………55
圖十六、高梁甲醇萃出物對銅離子及鐵離子之螯合能力…………..57
圖十七、高粱甲醇萃出物對銅離子的螯合能力……………………..58
圖十八、高梁甲醇萃出物及高梁酒糟甲醇萃出物之還原能力……..61
圖十九、比較高粱甲醇萃出物以甲醇或水為溶劑對DPPH之清
除能力………………………………………………………..63
圖二十、比較高粱甲醇萃出物以甲醇或水為溶劑對超氧陰離子
之清除能力………………………………………………….64
圖二十一、比較高粱甲醇萃出物以甲醇或水為溶劑之還原能力….65
圖二十二、比較高粱甲醇萃出物以甲醇或水為溶劑對銅離子及
鐵離子的螯合能力……………………………………….67
圖二十三、固態發酵過程中高粱及甲醇萃取後高粱之澱粉利用率70
圖二十四、酵素及鹽酸用量對還原糖產生量之影響……………….72
圖二十五、糖化酵素用量對還原糖產生量之影響………………….72
圖二十六、液態發酵過程高粱及甲醇萃取後高粱中的還原糖及
澱粉變化含量…………………………………………….75
圖二十七、液態發酵過程高粱及甲醇萃取後高粱中的pH值及
酸度變化………………………………………………….76
圖二十八、液態發酵過程中高粱及甲醇萃取後高粱之還原糖利
用及酒精生成情形……………………………………….78
表目錄
頁次
表一、不同植物及飲料中多酚類的含量…………………………….10
表二、自由基及活性氧之實例……………………………………….14
表三、類黃酮素的相對活性及TEAC值……………………………27
表四、食物中化學防護劑之種類…………………………………….31
表五、不同溶劑對高粱及高梁酒糟中單寧成分之萃出率………….45
表六、甲醇萃取時間對高粱及高梁酒糟中單寧成分萃出之影響….45
表七、不同溶劑對高粱及高梁酒糟中多元酚萃出量……………….45
表八、高粱及高梁酒糟中一般成分分析…………………………….48
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