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研究生:孫瓏月
研究生(外文):Lung-yueh Sun
論文名稱:以非肉蛋白質製造低脂貢丸之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on processing Low-fat Kung-wans with nonmeat proteins
指導教授:許順堯
指導教授(外文):Shun-yao Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:貢丸 低脂 非肉蛋白質 乳化肉製品
外文關鍵詞:Kung-wans low-fat nonmeat protein
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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中文摘要
貢丸為本省新竹的地方特產,現為海內外中國人社會中普遍流行的豬肉加工製品。為降低動物脂肪攝取量以增進消費者之健康,本研究主要針對以非肉蛋白質取代豬脂肪之可行性進行探究。本實驗分為三個部份依序進行:探討食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸品質及保存性之影響,比較不同非肉蛋白質做為豬脂肪取代物製成之低脂貢丸品質及進行再加熱實驗以比較其品質。
食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸製品的影響為:增加食鹽添加量會增加產品的水煮產率及直徑,會增加產品的硬度及彈性,能增進產品的官能品質包括味道、組織性口感和總接受性。但食鹽及己二烯酸鉀對貢丸的味道有顯著的交互影響,此二者的添加量同時增加或減少,皆令產品的味道變差,而以己二烯酸鉀之影響較大。食鹽和多磷酸鹽,對抑制貢丸油脂酸敗有顯著的效果,己二烯酸鉀在食鹽及多磷酸鹽之作用下較不顯著。添加食鹽(1-3%)、多磷酸鹽(0-0.3%)及己二烯酸鉀(0-0.2%)對抑制貯藏中貢丸之油脂酸敗則有顯著的影響。食鹽、多磷酸鹽及己二烯酸鉀對貢丸油脂酸敗之抑制有交互作用。添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、異抗壞血酸鈉對抑制微生物生長之效果有待進一步試驗,而添加己二烯酸鉀於貢丸中並無預期的效果。
比較十種不同非肉蛋白質和二種對照配方之結果顯示,添加非肉蛋白質可降低貢丸脂肪含量,不同非肉蛋白質替代脂肪所製的低脂貢丸,
除大豆粉(SOYF)外,可提高貢丸硬度、脆度和膠強度且大於脂肪控制組。雞蛋蛋白會提高貢丸之L值,大豆粉、濃縮大豆蛋白、組織大豆蛋白、膠原蛋白則會提高貢丸的黃色度。官能口感接受性除雞蛋蛋白外其餘各組與脂肪對照組並無差異。膠原蛋白、大豆粉、濃縮大豆蛋白及小麥蛋白由於原料色澤及味道影響總接受性,酪蛋白鈉及脫脂奶粉對於貢丸的外觀、組織口感及總接受性則有增進的效果。
加熱處理可增加貢丸的硬度、亮度及黃色度,降低脆度、彈性、膠度、黏度、咀嚼度及紅色度。綜合各種非肉蛋白質製作低脂貢丸的品質及官能品質接受性,脫脂奶粉無論加熱前後其官能品質皆最佳,酪蛋白鈉、單離大豆蛋白及組織大豆蛋白因其加熱前後的貢丸品質及官能接受性略優於其餘各試驗組,且無色澤及氣味的問題。此四者較其它非肉蛋白質適合於製作低脂貢丸。

Abstract
Kung-wan is a very popular pork product in Chines communities. However, it is a health concern for consumers because of its high lipid content of over 30%. As part of a series of studies in developing low-fat Kung-wans, a four-factor center composite design was adopted for studying the effect of salt, polyphosphate, potassium sorbate and sodium erythorbate on Kung-wan's qualities and shelf qualities. Than a completely randomized design was adopted for studying the effects of non-meat protein fat substitutes on Kung-wan's qualities. Finally, the effect of re-heating on qualities of Kung-wans were studied.
Results showed that products made of more salt addition(1-3%) caused higher cooking yield, diameter, hardness , elasticity and improved the panel preference scores include taste, texture and acceptance. Panel scores for product taste was signicantly affected by salt and potassiun sorbate and their interactions. When increaseing or decreaseing salt and potassium sorbate addition will reduced panel taste score, and the potssium sorbate infulence greater than salt. Inhibition of fat randicy for product was significantly affected by salt and polyphosphate , and potassiun sorbate had lower effect than salt and polyphosphate addition.As the resulted of Kung-wan's process reciprocal potassiun sorbate character, for this reason in the experiment for inhibited microorganism growth no expect result. For this part we will use another experiment to probe into potassiun sorbate's microorganism inhibition.
Comparisons on Kung-wans made of ten different non-meat proteins and two controls showed that addition of non-meat protein had lower product fat content, replacing fat with different non-meat protein product increasing hardness, brittleness and gumminess except soy flour . Addition egg white raise product's lighter and soy flour, concentrated soyprotein, texturized soyprotein, collagen raised Hunter-b value. There were no significant differences on panel texture scores between fat-control and non-meat protein products except egg white. Collagen, soy flour, concented soyprotein and gluten as the result of material color and odor affected acceptance. Sodium caseinate and nonfat dry milk raise product's appearance, texture and acceptance.
Kung-wan re-boiled for 15 minutes increase in hardness, Hunter-L and Hunter-b value, reduce brittleness, elasticity, gumminess, viscosity, chewiness and Hunter-a value.Composite individually non-meat protein's low fat Kung-wan quality and sensory quality. However, brfore or after re-boiled treatment, nonfat dry milk had the best sensory quality, sodium caseinate, isolated soyprotein and texturized soyprotein's quality and sensory acceptance all slightly excellent than another tests and they all no color or odor effect. The four non-meat protein more fit to made low fat Kung-wan than anothers.

目錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………. Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………. Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………. Ⅴ
表次 ……………………………………………………………… Ⅹ
圖次………………………………………………………………. ⅩⅡ
註解………………………………………………………………. ⅩⅢ
壹、前言………………………………………………………… 1
貳、文獻整理…………………………………………………… 3
一、貢丸及乳化肉製品 ……………………………………….. 3
二、影響貢丸及乳化肉製品品質的因子:………………………. 4
(一) 原料肉的影響:……………………………………….. 4
(二) 食鹽添加量的影響:……………………………..….. 5
(三) 脂肪添加量的影響:…………………..…………….. 6
(四) 加工條件的影響……………………………..……….. 6
1. 擂潰溫度.…………………………………..…………. 6
2. pH值.……………………………………………………. 7
3. 加熱處理.….……………………….………………. 8
4. 冷卻處理……………………………………..………. 8
(五) 食品添加物的影響…………….…….………………. 8
1. 多磷酸鹽……………………………….…………… 9
2. 己二烯酸鉀…………………………….…………… 10
3. 異抗壞血酸鈉…………………….………………… 11
4. 澱粉…………………………….…………………… 12
三、做為脂肪替代物的非肉蛋白質添加物….…………… 12
1. 酪蛋白鈉:……….………………………………… 13
2. 乳清蛋白:…………………………………………… 14
3. 脫脂奶粉:…………………………………………… 14
4. 大豆粉:……………………………………………… 15
5. 單離大豆蛋白:……………………………………… 15
6. 濃縮大豆蛋白:……………………………………… 17
7. 組織大豆蛋白:……………………………………… 17
8. 小麥蛋白:…………………………………………… 18
9. 膠原蛋白:…………………………………………… 19
10. 雞蛋白粉:…………………………………………… 20
四、本研究之目標………………………..…………………. 21
參、實驗材料與方法:………………………………………. 23
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………. 23
(一)貢丸原料及材料……………………………………... 23
(二)非肉蛋白質原料來源………………….……………. 23
(三)藥品…………………………………..………………. 24
(四)儀器設備……………………………..………………. 25
二、實驗方法………………………………………………… 27
(一)貢丸的製造…………………………….……………. 27
1. 原料肉的前處理………………….………………… 27
2. 製程...………………………………..…………… 28
(二) 實驗設計….………………………………………. 28
1. 食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀及異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸品質及
保存性的影響……….………………………………. 28
2. 不同非肉蛋白質取代豬背脂對低脂貢丸品質的影響… 29
3. 再加熱處理對不同非肉蛋白質製成之低脂貢丸的影響及較佳的低脂貢丸配方.……………….…..………………. 30
(三) 品質測定方法………………..…………………… 30
1. 一般成分分析.……………………………………… 30
2. TPA組織輪廓分析.…………………………………. 31
3. 色度分析.……………………………………………. 31
4. 官能品評.…………………………………………… 31
5. 水煮產率…..……………………….……………… 31
6. 直徑……..…………………………………….….. 32
7. TBA質測定.………………………….…..………. 32
8. 生菌數(平板計數法)…..…………….……….. 32
(四) 統計分析…………..……………….…….……. 33
肆、結果與討論……..……………………….……………. 34
一、食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸品質及保存性之影響 ……………….…………………….………….. 34
(一)添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸水煮失重率和一般成分之影響…………….…………….. 34
(二)添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸物性及色澤的影響……………………….……..……….. 34
(三)添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸官能品質的影響……………………….….……….……… 36
(四)添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸TBA值的影響………………….…………….……..…….. 37
(五) 添加食鹽、多磷酸鹽、己二烯酸鉀和異抗壞血酸鈉對貢丸衛生物品質的影響……………….………………… 36
二、以不同非肉蛋白質取代豬背脂對貢丸品質的影響… 38
(一)以不同非肉蛋白質製成之低脂貢丸的水煮失重率、直徑和一般成分之比較……………………………….…..….. 38
(二)不同非肉蛋白質製成低脂貢丸之物性比較……………. 39
(三)不同非肉蛋白質製成低脂貢丸之官能品評結果之比較..40
三、再加熱處理對低脂非肉蛋白質貢丸品質的影響……………. 43
(一)再加熱處理對低脂貢丸水煮失重率直徑水分和脂肪含量的影響………………………………………………………… 43
(二)加熱處理對低脂非肉蛋白質貢丸TPA值及Hunter-Lab值的影響…………………………………………………………. 43
(三)加熱處理對低脂貢丸官能品質的影響…………. 45
伍、結論…………………………………………………… 46
陸、參考文獻……………………………………………… 49
柒、附表…………………………………………………… 78

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