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研究生:蘇志杰
研究生(外文):Chih-Chieh Su
論文名稱:以多示蹤劑法探討東海之沈積動力學
論文名稱(外文):Sedimentation Dynamics in the East China Sea: A Multitracer Approach
指導教授:扈治安陳汝勤陳汝勤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-An HuhJu-chin Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:東海沈積動力學銫一三七鉛二一零鈹七陸棚長江口
外文關鍵詞:East China SeaSedimentation DynamicsCs-137PlutoniumPb-210Be-7Continental ShelfChangjiang Estuary
相關次數:
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以多示蹤劑法探討東海之沈積動力學
摘要
本研究利用不同之天然(210Pb、7Be)及人工(137Cs、239,240Pu)放射性落塵核種,以多示蹤劑的方法探討東海沈積物之堆積、混合、移除及傳輸等作用。此外,藉由核種儲量的分布,本文對於各核種及沈積物的收支、來源及傳輸路徑等問題進行了初步的評估工作。
根據放射性核種的分析結果,東海陸棚可大致區分成內陸棚(包含長江口外海地區)、中陸棚及棚坡邊緣等三大部分。各部分因位置與水文條件的不同,其沈積物來源及沈積作用特徵亦有所差別。在內陸棚地區,長江是主要的沈積物及核種供應源,其主要的貯存場所位於北緯27至30度間的內陸棚地區。此一地區沈積物混合作用對控制核種垂直分布影響的重要性較低,因此以210Pbex訂出的沈積速率與人工核種的計算結果相當一致。在中部陸棚地區,黃河及黃海成為主要的沈積物供應源,大氣落塵的輸入成為各核種的重要來源,而邊界清除效應也供應了部分的210Pb及239,240Pu。本地區沈積物中核種垂直分布受混合作用影響很大,因此210Pbex所訂出的沈積速率較人工核種的計算結果為高,此一現象在中陸棚的北部地區特別明顯。至於棚坡邊緣地區,其沈積速率遠低於中、內陸棚地區,核種的來源主要以大氣落塵輸入為主,210Pbex的儲量並明顯受到邊界清除效應的影響而提高。與中陸棚地區一樣,棚坡地區之沈積物亦受到沈積物混合作用的影響導致210Pbex所訂出的沈積速率較人工核種的計算結果為高。
利用盒子模式,本文估算了各核種於東海的收支情形。在210Pbex方面,貯存於長江口地區之210Pbex約佔總輸入量之55%;另外的45%被往南搬運到內陸棚地區,成為內陸棚地區210Pbex的重要來源。在其它地區,210Pbex的埋藏於沈積物之通量高於來自大氣、長江逕流及水體中226Ra蛻變的輸入通量;需要加入邊界清除效應的輸入方能平衡,此一輸入量約為總輸入的23%。這些經由邊界清除效應輸入沈積物的210Pb可能與黑潮的入侵東海關係密切。對於239,240Pu而言,筆者估算河流輸入的239,240Pu約佔總儲量的50%-70%,其間的差異主要取決於邊界清除效應的規模。而在137Cs的收支估算方面,進入東海之137Cs大約有60%被帶離此海域。
本文亦分析了短半化期的核種7Be,但僅限於長江口外海及中陸棚地區,結果顯示7Be的分布及輸入與長江的洪峰事件相關,而這類的偶發事件可能將長江輸出的沈積物快速地輸送至東海中、外陸棚地區。
在沈積物的收支估算方面,東海陸棚沈積物主要有四個輸入源,分別是長江(5億噸∕年)、黃河(2億噸∕年)、台灣(0-2億噸∕年)及黃海(6-8億噸∕年)。長江輸出的沈積物主要分布於內陸棚地區,黃河及黃海輸出的沈積物則主要分布於中陸棚及棚坡邊緣地區,而台灣暖流則為前二者的分界線。
Sedimentation dynamics in the East China Sea:
A multitracer approach
Abstract
A multitracer approach based on natural (210Pb, 7Be) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 239,240Pu) fallout nuclides was used to elucidate the sedimentation, mixing, erosion and transportation of sediments in the East China Sea. From spatial distribution of inventories of these nuclides, the budgets, sources and pathways of these nuclides and sediments were assessed.
Based on the distribution pattern of 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 210Pbex, the East China Sea can be divided into the inner-shelf (including the area off the Changjiang estuary), the mid-shelf and the shelf edge areas. The sources of sediments and the characteristics of sedimentation processes are controlled by the location and hydrographic conditions of each area. In the inner-shelf area, the Changjiang River is the major source of sediments and nuclides, and most of the sediments are deposited between 27 and 30 oN. There is a good agreement between sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb and anthropogenic nuclides in this area, suggesting profiles of nuclides are mainly controlled by sediment accumulation. In the mid-shelf area, sediments are mainly derived from the Yellow River and the Yellow Sea dispersal system.
In the mid-shelf and shelf edge areas, direct input of fallout nuclides from the atmosphere dominates over their fluvial input, with boundary scavenging also playing an important role in supplying 210Pb and 239,240Pu to the sediments. In general, as the distance away from the shore increases, sedimentation rates decrease and the profiles of nuclides in sediments are more susceptible to the effect of sediment mixing. Consequently, apparent sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb deviate from (general higher than) those based on 239,240Pu and 137Cs.
Mass balance of nuclides is constructed using a box model. For 210Pbex in the estuarine area, 55% of its total input was buried and the remaining 45% were transported toward the south, constituting the major source of 210Pbex in the inner-shelf area. To maintain the mass balance of 210Pbex in the inner-shelf, mid-shelf and shelf edge areas, boundary scavenging is required and it accounts for 23% of the total 210Pb inputs in these areas. The intrusion and flow of the Kuroshio Current is mainly responsible for this additional source of 210Pb in this marginal sea.
For 239,240Pu, riverine input is responsible for 50-70% of the sedimentary inventory of this nuclide; the variation betweeen this range is dictated by the extent of boundary scavenging, which is still not certain. As for 137Cs, the study area is a source of this nuclide; with 60% of its total input being exported out of this marginal sea.
In addition to the above, 7Be was also employed in this study. However, due to the short half-life of this cosmogenic nuclide, it was analyzed only for sediments off the Changjiang estuary and from the mid-shelf region. The results show that the distribution of this nuclide in the study area is related to episodic flooding events and rapid transport of 7Be offshore from the Changjiang River’s drainage basin.
As for the budget and pathways of sediments in the East China Sea, the sources and current systems are the major controlling factors. The four major sources are the Changjiang River (5x108 tons/yr), the Yellow River (2x108 tons/yr), Taiwan (0-2x108 tons/yr) and the Yellow Sea (6-8x108 tons/yr). Sediments from the Changjiang River are transported alongshore and deposited in the inner-shelf area. Sediments from the Yellow River and the Yellow Sea dispersal system are blocked away from the nearshore region by Taiwan Warm Current and deposited in the mid-shelf and shelf edge areas.
封面
摘要
目錄
表目
圖目
第一章 緒論
第二章 研究背景
第一節 放射性核種於沈積動力學上之應用
第二節 東海陸棚之海洋地質及水文概況
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究區域與採樣方法
第二節 標本之處理方法
第三節 分析儀器及儀器之校正
第四節 分析品質之監控
第四章 長江口外海地區放射性核種之分布及來源
第一節 前言
第二節 沈積物中放射性核種之垂直分布
第三節 沈積物中放射性核種儲量(inventory)之分布
第四節 沈積物之堆積及混合作用
第五節 長江口外海地區放射性核種之來源
第六節 利用不同時間尺度之放射性核種討論偶發性(episodic)與長期性(long-term)沈積作用
第七節 長江口外海地區沈積物之傳輸途徑(pathway)及歸宿(fate)
第八節 小結
第五章 東海陸棚內棚地區放射性核種之分布及來源
第一節 前言
第二節 沈積物中放射性核種之垂直分布
第三節 沈積物中放射性核種儲量(inventory)之分布
第四節 沈積物之堆積及混合作用
第五節 東海陸棚地區放射性核種之來源
第六節 東海陸棚地區沈積物之傳輸途徑(pathway)及歸宿(fate)
第七節 小結
第六章 東海陸棚中陸棚及棚坡邊緣地區放射性核種之分布及來源
第一節 前言
第二節 沈積物中放射性核種之垂直分布
第三節 沈積物中放射性核種儲量(inventory)之分布
第四節 沈積物之堆積及混合作用
第五節 東海陸棚中陸棚及棚坡邊緣地區放射性核種之來源
第六節 東海陸棚中陸棚地區海水中的顆粒態及溶解態137Cs
第七節 小結
第七章 總結:東海沈積物中沈積動力學及收支計算
第一節 前言
第二節 東海沈積物中放射性核種之垂直分布及儲量
第三節 東海沈積物之堆積及混合作用
第四節 東海沈積物之收支計算
第五節 結論
誌謝
參考文獻
其他
參考文獻
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