跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/03 17:02
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:郭卿雲
研究生(外文):Ching-Yun Kuo
論文名稱:克弗爾菌元生長與克弗蘭生成之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Growth of Starters and Production of Kefiran in Kefir
指導教授:林慶文林慶文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Wen Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:畜產學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:克弗爾克弗爾粒克弗蘭
外文關鍵詞:kefirkefir grainskefiran
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
  • 點閱點閱:3164
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:207
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
克弗爾 (kefir) 是以克弗爾粒 (kefir grains) 製作之酒精發酵乳,其為對腸胃疾病有益的食品。本試驗蒐集台灣地區三組克弗爾粒,探討產品製作之條件、產品發酵與貯存期間品質之變化、貯存條件對克弗爾粒活性之影響與增產克弗蘭 (kefiran) 之培養條件,以作為克弗爾與克弗蘭市場化之參考。
一、 自台灣地區新竹、宜蘭與台北蒐集到三組克弗爾粒,分別標示為 T1、T2 與 T3。由掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察得知三組克弗爾微生物於菌粒中之分佈狀態各異。培養溫度對克弗爾粒增重之影響大於克弗爾粒之添加比例,培養溫度於 21 ~ 27℃有較高之克弗爾粒增重。由官能品評測驗中,台灣三組克弗爾以T3組之接受性最高。
二、 以 8 天為期,探討克弗爾於全脂乳與脫脂乳發酵期間品質之變化。以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察凝乳質地,以全脂乳組發酵 3 天之結果最佳,乳酸菌與酵母菌分別可由106 與104 CFU/ml 增殖至1012 與109 CFU/ml。克弗蘭自30 小時之後生成量遽增。以發酵達 pH 4.7之克弗爾為成品,探討於 60 天貯存期間品質之變化,全脂乳組之黏度顯著高於脫脂乳組。乳酸菌於貯存前期有少量增殖,酵母菌則於整個貯存期間均呈增殖狀態。克弗蘭於 20 ~ 30 天有最大量,全脂乳組顯著高於脫脂乳組。
三、 比較冷藏、凍藏與凍乾對克弗爾粒菌元活性之影響。菌粒置於脫脂乳中冷藏者,微生物之活力較高,貯存時間超過 3 週,微生物活力迅速喪失。凍藏前期對乳酸菌之影響較大,後期則是酵母菌所受影響較大。克弗爾粒經凍乾後,菌元活力大減,但乳酸菌於 8 個月貯存期間,活力維持穩定,沒有再下降的現象。
四、 探討培養條件對菌元生長與克弗蘭生成之影響。以去乳蛋白之乳清培養基為基質,添加葡萄糖、乳糖、蔗糖或酵母萃,均有助於微生物生長;而培養時間之延長、氮含量之增加、50 g/l 之葡萄糖與蔗糖添加、酵母萃添加量達 30 g/l以上,均可顯著提升克弗蘭之生成量。
由以上結果顯示,克弗爾之商品化可利用T3組菌元,在全脂乳中以 5 % (w/v) 添加量發酵 36 ~ 72 小時,可獲致接受性高之產品。克弗爾粒之商品化可以 21 ~ 27 ℃進行菌粒之大量化,冷藏期限不宜超過 3 週。提升克弗蘭生成量可於去乳蛋白之乳清培養基中增加碳源、氮源、酵母萃等。
Kefir is kind of ethanol-fermented milk, made by kefir grains, which is considered as an aid in the therapy of gastro-intestinal disease. This study collected three groups of kefir grains from different regions in Taiwan, and investigated the effect of quality change during the period of fermentation and storage of three cultures, the influence of storage condition on activity of kefir grains, and the condition that could increase the production of kefiran. All this results could be used as the reference and basis of commercialization of kefir and kefiran.
In test I, three groups of kefir grains, which were collected from Xien-zhu, I-lan and Taipei regions in Taiwan, were labeled as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The distributions of these three groups of kefir microbes in kefir grains were totally different under scanning electron micrographs. The incubation temperature had more influence on increasing the mass of kefir grains compared to the adding ratio of kefir grains; higher mass gain of kefir grains could be gotten under incubation temperature range from 21 to 27℃. In the sensory evaluation scores of kefirs, the acceptability of T3 in three groups of kefir of Taiwan is the highest.
In test II, the quality change of kefir during the fermentation of whole or skim milk at 21℃ in a period of 8 days was investigated. The consistence of curd of whole milk fermented for 3 days had better structure under scanning electron micrographs. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast could increase in number from 106 to 1012 CFU/ml and 104 to 109 CFU/ml, respectively. The production of kefiran had tremendous increase after 30 hours. During 60 days storage period, the viscosity of kefirs made by whole milk were significantly higher than that of kefirs made by skim milk, when the product was defined as kefir with pH 4.7. Lactic acid bacteria only had few increases in early storage period; however yeast appeared increasing state during whole storage period. The largest amount of kefir is reached after 20-30 days, and the amount of kefirs made by whole milk is significantly higher than that of kefirs made by skim milk.
In test III, the influence of the refrigeration, freeze and lyophilization on kefir starters were compared. Kefir grains, which refrigerated in skim milk, had higher activity and rapidly loss activity when storage times longer than 3 weeks. Early storage phase had more impact on lactic acid bacteria; however, later storage phases on yeast. Kefir grains with reduced activity greatly after starters freeze-dried, but the activity of lactic acid bacteria remained stable without any decreased during storage period of 8 months.
Test IV investigated the influence of incubation condition on the growth of microbial starters and production of kefiran. Whey media was a good base for growth of microbes; addition of glucose, lactose, sucrose and yeast extract could increase growth of microbes. Prolongation of incubation time, increased nitrogen content, addition 50 g/l of glucose and sucrose, and addition of yeast extract above 30 g/l could significantly increase the production of kefiran.
From the result shown above, we could get products of high acceptability and commercialization of kefir by adding 5% (w/v) starters of T3 in whole milk and fermenting for 36 to 72 hours. The commercialization of kefir grains could be achieved by manufacturing kefir grains in large amount under 21 to 27℃, and the refrigerating time no longer than 3 weeks. Adding C, N-source and yeast extract could increase the production of kefiran.
封面
目次
壹、中文摘要
貳、緒言
參、文獻檢討
一、克弗爾
(一) 克弗爾之起源
(二) 克弗爾粒
(三) 製作方法
(四) 微生物
(五) 營養與健康
二、克弗蘭
(一) 結構
(二) 生產菌株
(三) 生成量之影響因素
(四) 功能特性
三、發酵所致之成分變化
(一) 蛋白質
(二) 乳糖
(三) 孔酸
(四) 脂肪
(五) 維生素
(六) 抗菌物質-細菌素
肆、實驗部分
  第一章 克弗爾粒之大量化與克弗爾之製備
前言
材料與方法
結果與討論
一、克弗爾粒之外觀與微細構造
二、克弗爾粒添加量對其生長之影響
三、境養溫度對克弗爾粒生長之影響
四、克弗爾之組成
五、微生物數分析
六、官能品評
  第二章 發酵與貯存期間克弗爾菌元生長與克弗蘭生成之變化
前言
 
結果與討論
一、克弗爾菌元生長與克弗蘭生成於發酵期間之變化
(一)pH值與酸度
(二)黏度與質地
(三)微生物之生長
(四)乳糖利用與克弗蘭生成
二 、克弗爾菌元生長與克弗蘭生成於貯存期間之變化  
(一)pH值與酸度
(二)黏度
(三)微生物數
(四)乳糖利用與克弗蘭生成
  第三章 貯存條件對克弗爾粒菌元生長與克弗蘭生成之影響 
前言
 
結果與討論
一、冷藏保存法
(一)微生物活性
(二)克弗蘭生成
二 、冷凍保存法
(一)微生物活性
(二)克弗蘭生成
三 、凍乾保存法
(一)微生物活性
(二)克弗蘭生成
  第四章 培養條件對克弗爾粒菌元生長與克弗蘭生成之影響 
前言
 
結果與討論
一、培養基種類
二、發酵溫度
三、培養時間
四、氮含量
五、碳源與添加量
六、酵母萃
伍、結論
陸、參考文獻
柒、英文摘要
捌、小傳
一、著作一覽表
玖、附錄
王舒徽,1999。影響扣碗酪中原生菌活性之因子。台灣大學碩士論文。
林慶文,1993。乳製品之特性與機能,第358-367頁。華香園出版社,台
北市。
林慶文,1996。乳品加工學,第41-96頁。華香園出版社,台北。
林慶文,1998。奇妙的優酪乳。元氣齋出版社,台北。
金世琳,1998。古老而新型的酒精性發酵飲料。第294-304頁。畜產品加
工學術暨畜產工業交流研討會論文集。
陳美菁,1999。乳酸菌之冷凍乾燥。食品工業,31: 52-62。
黃建榕,1998。酵素及果寡醣添加對酸酪乳品質及風味之影響。畜產研
究,31(1): 35-42。
賴永沛,1996。長壽地區的發酵乳Kefir。食品資訊,124: 38-41。
蘇遠志,1999。應用微生物學,第411頁。華香園出版社,台北。
八藤真,1995。ケフィア菌入リフロズンヨ─グルト。食の科學,211:
80-88。
三枝隆裕、立花國治、原敏夫、藤尾雄策,1998。ケフィラン產生乳酸菌
の分離とケフィランの生產性の向上。生物工學會誌,76(11): 447-
450。
三枝隆裕、立花國治、、藤尾雄策,1999。 Lactobacillus
kefiranofaciens KF-75 と酵母の混合培養によるケフィランの生產
性向上。生物工學會誌,77(3): 99-103。
久鄉晴彥,1994。活性酸乳酪菌的奇蹟,第6-9頁。林芸編譯。林鬱文化
事業有限公司,台北。
戶羽隆宏,1987。中溫性乳酸菌を使った發酵乳:ケフィ─ルとスカンジ
ナビアの粘質酸乳。Jpn. J. Dairy Food Sci. 36(6): A235-A244.
古代雅義、高橋政壽、羽村真帆子、綿貫雅章,1995。乳酸桿菌菌體抽出
物の腦卒中易發症性自然發症高血壓ラットの血壓、腦卒中病變および
生存日數に及ぼす影響。日本農業化學會誌,69(5): 557-563。
加藤丈雄,1995。乳酸菌の生產するバクテリオシンについて。酪農科學
˙食品の研究,44(3): A79-A89。
田邊勉,1996。發酵乳由來乳酸菌の抗變異原性と變異原物質吸著。酪農
科學˙食品の研究,45(1): A17-A21。
岡本利之,1991。新素材“ ケフィア”を利用した飲料の開發。食品と
開發,26(6): 19-21。
星清子,1995。オリゴ糖と腸の生理。食品工業,38(10): 57-66。
高野俊明,1996。カルピス酸乳の生理機能と應用。食品工業,39(6):
48-52。
高橋富士雄,1995。スカンジナビア諸國における發酵乳の利用。New
Food Industry 37(7): 33-39.
細野明義,1990。牛乳發酵による機能性の向上。New Food Industry
32: 51-64.
廣中貴宏。1991。ケフィアの發酵成分による免疫賦活作用。Jpn. J.
Dairy and Food Sci. 40(6):277-281.
廣中貴宏,谷久典,大石一二三,1993。ケフィアとその生理作用。New
Food Industry 35(8): 35-43.
橫倉輝男,1994。乳酸菌の抗腫瘍效果と免疫賦活作用。酪農科學˙食品
の研究,43(5): A141-A150。
橫倉輝男,1995。腸內乳酸菌の利用と機能。New Food Industry 37
(3): 57-62.
辨野義己,1994。乳酸菌發酵乳のもつ保健效果。食品と開發,29(8):
5-7。
Abraham, A. G., G. L. De Antoni, and M.C. Anon, 1993.
Proteolytic active of Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown in milk.
J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1498-1505.
Abraham, A. G., and G. L. De Antoni, 1999. Characteriztion of
kefir grains grown in cow’s milk and in soya milk. J. Dairy
Res. 66: 327-333.
Acott, A. M., and T. P. Tabuza, 1972. Yogurt: is it truly
Adelle’s B vitamin factory? Food Prod. Develop. 6(7): 50-
50a, 50d, 65, 95, 97.
Alfa-Laval, A. B., 1980. Dairy handbook: Cultured Milk
Products. pp. 171-186. Lund, Swenden.
Alm, L., 1982a. Effects of fermentation on lactose, glucose,
and galactose content in milk and suitability of fermented
milk products for lactose intolerant individuals. J. Dairy
Sci.65: 346-352.
Alm, L., 1982b. Effect of fermentation on L(+) and D(-)
lactic acid in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 515-520.
Alm, L., 1982c. Effect of fermentation on milk fat of Swedish
fermented milk products. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 521-530.
Alm, L., 1882d. Effect of fermentation on B-vitamin content on
milk in Sweden. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 353-359.
Angulo, L. E. Lopez, and C. Lema, 1993. Microflora present in
kefir grains of the Galician region(North-West of Spain). J.
Dairy Res. 60: 263-267.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15 th ed. p.807-814.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Ariga, H., T. Urashima, E. Michihata, M. Ito, N. Morizono, T.
Kimura, and S. Takahashi, 1992. Extracellular polysaccharide
from encapsulated Stretococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus
OR 901 isolated from commercial yogurt. J. Food Sci. 57: 625-
628.
Bernt, E., and I. Gutmann, 1974. Ethanol: determination with
alcohol dehydrogenase and NAD. In: H. U. Bergmeyer (Ed.).
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. 2nd ed. pp. 1499-1502. Verlag
Chemie Weinheim/Academic Press, Inc., New York, San
Francisco, and London.
Bottazzi,V., and F. Bianchi, 1980. A note on scanning electron
microscop of micro-organisms associated with the kefir
granule. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 48: 265-268.
Bouzar, F., J. Cerning, and M. Desmazeaud, 1996.
Exopolysaccharide production in milk by Lactobacillus
delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CNRZ 1187 and by two colonial
variants. J. Dairy Sci. 79: 205-211.
Brennan, M., B. Wanismail, M. C. Johnson, and B. Ray, 1986.
Cellular damage in dried Lactobacillus acidophilus. J. Food
Prot. 49: 47-54.
Breslaw, E. S., and D. H. Kleyn, 1973. In vitro digestibility
of protein in yogurt at various stages of processing. J. Food
Sci. 38(6): 1016-1021.
Cerna, J., and H. Hrabova, 1977. Biologic enrichment of
fermented milk beverages with vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Milchwissenschaft 32(5): 274-277.
Cerning, J., 1990. Exocellular polysaccharides produced by
lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 87: 113-130.
Cerning, J., C. Bouillanne, J. M. Desmazeud, and M. Landon,
1986. Isolation and characterization of exocellular
polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
Biotechnol. Lett. 8: 625-628.
Cerning, J., C. Bouillanne, M. J. Desmazeud, and M. Landon,
1988. Exocellular polysaccharide production by Streptococcus
thermophilus. Biiotechnol. Lett. 10: 255-260.
Cerning, J., C. Bouillanne, M. Landon, and M. J. Desmazeud,
1992. Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides
from slime-forming mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy
Sci. 75: 692-699.
Cerning, J., C. M. G. C. Renard, J. F. Thibault, C. Bouillanne,
M. Landon, M. Desmazeud, and L. Topisirovic, 1994. Carbon
source requirements for exopolysaccharide production by
Lactobcillus casei CG11 and partial structure analysis of the
polymer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60(11): 3914-3919.
Chandan, R. C., J. F. Gordon, and A. Morrison, 1977. Natural
benzoate content of dairy products. Milchwissenschaft 32: 534-
538.
Chonan, O., and M. Watanuki, 1995. Effect of
galatooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats. J.
Nutr. Sci. Vit. 41(1): 95-104.
Dalgleish, D. G., and J. R. Law, 1988. pH-induced dissociation
of bovine casein micelles. I. Analysis of liberated caseins.
J. Dairy Res. 55:529-538.
Davis, A., 1978. Lets Eat Right To Keep Fit, pp. 86. Third
Impression, Cox & Wyman Ltd., London, UK.
Deeth, H. C., and A. Y. Tamime, 1981. Yogurt: nutritive and
therapeutic aspects. J. Food Prot. 44(1): 78-86.
Doco, T., J. M. Wieruszelski, B. Fournet, D. Carcano, P. Ramos,
and A. Loones, 1990. Structure of an exocellular
polysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus.
Carbohydr. Res. 198: 313-322.
Duitschaever, C. L., N. Kemp, and D. Emmons, 1987. Pure culture
formulation and the procedure for the production for the
production of kefir. Milchwisseschaft 42: 80-82.
Feofilova, E. P., 1958. Microflora of kefir grains.
Microbiologiya 27:229-234.
Fujisawa, T., S. Adachi, T. Toba, K. Ariara, and T. Mitsuoka,
1988. Lactoacillus kefiranofaciens sp. nov. isolated from
kefir grains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 12-14.
Gancel, F., and G. Novel, 1994. Exopolysaccharide production by
Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermopilus cultures. 1.
Conditions of production. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 685-688.
Garrote, G. L., A. G. Abraham, and G. L. De Antoni, 1997.
Preservation of kefir grains, a comparative study. Lebensm.
Wiss. U. Technol. 30: 77-84. (Abstract)
Garrote, G. L., A. G. Abraham, and G. L. De Antoni, 1998.
Characteristics of kefir prepared with different grain: milk
ratios. J. Dairy Res. 65: 149-154.
Gill, H. S., 1998. Stimulation of the immune system by lactic
cultures. Int. Dairy Journal 8: 535-544.
Goldberg, I., and L. Eschar, 1977. Stability of lactic acid
bacteria to freezing a related to their fatty acid
composition. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 23: 489-497.
Goodenoug, E. R., and D. H. Kleyn, 1976. Influence of viable
yogurt microflora on digestion of lactose by the rat. J.
Dairy Sci. 59(4): 601-606.
Gouzalez, S. N., N. C. Romero, G. Oliver, M. C. Apella, and M.
E. N. De Macias, 1993. Inhibition of Enteropathogens by
Lactobacilli strains used in fermented milk. J. Food Prot. 56
(9): 773-776.
Grobben, G. J., M. R. Smith, J. Sikkema, and J. A. M. de Bont,
1996. Influence of fructose and glucose on the production of
exopolysaccharides and the activities of enzymes involved in
the sugar metabolism and the synthesis of sugar nucleotides
in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 46: 279-284.
Gűzel-Seydim, Z., A. C. Seydim, A. K. Greene, and P. L.
Dawson, 1998. Characterization of flavor components produced
during kefir storage. J. Dairy Sci. 81(Suppl. 1): 27.
Hartman, A. M., and L. P. Dryden, 1974. Fundamentals of Dairy
Chemistry. 2nd Edition, pp. 325-401, Ed. Webb, B. H., A. H.
Johnson, and J. A. Alford, AVI Publishing Co. Inc.,
Connecticut, U.S.A.
Igoshi, K., H. Kobayashi, and S. Arima, 1990. Production of
polysaccharides from lactose by yeast. Jpn. J. Dairy Food
Sci. 39(5): A169-A174.
Ito, H., K. Fujii, Y. Terada, S. Naruse, M. Sugiura, and T.
Miyazaki, 1973. Studies on antitumor activity of
Basidiomycetes polysaccharides. III. Oral administration of
polysaccharides from cultured Coriolus versicolor Fries. Mie
Med. J., 23: 67-79.
Iwasawa, S., M. Ueda, N. Miyata, T. Hirota, and K. Ahiko, 1982.
Identification and fermentation character of kefir yeast.
Agricultural and Biol. Chem. 46: 2631-2636.
Kalab, M., and V. R. Harwalkar, 1972. Milk gel structure. I.
Application of scanning electron microscopy to milk and other
food gels. J. Dairy Sci. 56: 835-842.
Kennedy, P. J., 1985. Utilization of whey. Cultured Dairy Prod.
J. 16: 153-164.
Kilara, A., and K. M. Shahani, 1976. Lactase activity of
cultured and acidified dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 59(12):
2031-2035.
Kilara, A., K. M. Shahani, and N. K. Das, 1976. Effect of
cryoprotective agents on freeze-drying and storage of lactic
cultures. Cult. Dairy Pro. J. 11: 8-10.
Klaenhammer, T. R., 1988. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.
Biochimie. 70: 337-349.
Kneifel, W., and H. K. Mayer, 1991. Vitamin profiles of kefirs
made from milks of different species. Int. J. Food Sci.
Technol. 26: 423-428.
Kooiman, P. 1968. The chemical structure of kefiran, the water-
soluble polysaccharide of the kefir grain. Carbohydr. Res. 7:
200-211.
Koroleva, N. S., 1988. Technology of kefir and kumys. in Bull.
227. p. 96. Int. Dairy Fed., Brussels, Belgium.
Kosikowski, F. V., 1982. Cheese and Fermented Milk Food. p. 40-
41 F. V. Kosikowski and Assoc., Brooktondale, New York.
Kramkowska, A., D. Fesnak, K. Kornachi, and B. Bauman, 1986.
Production, characterization and use of expendable kefir
starter culture in the kefir production process. Acta
Biotechnol. 6::167-174.
Kroger, M., 1995. Quality of yogurt. J. Dairy Sci. 59: 344-350.
Kroger, M., 1993. Kefir. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 28(2): 26-29.
Kurz, G., and K. Wallenfels, 1974. Lactose and other β-D-
galactosides. In: H. U. Bergmeyer (Ed.). Methods of Enzymatic
Analysis. 2nd ed. pp. 1180-1184. Verlag Chemie
Weinheim/Academic Press, Inc., New York, San Francisco, and
London.
Kwak, H. S., S. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, 1996. Biostabilization
of kefir with a nonlactose-fermenting yeast. J. Dairy Sci.
79: 937-942.
La Rivière, J. W. M., P. Kooiman, and K. Schmidt, 1967.
Kefiran, a novel polysaccharide produced in the kefir grain
by Lactobacillus brevis. Arch. Microbiol. 59: 269-278.
Libudzisz, Z., and A. Piatkiewicz, 1990. Kefir production in
Poland. Dairy Ind. Int. 55: 31-33.
Lin, C. W., and J. R. Liu, 1999. Identification and
characteristics of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated
from kefir grains in Taiwan. Aust. J. Dairy Tech. 54: 5-9.
Ling, W. H., 1995. Diet and colonic microflora interaction in
colorectal cancer. Nutr. Res. 15(3): 439-454.
Lipatov, N. N., 1978. Fermented milks other than yoghurt. XXth
international Dairy Congress, Paris 43: ST.
Liu, J. A. P., and N. J. Moon, 1983. Kefir- a ‘new’ fermented
milk product. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 18: 11-12.
Macura, D., and P. M. Townsley, 1984. Scandinavian ropy milk-
Identification and characterization of endogenous ropy lactic
streptococci and their extracelluar excretion. J. Dairy Sci.
67: 735-744.
De Man, J. C., M. Gogosa, and M. E. Sharpe, 1960. A medium for
the cultivation of lactobacilli. J. Appl. Bacter. 23: 130-135.
Mann, E. J., 1979. Kefir. Dairy Indust. Int. 44: 39, 41, 47.
Mann, E. J., 1987. Whey utilization — part 1. Dairy Ind. Int.
52: 12-13.
Marshall, V. M., 1987. Fermented milks and their future. I.
Micrological aspects. J. Dairy Sci. 54: 559-574.
Marshall, V. M. E., 1984. Advances in the Microbiology and
Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milk. F. L. Davies and
B. A. Law, ed. p. 174 Elsevier Appl. Sci. Puble., London and
New York.
Marshall, V. M. and W. M. Cole, 1985. Methods for making kefir
and fermented milks based on kefir. J. Dairy Res. 52: 451-456.
Marshall, V. M., W. M. Cole, and B. E. Brooker, 1984.
Observations on the structure of kefir grains and the
distribution of the microflora. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 57: 491-
497.
Medina, L. M., and R. Jordano, 1994. Survival of constitutive
microflora in commercial fermented milk containing
bifidobacteria during refrigerated storage. J. Food Prot. 56:
731-733.
Molska, I., J. Kocon, and S. Zmarlichi, 1980. Electron
microscopic studies on structure and microflora of kefir
grains. Acta Alim. Pol. 6: 145-154.
Motaghi, M., M. Mazaheri, N. Moazami, A. Farkhondeh, M. H.
Fooladi, and E. M. Goltapeh, 1997. Short communication: kefir
production in Iran. World J. Microbiol. Biotech. 13: 579-581.
Moulin, G., and P. Galzy, 1984. Whey, a potential substrate for
biotechnology. Biotech. Genet. Eng. Rev. 1: 347-373.
Mozzi, F., G. S. de Glori, G. Oliver, and G. F. de Valdez,
1996. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus casei
under controlled pH. Biotechnol-Lett. 18(4): 435-439.
Mukai, T., T. Toba, T. Itoh, and S. Adachi, 1988. Structural
microheterogeneity of kefiran from kefir grains.
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens K1. Carbohy. Res. 204: 227-232.
Mukai, T., N. Watanabe, T. Toba, T. Itoh, and S. Adachi, 1991.
Gel-forming characteristics and rheological properties of
kefiran. J. Food Sci. 56(4):1017-1018,1026.
Murofushi, M., M. Shiomi, and K. Aibara, 1983. Effect of orally
administered polysaccharide from kefir grain on delayed-type
hypersensitivity and tumor growth in mice. Jpn. J. Med. Sci.
Biol. 36: 49-53.
Nakajima, H., 1985. Characteristics of fermented milk produced
by slime-forming Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. Snow
brand R & D Reports 104: 97-169.
Neve, H., 1992. Analysis of kefir grain starter cultures by
scanning electron microscopy. Milchwissenschaft. 47: 275-278.
Obara, N., 1980. Microbiological studies of kefir grains. Diss.
Tokyo Univ. Agric., Jpn.
Oda, M., H. Hasegawa, S. Komatsu, M. Kambe, and F. Tsuchiya,
1983. Anti-tumor polysaccharide from Lactobacillus sp. Agric.
Biol. Chem. 47(7): 1623-1625.
Pidoux, M., J. M. Brillouet, and B. Quemener, 1988. Characterization of the polysaccharides from a Lactobacillus
brevis and from sugary kefir grains. Biotechnol-Lett. 10: 415-
420.
Pintado, M. E., J. A. L. Da Silva, P. B. Fernandes, F. X.
Malcata, and T. A. Hogg, 1996. Microbiological and
rheological studies on Portuguese kefir grains. Int. J. Food
Sci. Tech. 31: 15-26.
Rao, D. R., and J. C. Reddy, 1984. Effects of lactic
fermentation of milk on milk lipids. J. Food Sci. 49: 748-750.
Rasic, J., R. Curcic, T. Stojsavljevic, and B. Obradovic, 1971.
A .study on the amino acids of yoghurt. III. amino acids
content and biological value of the proteins of yoghurt made
from goat’s milk. Milchwissenschaft 26(8): 496-499.
Rasic, J., T. Stojsavljevic, and R. Curcic, 1971. A .study on
the amino acids of yoghurt. II. amino acids content and
biological value of the prollon, F. D. Dteins of different
kinds of yoghurt. Milchwissenschaft 26(4): 219-224.
Rea, M. C., T. Lennartsson, P. Drinan, W. J. Reville, M.
Heapes, and T. M. Cogan, 1996. Irish kefir-like grains: their
structure, microbial composition and fermentation kinetics.
J. Appl. Bacteriol. 81: 83-94.
Reddy, K. P., K. M. Shahani, and S. M. Kulkarni, 1976. B-
complex vitamins in cultured and acidified yogurt. J. Dairy
Sci. 59(2): 191-195.
Rehm, H. J., 1983. Starter cultures for other purposes. In
Biotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 203-208. Eds H. J. Rehm and V. C.
H. Reed. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie.
Rosenthal, I., 1991. Milk and Dairy Products: Properties and
Processing. Balaban publishers, Weinheim pp. 113-184.Kooiman,
P. 1968. The chemical structure of kefiran, the water-soluble
polysaccharide of the kefir grain. Carbohydr. Res. 7: 200-211.
Rosi, J., 1978. I micro-organismi del kefir: i lievit. Scienza
e Tecbuca lattiero-casearia 29: 59-67.(Abstract)
Rosi, J., and J. Rossi, 1978. Kefir micro-oranism: lactic acid
bacteria. Scieza Tecn. Latt-casearia. 29: 291-305. (Abstract)
Saloff-Coste, C. J., 1996. Kefir. Nutritional and health
benefits of yogurt and fermented milks. Danone World
Newsletter 81: 83-94.
SAS Institute Inc. 1994. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Statistical
Analysis System Institute, Cary, NC.
Shiomi, M., K. Sasaki, M. Murofushi, and K. Aibara, 1982.
Antitumor activity in mice of orally administered
polysaccharide from kefir grain. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol.
35:75-80.
Smart, J. B., C. J. Pillidge, and J. H. Garman, 1993. Growth of
lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on lactose and
lactose-related mono-, di- and trisaccarides and correlation
with distribution of β-galactosidase and phospho-β-
galactosidase. J. Dairy Res. 60: 557-568.
Tamime, A. Y., and R. K. Robinson, 1985. Yogurt: Science and
Technology. pp. 7-328. Pergamon Press. Ltd., Oxford.
Terzaghi, B. E., and W. E. Sandine, 1975. Improved medium for
lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. Appl.
Microbiol. 29: 807-813.
Tinson, W., A. J. Hillier, and G. R. Jago, 1982. Metabolism of
Streptococcus thermophilus. I. Utilization of lactose,
glucose and galactose. Australian J. Dairy Technol. 37: 8-13.
Toba, T., H. Uemura, T. Mukai, T. Fujii, T. Itoh, and S.
Adachi, 1991. A new fermented milk using capsular
polysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
isolated from kefir grains. J. Dairy Res. 58: 497-502.
Toba, T., K. Arihara, and S. Adachi, 1987. Comparative study of
polysaccharides from kefir grains, an encapsuled
homofermentative Lactobacillus species and Lactoacillus
kefir. Milchwissenschaft 42: 565-572.
Toba, T., K. Arihara, and S. Adachi. 1990. Distribution of
microorganisms with particular reference to encapsulated
bacteria in kefir grains. Int. J. Food Microbio. 10: 219-224.
Toba, T., S. Abe, K. Arihara, and S. Adachi, 1986. A medium for
the isolation of capsular bacteria from kefir grains. Agric.
Biol. Chem. 50: 2673-2674.
Vujičić, I. F., M. Vulić, and T. Könyves, 1992. Assimilation
of cholesterol in milk by kefir cultures. Biotechnol-Lett. 14
(9): 847-850.
Wacher-Rodarte, C., M. V. Galvan, A. Farres, F. Gallardo, V. M.
E. Marshall, and M. Garcia-Garibay, 1993. Yogurt production
from reconstituted skim milk powders using different polymer
and non-polymer forming starter cultures. J. Dairy Res. 60:
247-254.
Xu, S. Y., D. W. Stanley, H. D. Goff, V. J. Davidson, and M. Le
Maguer, 1992. Hydrocolloid/milk gel formation and properties.
J. Food Sci. 57: 96-102.
Yokoi, H., T. Watanabe, Y. Fujii, T. Toba, and S. Adachi, 1990.
Isolation and characterization of polysaccharide-producing
bacteria from kefir grains. J. Dairy Sci. 73(7): 1684-1689.
Yokoi, H., and T. Watanabe, 1992. Optimum culture conditions
for of kefiran by Lactobacillus sp. KPB-167B isolated from
kefir grains. Appl. Ferment. Bioengi. 74(5): 327-329.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top