跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.124.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/28 09:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃文彬
研究生(外文):Wen-Bin Huang
論文名稱:黑鯛Acanthopagrusschlegeli之添加過程
論文名稱(外文):The Recruitment Process of Black Porgy Acanthopagrus schlegeli
指導教授:丘 臺 生
指導教授(外文):Tai-Sheng Chiu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:黑鯛初期生活史母魚效應環境因子成長仔魚添加
外文關鍵詞:Acanthopagrus schlegeliblack porgyearly life historymaternal effectenvironmental factorgrowthlarval fishrecruitment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:215
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
黑鯛 Acanthopagrus schlegeli 為廣泛分佈在亞洲各地的高經濟性魚種之一,尤其是在台灣及日本。平直岸及河口兩種水域是台灣中西部沿岸地區最為常見的生態地理水域,黑鯛為該等水域仔魚群集最為優勢的魚種之一。本論文係探討母源效應、魚卵大小、仔魚體長等初期生活史特性及氣象、水文與地區水域等生態環境因子在黑鯛添加過程中之影響。該仔魚之耳石日週成長性及體成長方程式在本論文中亦被驗證與建立。
就相同體重比較,二齡(Age-II)黑鯛母魚產下的魚卵比三齡(Age-III)母魚產下者為大(p < 0.05)。並且,在同一個年齡群組內,黑鯛母魚之體重與其所產下之魚卵體積正相關。相較之下,大的黑鯛卵(與小的黑鯛卵比較)攜有較大的油球,需要較長的孵化期,可以孵化出體型較大的黑鯛仔魚,孵化時該仔魚所保留的卵黃囊(能量)相對較多,其無糧之饑餓耐力愈高。另黑鯛仔魚孵化期的長短(時齡)負相關於其孵化時殘存卵黃囊之體積,顯示該仔魚胚胎的發育以卵黃為其主要能量之來源。黑鯛母魚的肥滿度、性腺指數、肝臟指數及肌肉、肝臟含油脂量等,與其子代初期生活史特性間之相關性均不顯著 (p  0.05)。
在台灣中西部的沿岸水域中,黑鯛添加之仔魚發生月份與低溫、高壓、高風速的季節有關。大部分的黑鯛仔魚會在晚冬到早春之時出現,其添加密度在平直岸水域中比河口域中為高。黑鯛添加的仔魚平均體長(9.28  0.10 mm)在平直岸水域顯著大於河口域(7.33  0.32 mm) (p < 0.05);相對地,在平直岸水域中添加之仔魚體型個體差異(8.15  1.15 %)顯著小於河口域者(19.87  5.26 %) (p < 0.05)。體長頻度分布直方圖顯示,黑鯛仔魚在這兩個不同哺育場中所添加的族群組成不同。以 1993 年 2 月為例,在河口域中黑鯛添加之仔魚體長範圍(5.0 ~ 12.5 mm)比在平直岸水域中者(8.5 ~ 11.5 mm)寬;相對地,在河口域中大部分仔魚體長(約 6.5 mm)比在平直岸水域中者(10.0 mm)小。
黑鯛仔魚的耳石成長輪數(N)與日齡天數(D)間的關係,可用線性迴歸方程式:N = 1.061 + 0.987 D 來表示。在該方程式中,不論是斜率或截距與數字 1 之間,均無顯著性差異(p  0.05),顯示黑鯛耳石首輪形成的時刻約在孵化的當天(D = 0),自此耳石的成長輪紋便按一天一輪的速率沈積。黑鯛仔魚在水溫範圍 15.0 ~ 20.5 ℃(平均值 17.9 ± 0.3 ℃)的環境下,自孵化當天到孵化後第 38 天之體長成長情形,可以用二次方程式:SL = 2.35 + 0.145 D + 0.0017 D2 來描述之( SL:標準體長,D:孵化後的天數)。
依上述初期成長方程式推估,黑鯛仔魚添加進入河口域中的日齡範圍約自 10 到 46 天左右,且大部分集中在 23 天日齡附近;相對地,添加進入平直岸水域中的黑鯛仔魚日齡範圍約自 29 到 42 天,而大部分集中於 37 天日齡。簡言之,黑鯛添加進入平直岸水域中的仔魚日齡比進入河口域中者平均晚約 14 天左右。
Black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) is widely distributed in the tropical-temperate western north Pacific and a valuable commercial species in many parts of Asia, particularly in Taiwan and Japan. It is one of the dominant species in the larval fish community in the coastal waters of western central Taiwan. There are two major types of topographic waters along the coast: estuaries and coastal shelf waters. The effects of maternal conditions, egg size, larval body length, meteorological and hydrological conditions, and eco-geographic difference in the coastal waters on the recruitment process of the black porgy were studied. The otolith and somatic growths of the larvae were also determined.
Age-II females produced significantly larger eggs as compared to the same size of Age-III females (p < 0.05). Also, within each of the age groups, there was a positive relationship between egg size and female size. The larger eggs generally had larger volume of oil globules, required longer incubation period (hatching age), and produced larger larvae that endured longer starvation. Hatching age was covaried negatively with yolk volume at hatching, indicating that the black porgy, during embryonic development, primarily consumed yolk as its energy resource. The condition factor, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, and lipid content of the maternal parents were not related to the early life history traits of their offsprings (p  0.05).
In the coastal waters of western central Taiwan, low temperature, high atmospheric pressure, and high wind speed were the main environmental variables associated with the recruitment of larval black porgy. Most of the larvae recruited from late winter to early spring. The larvae were more abundant in the coastal shelf waters than in the estuaries. The mean body length in the coastal shelf waters (9.28  0.10 mm) was greater than that in the estuary (7.33 0.32 mm), but the coefficient of variation of body length in the former (8.15  1.15%) was smaller than that in the latter (19.87  5.26%). The range and mode of the length-frequency distributions were different between the two waters. For instance in February 1993, the range of the distribution of body length in the estuary (5.0 ~ 12.5 mm) was wider than that in the coastal shelf waters (8.5 ~ 11.5 mm) but the mode of standard length in the former (6.5 mm) was smaller than that in the latter (10.0 mm).
The regression of the number of growth increments in otoliths (N) on age in days after hatch (D) of reared larvae was N = 1.061 + 0.987 D (D = 0, the day the larva hatches). Both the slope and intercept of the regression were not significantly different from 1 (p  0.05), indicating that otolith growth increment was deposited on a daily schedule since hatching. At 15.0 ~ 20.5℃ (17.9 ± 0.3℃), growth of the larvae was expressed by SL = 2.35 + 0.145 D + 0.0017 D2 for the first 38 days, where SL was the standard length and D was the age in days.
In reference to the growth function, the age of the black porgy larvae in the estuary ranged from 10 to 46 days old, and most of the larvae were 23 days old. By contrast, the larval age in the coastal shelf waters ranged from 29 to 42 days old, and most were 37 days old. In short, the age of the larvae in the coastal shelf waters was 14 days older than that in the estuary of western central Taiwan.
封面
目錄
謝辭
中文摘要
英文摘要
表目錄
圖目錄
壹、緒論
1.資源與添加
1.1.漁業資源添加之關鍵
1.2.關鍵期假說之相關研究
1.3.添加過程之整體考量
2.資源復育與黑鯛
2.1.放流與添加關係之研究
2.2.鯛亞科魚類及其資源相關研究
2.3.黑鯛之選定與特性
3.影響添加過程之主要因子
3.1.初期生活史特性與母源效應
3.2.環境因子
3.3.年齡、耳石及成長
4.研究目的
貳、材料與方法
1.初期生活史特性與母源效應
1.1.種魚與受精卵處理
1.2.初期生活史特性計量與分析
1.3.母魚狀態計量與分析
2.沿岸環境之影響
2.1.採樣地點
2.2.採樣方法與樣本處理
2.3.環境影響分析
2.3.1.環境因子之年間變異影響
2.3.2.生態地理差異之影響
3.日輪驗證及成長方程式估算
3.1.仔魚樣本採集
3.2.耳石樣本製備與日齡判讀
參、結果
1.初期生活史特性受母魚狀態之影響
1.1.初期生活史特性
1.2.母魚狀態
2.沿岸環境之影響
2.1.水文及氣象因子
2.1.1.添加量之年間比較
2.1.2.添加與環境因子間之關係
2.2.生態地理區差異
2.2.1.水文環境比較
2.2.2.添加量之比較
2.2.3.體長頻度分布
3.日輪驗證及添加日齡推估
3.1.左右耳石之差異
3.2.取樣區集之影響
3.3.日週成長輪之驗証
3.4.初期成長方程式
3.5.添加日齡推估
肆、討論
1.初期生活史優勢之來源
1.1.魚卵及仔魚特性之影響
1.2.母源效應
2.沿岸環境對黑鯛添加之影響
2.1.引發黑鯛沿岸添加之環境要求
2.2.不同生態地理區之差異
2.3.黑鯛沿岸添加過程之推估
2.3.1.黑鯛耳石之日成長性
2.3.2.洄游添加過程之推估
伍、參考文獻


其他
Abu-Hakima, R. 1984. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Acanthopagrus spp. (Family: Sparidae). J. Fish Biol. 25: 515-526.
Anderson, J.T. 1988. A review of size dependent survival during pre-recruit stages of fishes in relation to recruitment. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci. 8: 55-66.
Anonymous. 1993. 漁業資源保育成果彙編, 陳諄敏(主編). 台灣省農林廳漁業局.
Anonymous. 1998. 彰化濱海工業區整體開發規劃調查研究-第一部份現場調查監測及分析, 第一冊. 經濟部水資源局國立成功大學水工試驗所, 研究試驗報告第二一七號.
Bagenal, T.B. 1969. The relationship between food supply and fecundity in brown trout Salmo trutta L. J. Fish Biol. 1: 169-182.
Bagenal, T.B. 1971. The interrelation of the size of fish eggs, the date of spawning and the production cycle. J. Fish Biol. 3: 207-219.
Bannister, R.C.A. and A.E. Howard. 1991. A large-scale experiment to enhance a stock of lobster (Homarus Gammarus L.) on the English east coast. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp. 192: 99-107.
Beacham, T.D. and C.B. Murray. 1985. Effect of female size, egg size, and water temperature on developmental biology of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from the Nitinat river, British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1755-1765.
Bengston, D.A., R.C. Barkman, and W.J. Berry. 1987. Relationships between maternal size, egg diameter, time of spawning season, temperature, and length at hatch of Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia. J. Fish Biol. 31: 697-704.
Blaber, S.J.M. and T.G. Blaber. 1980. Factors affecting the distribution of juvenile estuarine and inshore fish. J. Fish Biol. 17: 143-162.
Blaber, S.J.M. and D.A. Milton. 1990. Species composition, community structure and zoogeography of fishes of mangrove estuaries in the Solomon Islands. Mar. Biol. 105: 259-267.
Blaxter, J.H.S. 1969. Development: eggs and larvae. In: W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (eds.), Fish Physiology, Vol.3, pp. 177-252. Academic Press, N.Y.
Blaxter, J.H.S. 1988. Pattern and variety of development. In: W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (eds.), Fish Physiology, Vol.11A, pp. 1-58. Academic Press, N.Y.
Blaxter, J.H.S. and G. Hempel. 1963. The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.). J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 28: 211-240.
Blaxter, J.H.S. and M. Staines. 1970. Pure-cone retinae and retinomotor responses of larval teleosts. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 50: 449-460.
Boehlert, G.W. and B.C. Mundy. 1988. Roles of behavioral and physical factors in larval and juvenile fish recruitment to estuarine nursery area. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 3: 51-67.
Bradford, M.J. 1992. Precision of recruitment predictions from early life stages of marine fishes. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 90: 439-453.
Bye, V.J. 1987. Environmental management of marine fish reproduction in Europe. In: D.R. Idler, L.W. Crim, and J.M. Walsh (eds.), Reproductive Physiology of Fish, pp. 289-298. Memorial University Press, St John''s, Newfoundland.
Bye, V.J. 1990. Temperate marine teleosts. In: A.D. Munro, A.P. Scot, and T.J. Lam (eds.), Reproductive Seasonality in Teleosts: Environmental Influences, pp. 125-144. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Campana, S.E., K.T. Frank, P.C.F. Hurley, P.A. Koeller, F.H. Page, and P.C. Smith. 1989. Survival and abundance of young Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) as indicators of year-class strength. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 171-182.
Campana, S.E. and J.D. Neilson. 1985. Microstructure of fish otoliths. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1014-1032.
Chambers, R.C. and W.C. Leggett. 1996. Maternal influences on egg size variation in marine temperate fishes. Am. Zool. 36: 180-196.
Chambers, R.C., W.C. Leggett, and J.A. Brown. 1989. Egg size, female effects, and the correlations between early life history traits of capelin, Mallotus villosus: An appraisal at the individual level. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 87: 515-523.
Chambers, R.C. and K.G. Waiwood. 1996. Maternal and seasonal differences in egg sizes and spawning characteristics of captive Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 53: 1986-2003.
Chang, C.F., E.L. Lau, B.Y. Lin, and S.R. Jeng. 1996. Characterization of vitellogenin induced by estradiol-17 in protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 15: 11-19.
Chang, C.F. and W.S. Yueh. 1990. Annual cycle of gonadal histology and steroid profiles in the juvenile males and adult females of the protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Aquaculture 91: 179-196.
Chang, C.F., W.S. Yueh, and M.F. Lee. 1991. Effects of LHRH-A and HCG on the steroid profiles of bisexual and mature male and female protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Aquaculture 92: 83-92.
Cheng, L.J, M.J. Kishi, and T. Sugimoto. 1989. Multivariate analysis on the catch data of sardine and environmental data off Boso and Johban, Japan. Bull. Jap. Soc. Fish. Oceanogr. 53: 372-377.
Chern, R.H., F.C. Lee, and T.C. Yu. 1983. Investigation on water pollution of Ta-Tuo River. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 34: 229-239. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Collette, B.B., T. Potthoff, W.J. Richards, S. Ueyanagi, J.L. Russo, and Y. Nishikawa. 1984. Scombroidei: development and relationship. In: H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall Jr., and S.L. Richardson (eds.), Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, pp. 591-620. Amer. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol., Spec. Publ. No. 1.
Crecco, V.A., T.F. Savoy, and L. Gunn. 1983. Daily mortality rates of larval and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in the Connecticut River with changes in year-class strength. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 1719-1728.
Crisp, D.T. 1994. Reproductive investment of female brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in a stream and reservoir system in northern England. J. Fish Biol. 44: 343-349.
Cushing, D.H. 1974. The natural regulation of populations. In: J.F.R. Harden (ed.), Sea Fisheries Research, pp. 399-412. Elek Science, London.
Danielssen, D.S. and J. Gjøsæter. 1994. Release of 0-group cod, Gadus morhua L., on the southern coast of Norway in the years 1986-1989. Aquac. Fish. Manag. 25: 129-142.
Day, J.H., S.J.M. Blaber, and I.H. Wallace. 1981. Estuarine fishes. In: J.H. Day (ed.), Estuarine Ecology with Particular Reference to Southern Africa, pp. 197-221. A. A. Balkema, Cape Town.
Diana, J.S. 1995. Biology and Ecology of Fishes. Cooper Publishing Group LLC, Indiana, U.S.A.
Dillon, W.R. and M. Goldstein. 1984. Multivariate Analysis-Methods and Applications. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Elliott, J.M. 1986. Spatial distribution and behavioural movements of migratory trout Salmo trutta in a Lake District stream. J. Anim. Ecol. 55: 907-922.
Fanta-Feofiloff, E., D.R. de Brito Eiras, A.T. Boscardim, and M. Lacenda-Krambeck. 1986. Effect of salinity on the behavior and oxygen consumption of Mugil curema. Physiol. Behav. 36: 1029-1034.
Febry, R. and P. Lutz. 1987. Energy partitioning in fish: the activity related cost of osmoregulation in an euryhaline cichlid. J. Exp. Biol. 128: 63-85.
Folch, J., M. Lee, and G.S.H Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497-507.
Fortier, L., D. Ponton, and M. Gilbert. 1995. The match/mismatch hypothesis and the feeding success of fish larvae in ice-covered southeastern Hudson Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 120: 11-27.
Foscarini, R. 1988. A review: intensive farming procedure for red sea bream (Pagrus major) in Japan. Aquaculture 72: 191-246.
Frank, K.T. and W.C. Leggett. 1982. Environmental regulation of growth rate, efficiency, and swimming performance in larval capelin (Mallotus villosus), and its application to the match/mismatch hypothesis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39: 691-699.
Fukuhara, O. 1987. Larval development and behavior in early life stages of black sea bream reared in the laboratory. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 53: 371-379.
Gall, G.A.E. 1974. Influence of size of eggs and age of female on hatchability and growth of rainbow trout. Calif. Fish Game 60: 26-35.
Gardner, M.B. 1981. Effects of turbidity on feeding rates and selectivity of bluegills. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 110: 446-450.
Geffen, A.J. 1992. Validation of otolith increment deposition rate. In: D.K. Sevenson and S.E. Campana (eds.), Otolith Microstructure Examination and Analysis, pp. 101-113. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 117. Chap. 6.
Geffen, A.J. 1995. Growth and otolith microstructure of cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. J. Plankton Res. 17: 783-800.
Gulland, J.A. 1974. The Management of Marine Fisheries. Scientechnica, Bristol.
Gulland, J.A. 1983. Fish Stock Assessment. Vol. 1, FAO/Wiley Series on Food and Aqriculture.
Gunter, G. 1967. Some relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico. In: G.H. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries, pp. 621-638. AAAS, Washington DC.
Haedrich, R.L. 1983. Estuarine fishes. Ecosyst. World 26: 183-207.
Healey, M.C. 1982. Timing and relative intensity of size-selective mortality of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhychus keta) during early sea life. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39: 952-957.
Heming, T.A. 1982. Effects of temperature on utilization of yolk by chinook salmon (Oncorhychus tshawytscha) eggs and alevins. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39: 184-190.
Hempel, G. 1979. Early Life History of Marine Fish: the Egg Stage. University of. Washington Press, Seattle.
Henrich, S. 1988. Variation in offspring sizes of the poeciliid fish Heterandria formosa in relation to fitness. Oikos 51: 13-18.
Hettler, W.F. 1976. Influence of temperature and salinity on routine metabolic rate and growth of young Atlantic menhaden. J. Fish Biol. 8: 55-65.
Hewitt, R.P., G.H. Theilacker, and N.C.H. Lo. 1985. Causes of mortality in young jack mackerel. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28: 1-10.
Hinckley, S. 1990. Variation of egg size of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma with a preliminary examination of effect of egg size and larval size. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 88: 471-483.
Hislop, J.R.G., A.P. Robb, and J.A. Gauld. 1978. Observation on effects of feeding level on growth and reproduction in haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus (L.), in captivity. J. Fish Biol. 13: 85-98.
Hjort, J. 1914. Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe viewed in light of biological research. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 20: 1-228.
Honma, A. 1993. Aquaculture in Japan. Japan FAO Association, Tokyo.
Houde, E.D. 1987. Fish early life dynamics and recruitment variability. In: R.D. Hoyt (ed.), 10th Annual Larval Fish Conference, p.17-29. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 2, Bethesda.
Houde, E.D. 1989. Subtleties and episodes in the early life of fishes. J. Fish. Biol. 35: 29-38.
Hu, S.H. 1983. Artificial breeding of Sparidae in Penghu - with emphasised [sic] on red sea bream, Chrysophrys major and black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Ann. Coll. Rep. Penghu Branch, Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 3: 1-48. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Huang, B.Q. and C.S. Hu. 1991a. Acquisition of nocturnal in Juvenile silver bream, Sparus sarba. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 18: 177-182.
Huang, B.Q. and C.S. Hu. 1991b. The development of visual ability during the early stages of silver bream, Sparus sarba. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 18: 97-104.
Huang, R. 1996. Phytoplankton and primary production in oyster maricultural areas. Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica 35: 245-255.
Huang, T.L. 1972. Artificial propagation of black sea-bream. China Fish. Month.
235: 2-6. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Hung, J.B. and T.S. Chiu. 1991. Eco-geographic difference of larval fish assemblage in the coastal waters of the western central Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 18: 241-256.
Hunter, J.R. 1981. Feeding ecology and predation of marine fish larvae. In: R. Lasker (ed.), Marine Fish Larvae, pp. 33-77. Washington Sea Grant Program, Seattle.
Huntingford, F.A., N.B. Metcalfe, J.E. Thorpe, W.D. Graham, and C.E. Adams. 1990. Social dominance and body size in Atlantic salmon parr, Salmo salar L. J. Fish Biol. 36: 877-881.
Hutchings, J.A. 1991. Fitness consequences of variation in egg size and food abundance in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Evolution 45: 1162-1168.
Iglesias, J. and G. Rodríguez-Ojea. 1994. Fitness of hatchery-reared turbot, Scophthalmus maxmus L., for survival in the sea: first year results on feeding, growth and distribution. Aquac. Fish. Manag. 25: 179-188.
Jean, C.T., C.F. Hui, S.C. Lee, and C.T. Chen. 1995a. Variation in mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic relationships of fishes of fishes of the subfamily sparinea (Perciformes: Sparidae) in the coastal waters of Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 34: 270-280.
Jean, C.T. and S.C. Lee. 1992. New record of a sparid fish, Acanthopagrus australis from Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool., Acad. Sinica 31: 221-223.
Jean, C.T., S.C. Lee, and T.C. Chen. 1992. Morphometric studies on the fishes of subfamily sparinae (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the coastal waters of Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 19: 231-238.
Jean, C.T., S.C. Lee, C.F. Hui, and C.T. Chen. 1995b. Phylogenetic relationships among fish of the subfamily sparinae (Perciformes: Sparidae) in the coastal waters of Taiwan. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 33: 49-53.
Jean, C.T., S.C. Lee, C.F. Hui, and C.T. Chen. 1995c. Tissue-specific isozymes in fishes of the subfamily sparinae (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the coastal waters of Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 34: 164-169.
Jones, C.M. 1992. Development and application of the otolith increment technique. In: D.K. Stevenson and S.E. Campana (eds.), Otolith Microstructure Examination Analysis, pp. 1-11. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 117.
Karakiri, M. and C. Hammer. 1989. Preliminary notes on the formation of daily increments in otoliths of Orechromis aureus. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 5: 53-60.
Kendall, A. W., E.H. Ahlstrom Jr., and H.G. Moser. 1984. Early life history stages of fishes and their characters. In: H.G. Moser, W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall Jr., and S.L. Richardson (eds.), Ontogeny and Systenatics of Fishes, pp. 11-22. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol., Spec. Publ. No.1
Kitada, S., Y. Taga, and H. Kishino. 1992. Effectiveness of a stock enhancement program evaluated by a two-stage sampling survey of commercial landings. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 1573-1582.
Kleinbaum, D.G., L.L. Kupper, and K.E. Muller. 1988. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. PWS-KENT Publ. Co., Boston.
Knutsen, G.M. and S. Tilseth. 1985. Growth, development, and feeding success of Atlantic cod larvae Gadus morhua related to egg size. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.114: 507-511.
Kojima, K. 1981. Spawning of the red sea bream Pagrus major in the waters around Iki Island and Mishima Island in the western part of the Japan sea. Bull. Seikai Regional Fish. Res. Lab. 56: 71-87.
Krygier, E.E. and W.G. Pearcy. 1986. The role of estuarine and offshore nursery areas for young English sole, Parophrys vetulus Girard, of Oregon. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 84: 119-132.
Lagomarsino, I.V., R.C. Francis, and G.W. Barlow. 1988. The lack of correlation between size of egg and size of hatchling in the Midas cichid, Cichlasoma citrinellum. Copeia 1988: 1086-1089.
Laing, L. 1985. Factors affecting the large-scale production of four species of commercially important marine algae. Aquaculture 44: 161-166.
Lankford, T.E. and T.E. Targett, Jr. 1994. Suitability of estuarine nursery zones for juvenile weakfish (Cynoscion regalis): effects of temperature and salinity on feeding, growth and survival. Mar. Biol. 119: 611-620.
Lasker, R. 1975. Field criteria for survival of anchovy larvae: the relation between inshore chlorophyll maximum layer and successful first feeding. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 73: 453-462.
Lasker, R. 1981. The role of a stable ocean in larval fish survival and subsequent recruitment. In: R. Lasker (ed.), Marine Fish Larvae, pp. 80-87. Washington Sea Grant Program, Seattle.
Leber, K.M. and S.M. Arce. Stock enhancement in a commercial mullet, Mugil cephalus L., fishery in Hawaii. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 3: 261-278.
Lee, M.A., K.T. Lee, and H.C. Ou. 1990. The larval anchovy fishing grounds formation in relation to osmotic pressure changes of the coastal waters along southern Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 17: 233-245.
Lee, M.A., K.T. Lee, and G.Y. Shiah. 1994. Seasonal changes in commercial catches of larval anchovy in the southwest coastal waters of Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 21: 49-56.
Lee, M.A., K.T. Lee, and G.Y. Shiah. 1995. Environmental factors associated with the formation of larval anchovy fishing grounds in the coastal waters of southwest Taiwan. Mar. Biol. 121: 621-625.
Lee, S.C. 1983. The family Sparidae (Pisces: Perciformes) of Taiwan. J. Taiwan Mus. 36(1): 47-55.
Leggett, W.C. 1986. The dependence of fish larval survival on food and predator densities. In: S. Skreslet (ed.), The Role of Freshwater Outflows in Coastal Marine Systems, p. 117-137. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Leis J.M. and T. Trnski. 1989. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Shore Fishes. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Lenanton, R.C.J. 1982. Alternative non-estuarine nursery habitats for some commercially and recreationally important fish species of south-western Australia. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 33: 881-900.
Leu, M.Y. 1994. Natural spawning and larval rearing of silver sea bream, Rhabdosargus sarba (Forskål), in captivity. Aquaculture 120: 115-122.
Leu, M.Y. and Y.H. Chou. 1996. Induced spawning and larval rearing of captive yellowfin porgy, Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn). Aquaculture 143: 155-166.
Level, T., G. Bastin, C. Obled, and J.D. Creutin. 1987. On the accuracy of area rainfall estimation: a case study. Water Res. Res. 23: 2123-2134.
Lie, J.L., C.S. Chang , and Y.Y. Ting. 1989. Promotion and extension of aquaculture - Studies on mass seed production of black sea bream. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 47: 253-258 . (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Lin, K.J., R.M. Chang, C.Y. Liu, Y.K. Fang, C.L. Chen, C.Y. Juang, and J.Y. Twu. 1988. Natural spawning of goldline sea bream Sparus sarba in the artificial environment and embryonic development. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 45: 2-16. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Lin, K.J., R.M. Chang, J.Y. Twu, and C.Y. Liu. 1989. Experiments on the propagation of goldline sea bream Sparus sarba-breeder culture, natural spawning in the artificial environment of 3-year-old breeder, and hatching of fertilized eggs. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 47: 22-37. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Lin, K.J., C.L. Chen, C.Y. Juang , C.Y. Liu, and C.L. Yen. 1986. The mass production of fingerlings and effect of salinity on the survival and growth of black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli (Bleeker). Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 42: 345-356. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Lin K.J. and J.L. Yen. 1980. Artificial propagation of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Bull. Fish. Res. Inst. Taiwan 32: 701-709. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Liu, C.H. 1978. Experiment on Acanthopagrus schlegeli (Bleeker) in Taiwan waters. China Fish. Month. 311: 3-6. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Liu, F.G. and S.H. Hu. 1980. Preliminary report on the artificial fertilization and incubation of yellowfin porgy, Acanthopagrus latus. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 32: 673-678. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Lough, R.G., M. Pennington, G.R. Bolz, and A.A. Rosenberg. 1982. Age and growth of larval Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region based on otolith growth increments. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 80: 187-199.
Marsh, E. 1986. Effects of egg size on offspring fitness and maternal fecundity in the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile (Pisces: Percidae). Copeia 1986: 18-30.
May, R.C. 1974. Larval mortality in marine fishes and the critical period concept. In: J.H.S. Blaxter (ed.), The Early Life History of Fishes, pp. 3-19. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
McGurk, M.D. 1984. Ring deposition in the otoliths of larval Pacific herring, Clupea haregus pallasi. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 82: 113-120.
McGurk, M.D. 1986. Natural mortality of marine pelagic fish eggs and larvae: role of spatial patchiness. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 34: 227-242.
McGurk, M.D. 1989. Advection, diffusion and mortality of Pacific herring larvae Clupea harengus pallasi in Bamfield Inlet, British Columbia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 51: 1-18.
McHugh, J.L. 1967. Estuarine nekton. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83: 581-620.
Miller, J.S. and T. Storck. 1982. Daily growth rings in the otoliths of young-of-the-year largemouth bass. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111: 527-530.
Miller, T.J., L.B. Crowder, J.A. Rice, and E.A. Marschall. 1988. Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: toward a conceptual framework. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 1657-1670.
Miller, T.J., T. Herra, and W.C. Leggett. 1995. An individual-based analysis of the variability of eggs and their newly-hatched larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the Scotian Shelf. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 1083-1093.
Moksness, E. 1992. Validation of daily increments in the otolith microstructure of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.). ICES J. mar. Sci. 49: 231-235.
Moore, J.W. and A. Moore. 1976. The basis of food selection in flounders, Platichthys flesus (L) in the Severn estuary. J. Fish Biol. 9: 139-156.
Moser, H.G., W.J. Richards, D.M. Cohen, M.P. Fahay, A.W. Kendall Jr., and S.L. Richardson. 1984. Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. Amer. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol., Spec. Publ. No. 1.
Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Nishimura, A. and J. Yamada. 1984. Age and growth of larval and juvenile walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, as determined by otolith daily growth increments. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 82: 191-206.
Ojanguren, A.F., F.G. Reyes-Gavilán, and F. Braña. 1996. Effects of egg size on offspring development and fitness in brow trout, Salmo trutta L. Aquaculture 147: 9-20.
Okiyama M. (ed.). 1988. An Atlas of the Early Stage Fishes in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo.
Otwell, W.S. and J.V. Merriner. 1975. Survival and growth of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in a factorical experiment with temperature, salinity and age. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 104: 560-566.
Pannella, G. 1971. Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science (Wash., D. C.) 173: 1124-1127.
Pannella, G. 1980. Growth patterns in fish sagittae. In: D.C. Rhoads and R.A. Lutz (eds.), Skeletal Growth of Aquatic Organism: Biological Records of Environmental Change, pp. 519-560. Plenum Press, New York.
Paul, B. 1976. Marine plankton ecology. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York.
Penney, R.W. and G.T. Evans. 1985. Growth history of larval redfish (Sebastes spp.) on an offshore Atlantic dishing bank determined by otolith increment analysis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1452-1464.
Pepin. P. and R.A. Myers. 1991. Significance of egg and larval size to recruitment variability of temperate marine fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 1820-1828.
Pérez-Pinzón, M.A. and P.L. Lutz. 1991. Activity related cost of osmoregulation in the juvenile snook (Cebtropomus undecimalis). Bull. Mar. Sci. 48: 58-66.
Peterman R.M. and M.J. Bradford. 1987. Wind speed and mortality rate of a marine fish, the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Science (Wash. DC) 235: 354-356.
Peterman, R.M., M.J. Bradford, N.C.H. Lo, and R.D. Methot. 1988. Contribution of early life stages to interannual variability in recruitment of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 8-16.
Pitcher, T.J. and P.J.B. Hart. 1982. Fishweies Ecology. Croom Helm, London and Canberra.
Pollock, B.R. 1982. Spawning period and growth of yellowfin bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther), in Moreton Bay, Australia. J. Fish Biol. 21: 349-355.
Pollock, B.R. 1984. Relations between migration, reproduction and nutrition in yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 19: 17-23.
Pollock, B.R. 1985. The reproductive cycle of yellowfin bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther), with particular reference to protandrous sex inversion. J. Fish Biol. 26: 301-311.
Pollock, B.R., H. Weng, and R.M. Morton. 1983. The seasonal occurrence of postlarval stages of yellowfin bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther), and some factors affecting their movement into an estuary. J. Fish Biol. 22: 409-415.
Radtke, R.L. and K.G. Waiwood. 1980. Otolith formation and body shrinkage due to fixation in larval cod (Gadus morhua). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 929: 1-10.
Ralston, S. 1976. Age determination of a tropical reef butterflyfish utilizing daily growth rings of otoliths. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 74: 990-994.
Reagan, R.E. and C.M. Conley. 1977. Effect of egg diameter on growth of channel catfish. Prog. Fish-Cult. 39: 133-134.
Rice, J.A., L.B. Crowder, and M.E. Holey. 1987. Exploration of mechanisms regulating larval survival in Lake Michigan bloater: a recruitment analysis based on characteristics of individual larvae. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116: 703-718.
Ricker, W.E. 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistic of fish populations. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 191, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa.
Rijnsdorp, A.D., M. van Stralen, and H.W. van der Veer. 1985. Selective tidal transport of North Sea plaice larvae Pleuronectes platessa in coastal nursery areas. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114: 461-470.
Robertson, A.I. and N.C. Duke. 1987. Mangroves as nursery sites: comparisons of the abundance as species composition of fish and crustaceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia. Mar. Biol. 96: 193-205.
Rosenberg, A.A. 1982. Growth of juvenile English sole, Parophrys vetulus, in estuarine and open coastal nursery grounds. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 80: 245-252.
Rosenthal, H. and D.F. Alderdice. 1976. Sublethal effects of environmental stressors, natural and pollutional, on marine fish eggs and larvae. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33: 2047-2065.
Savoy, T.F. and V.A. Crecco. 1988. The timing and significance of density-dependent and density-independent mortality of American shad, Alosa sapidissima. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 86: 467-482.
Scott, D.B.C. 1979. Environmental timing and the control of reproduction in the teleost fish. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 44: 105-128.
Scott, S.G. and N.W. Pankhurst. 1992. Interannual variation in the reproductive cycle of the New Zealand snapper Pagrus aurata (Bloch & Schneider) (Sparidae). J. Fish Biol. 41: 685-696.
Shirota, A. 1970. Studies on the mouth size of fish larvae. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 36: 353-368.
Sinervo, B. 1990. The evolution of maternal investment in lizards: An experimental and comparative analysis of egg size and its effects on offspring performance. Evolution 44: 279-294.
Sinervo, B. and L.R. McEdward. 1988. Developmental consequences of an evolutionary change in egg size: An experimental test. Evolution 42: 885-899.
Sissenwine, M.P. 1984. Why do fish populations vary? In: R.M. May (ed.), Exploitation of Marine Communities, p. 59-94. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Smith, L.S. 1982. Introduction to Fish Physiology. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., U.S.A.
Smith, P.E. 1985. Year-class strength and survival of 0-group clupoids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(Suppl.1): 69-82.
Springate, J.R.C. and N.R. Bromage. 1985. Effects of egg size on early growth and survival in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Aquaculture 47: 163-172.
Springate, J.R.C., N.R. Bromage, and P.R.T. Cumaranatunga. 1985. The effects of different rations on fecundity and egg quality in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). In: C.B. Cowey, A.M. Mackie, and J.G. Bell (eds.), Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, pp. 371-393. Academic Press, London.
Staples, D.J. 1980. Ecology of juvenile and adolescent banana prawns, Penaeus merguiensis, in a mangrove estuary and adjacent off-shore area of the Gulf of Carpenteria. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 31: 635-652.
Støttrup, J.G., J.R. Nielsen, and K. Rasmussen. 1994. Results on the extensive production of North Sea cod, Gadus morhua L., and their growth and distribution subsequent to release in the Limfjord, Demark. Aquac. Fish. Manag. 25: 143-160.
Struhsaker, P. and J.H. Uchiyama. 1976. Age and growth of the nehu, Stolephorus purpureus (Pisces: Engraulidae), from the Hawaiian Island as indicated by daily growth increments of sagitta. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 74: 8-17.
Sumantadinata, K. and N. Taniguchi. 1982. Biochemical genetic variations in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli, from the coastal waters of Okayama, Osaka, and Aichi, polymorphism. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 143-149.
Taggart, C.T. and W.C. Leggett. 1987. Short-term mortality in post-emergent larval capelin Mallotus villosus. I. Analysis of multiple in situ estimates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 41: 205-217.
Takahaski, M. and M.J. Kishi. 1984. Phytoplankton growth response to wind induced regional upwelling aroung the Izu islands off Japan. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jap. 40: 221-229.
Tanasichuk, R.W. and D.M. Ware. 1987. Influence of interannual variation in winter sea temperature on fecundity and egg size in the Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 1485-1495.
Tang, H.C., J.Y. Twu, and W.C. Su. 1979a. Experiments on the artificial propagation of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli - (I) Hormone treatment and ovulation of spawners. China Fish. Month. 319: 9-14. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Tang, H.C., J.Y. Twu, and W.C. Su. 1979b. Experiment on the artificial propagation of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli - (II) Fertilization, hatching and larvae breeding. China Fish. Month. 322: 3-10. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Taniguchi, N., K. Sumantadinata, A. Suzuki, and J. Yamada. 1982. Genetic variations in isoelectric focusing pattern of sarcoplasmic protein of black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 139-141.
Tsay, T.T. and T.C. Yu. 1979. The culture of black bream Acanthopagrus latus HOUTTUYN. Bull. Taiwan Fish. Res. Inst. 31: 421-429. (In Chinese, with English abstract)
Tsuji, S. and T. Aoyama. 1984. Daily growth increments in otoliths of Japanese anchovy larvae, Engraulis japonica. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 50: 1105-1108.
Tzeng, W.N. and Y.T. Wang. 1992. Structure, composition and seasonal dynamics of the larval and juvenile fish community in the mangrove estuary of Tanshui River, Taiwan. Mar. Biol. 113: 481-490.
Tzeng, W.N., Y.T. Wang, and Y.T. Chern. 1997. Species composition and distribution of fish larva in Yenliao Bay, northeastern Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 36: 146-158.
Tzeng, W.N. and S.Y. Yu. 1988. Daily growth increments in otoliths of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål), larvae. J. Fish Biol. 32: 495-504.
Tzeng, W.N. and S.Y. Yu. 1989. Validation of daily growth increments in otoliths of milkfish larvae by oxytetracycline labeling. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 118: 168-174.
Volk, E.C., R.C. Wissmar, C.A. Simenstad, and D.M. Eggers. 1984. Relationship between otolith microstructure and the growth of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhychus keta) under different prey rations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41: 126-133.
Ware, D.M. 1975. Relation between egg size, growth, and natural mortality of larval fish. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 32: 2503-2512.
Ware, D.M. and T.C. Lambert. 1985. Early life history of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 577-592.
Whittaker, R.H. 1975. Communities and Ecosystems, 2d ed. Macmillan, New York.
Wootton, R.J. 1990. Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Wootton, R.J. 1992. Constraints in the evolution of fish life histories. Netherl. J. Zool. 42: 291-303.
Wootton, R.J. 1994. Life histories as sampling devices: Optimum egg size in pelagic fishes. J. Fish. Biol. 45: 1067-1077.
Wroblewski, J.S., J.G. Richman, and G.L. Mellor. 1989. Optimal wind conditions for the survival of larval northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax: a modeling investigation. U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 87: 387-398.
Zhang, Z. and N. W. Runham. 1992. Otolith microstructure pattern in Oreochromis niloticus (L). J. Fish Biol. 40: 325-332.
Zohar, Y. and H. Gordin. 1979. Spawning kinetics in the gilthead sea-beam, Sparus aurata L. after low doses of human chorionic gonadotropin. J. Fish Biol. 15: 665-670.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 【9】 邱啟潤、陳武宗(1997),「誰來關懷照顧者」,護理雜誌,第四十四卷第六期,pp.25-30。
2. 【8】 林美娜、邱啟潤(1995),「居家中風老人之家庭照護品質」,護理研究,第三卷第二期,pp.138-147。
3. 【7】 林秀純、徐亞瑛、姚開屏、吳淑瓊(1999),「台灣北部地區失能老人家庭照顧品質及相關因素之探討」,護理研究,第七卷第一期,pp.15-27。
4. 【4】 李麗傳(1999),「個案管理師角色與功能」,護理雜誌,第四十六卷第五期,pp.55-60。
5. 【3】 李華璋(1994),「工作價值觀在生計諮商上的應用」,輔導季刊,第三十卷第四十二期,pp.33-40。
6. 【2】 李素貞、戴玉慈、郭憲文(1998),「長期照護機構護理照護活動之調查」,中國醫藥學院雜誌,第七卷第四期,pp.135-144。
7. 【15】 徐慧娟(1998),「從長期照護之適當性談個案管理」,護理雜誌,第四十五卷第一期,pp.45-50。
8. 【16】 徐慧娟(1999),「長期照護結果品質評值-以護理之家院民評估量表為例」,護理雜誌,第四十六卷第一期,pp.57-64。
9. 【21】 曹國雄(1994),「工作價值對員工工作態度的影響」,人力資源學報,第四期,pp.1-19。
10. 【25】 曾秀敏、徐木蘭(1988),「個人電腦潛在購買者類型之研究」,社會科學論叢,台北:台大法學院,第36輯,pp.127-147。
11. 【31】 楊瑞珍、黃璉華、胡幼慧、白璐(1995),「自費安養機構老人的自覺健康狀況」,護理研究,第三卷四期,pp.353-363。
12. 【34】 廖美南、盧美秀(1997),「臨床路徑之建構」,護理雜誌,第四十四卷第五期,pp.29-33.
13. 【35】 潘依琳、張媚(1998),「醫院護理員工之工作特性、成就動機對工作投入、工作滿足,與留職意願之影響」,中華公共衛生雜誌,第十七卷第一期,pp.140-146。
14. 【36】 盧美秀、林秋芬、魏玲玲(1997),「個案管理與臨床路徑」,護理雜誌,第四十四卷第五期,pp.23-28.