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研究生:蔡與哲
研究生(外文):Tsai Yu Che(issey)
論文名稱:運用先進規劃排程之概念建立多廠生產的資源分配與生產規劃模式
論文名稱(外文):Apply The Advanced Planning & Scheduling to Formulate The Resource Allocation and Production Planning Model under The Multi-Plant
指導教授:蔣明晃蔣明晃引用關係郭瑞祥郭瑞祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):David ChiangAndy Guo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:先進規劃排程生產規劃模式
外文關鍵詞:APSAdvanced Planning Scheduleproduction planning model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:46
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  • 下載下載:171
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:6
在全球運籌、專業分工、以及企業內系統整合等幾個重要的趨勢發展下,企業所需規劃和控制的對象,將不再只是企業個別的資源,還需包括供應商與顧客的整體資源,規劃的範圍也從企業本身、延伸到與其它企業間的協調合作機制;這種企業彼此間的新關係,即是所謂的「供應鏈」(Supply Chain)架構,而生產管理的範疇,也從內部的生產控管,逐漸擴大形成了「供應鏈管理」之概念。
在這樣變化快速、且競爭激烈的環境下,傳統的各項生產規劃模式,已面臨了適用性的挑戰,不論在學術研究上、或實務的應用中,都陸續發展出各種新的理論與架構,其中「先進規劃排程」(Advanced Planning Schedule, APS)之概念,是目前相當受到重視、也被視為適合應用在供應鏈架構下的一個新興的模式系統;主要是先進規劃排程具備了同步、即時、全面性考量等特性,並運用一些較為先進的管理規劃技術、以及強大的電腦運算與資訊儲存功能,進行最佳化的供需平衡與生產排程處理,將是相當能滿足企業需求的一項決策支援工具。
本研究除將對「先進規劃排程」之相關理論,進行簡要的介紹與說明外,亦將運用其概念,建立一以成本極小化為目標的生產規劃與資源分配模式,並應用在多廠生產的策略環境中。模式在設計時,主要是以國內某一知名電子組裝廠商的生產程序、及其工廠在生產排程上所欲解決之問題,做為模式規劃的基礎,在變數的設計上,將同時透過模式運算規劃出最適的產品生產量、物料採購量、以及物料庫存量等,並決定出相對配合生產的廠房。
此外,本研究也將利用該廠商的資料、及其所面臨的實際狀況,來制訂模式的相關參數,以進行模式的模擬與分析,並透過若干情境的模擬,藉此探討及驗證模式的應用價值,而本模式亦會與目前一些APS應用軟體的規劃模式相比較,包括其排程規則與運用的技術方法等;在完成這一連串的模擬分析後,我們可發現,本模式不僅可排除傳統規劃模式的缺失、亦較其它模式更能掌握先進規劃排程的基本精神,除了運用同步、全面性等關鍵要素外,並導入成本的觀念,使廠商可獲得符合經濟效益的最佳解答,更一併解決了傳統作業研究中所欠缺關於訂單排序、交期控制等問題,讓整個模式的應用範圍更加周全;而模式本身亦兼具簡單、易用等特性,在在增加了本模式對企業在管理與策略制訂上的參考價值。
In the keenly competitive, quickly changing business world, the object and scope that corporation must plan and control, or the resource it must allocate, include not only itself but also its suppliers and customers. The relationship of corporations had also developed a new structure named “Supply Chain”. But under this new structure, many traditional planning or scheduling models would not be appropriate or fit for current business environment at all. So many new theories has been developed, and the most important of these is “Advanced Planning & Scheduling” (APS). The APS model include many special conceptions and characteristics such as “synchronized”, “real-time”, “integration”, “overall view” and so on. Besides, it uses some advanced planning techniques such as “OR”, “constraint theory”, and it counts on the computer and “memory-base” tool to account and store abundant data. So its solution is fast, feasible, supportable, and it can really complete the complex operation plan.
First of all, this thesis will introduce and illustrate the theory of APS. And we’ll apply the conception of APS to establish a new resource allocation and production planning model. This model can fit for the multi-plant environment, and its objective function is “minimize cost”. We’ll refer a domestic electronic assembly plant and use its data to design our model, but of course, this model can also apply for other plants. This model can help corporations decide the optimal production quantities, material purchasing quantities, material inventory quantities, and also decide which plant fits to produce. As for the model parameters, we’ll quote the production cost, material purchasing cost, inventory cost, and other fixed cost; of course, we’ll consider some resource and capacity constraints into our model, too.
After designing this new model, we’ll use it to do some simulations. By these simulations, we can make some management suggestion and prove the practical value of this model. Besides, we’ll compare with other planning model of APS software using in the market. After the all simulations, we find out that our model can exclude the shortage of traditional models and really quote the characteristic of APS such as “synchronized”, “overall view” and so on. Because we apply the cost function for our model, we can help the corporations get the minimum cost, optimal solution. Besides, we use the cost function to solve the problems about order priority, order due date control, which the other OR models don’t consider them. So our model is really a comprehensive, practical, easy to use, and supportable design.
論文摘要
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3論文研究架構 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 供應鏈管理之內涵 4
2.1.1 供應鏈之定義 4
2.1.2 供應鏈之成本結構分析 6
2.1.3 成本模式探討 6
2.2 先進規劃排程(APS)之相關理論 9
2.2.1 生產運籌管理的核心範疇 9
2.2.2 傳統生產規劃與排程系統之缺失 11
2.2.3 先進規劃排程之概念與功能特色 12
2.2.4 先進規劃排程之應用架構與規劃技術 14
2.2.5 相關軟體之運用與發展 16
第三章 生產規劃與資源分配模式之建立 20
3.1 模式建立之背景說明 20
3.2 基本模式之假設條件 23
3.3 模式之設計與相關說明 24
3.3.1 代號說明(Index) 24
3.3.2 決策變數(Decision Variables) 24
3.3.3系統參數說明(Parameters) 25
3.3.4目標函數(Objective Function) 26
3.3.5 限制式說明(Constraints) 27
第四章 模式之模擬應用與分析 29
4.1模式模擬之情境設計 29
4.2 「定期排程規劃」之模擬結果探討 36
4.3 「滾動排程規劃」之模擬結果探討 44
第五章 本模式與其它APS規劃模式之比較 47
5.1 本模式與Adexa軟體之比較 47
5.2 本模式與i2軟體之比較 52
5.3 綜合分析 59
第六章 結論與建議 60
6.1 研究結論 60
6.2 研究限制 62
6.3 未來研究建議 62
參考文獻 63
附錄一:LINGO程式範例 65
附錄二:模擬結果統計表
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[2] Benita M. Beamon, “Supply chain design and analysis: Models and methods”, Int. J. Production Economics 55 (1998) 281-294.
[3] Carlos J. Vidal and Marc Goetschalckx, “Strategic production-distribution models: A critical review with emphasis on global supply chain models”, European Journal of Operational Research 98 (1997) 1-18.
[4] Douglas J. Thomas and Paul M. Griffin, “Coordinated supply chain management”, European Journal of Operational Research 94 (1996) 1-15.
[5] Graves, S., “A Multiechelon Inventory Model with Fixed Replenishment Interval”, Management Science 42 (1996) 1-18.
[6] Lawrence S. Gould, “Introducing APS: Getting Production in Lock Step with Customer Demand”, Automative Manufacturing & Production May 1998 54-58.
[7] Lawrence S. Gould, “Integrating APS and ERP is Getting Easier”, Automative Manufacturing & Production May 1999 50-52.
[8] Lisa H. Harrington and other editor, “Software Tools to Revamp Your Supply Chain”, Transportation & Distribution Nov. 1998 58-88.
[8] Martin Christopher, Logistics and Supply Chain Management 1998.
[10] Morris A. Cohen and H. L. Lee, “Strategic analysis of integrated production- distribution systems: models and methods”, Operational Research 36 Feb. 1998 216-228.
[11] Morris A. Cohen and Sangwon Moon, “An integrated plant loading model with economies of scale and scope”, European Journal of Operational Research 50 (1991) 266-279.
[12] Piet A. Slats, Bis Bhola, Joseph J. M. Evers, and Gert Dijkhuizen, “Logistic chain modeling”, European Journal of Operational Research 87 (1995) 1-20.
[13] Ralph Kappelhoff, “Integration of ERP to the final control elements”, ISA Transaction Vol. 36 No. 4. 229-238.
[14] S. Selcuk Erenguc, N. C. Simpson, and Asoo J. Vakharia, “Integrated production/ distribution planning in supply chains: An invited review”, European Journal of Operational Research 115 (1999) 219-236.
[15] Tom Davis, “Effective supply chain management”, Sloan Management Review / Summer 1993.
[16] Adexa軟體的「產品使用說明書」
[17] i2軟體的「產品使用說明書」
[18] 王立志, “系統化運籌與供應鏈管理”, 1999.
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