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研究生:李玉婷
研究生(外文):Yu-ting Lee
論文名稱:由交通模型探討協調機制的效益
論文名稱(外文):Benefit of coordination through a study of intersection traffic model
指導教授:黃崇興黃崇興引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:德文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:協調交通模型系統模擬等候理論
外文關鍵詞:coordinationtraffic modelsystem simulationqueuing theory
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
為使系統順利流暢地運作,以達成整體組織的目標,將系統中的有關單位加以協調乃是必要的工作。如果直接觀察探討公司組織中的協調效果,以及推演其效益一般而言是非常困難的。因此,我們利用一個十字路口的交通模型,來做為我們研究協調機制的主題。如此便能夠以數量化的方法,來衡量系統的整體運作績效。
我們主要的研究目的,是希望能夠在不同的連動協調機制之下,分析及比較此系統的運作績效,並將此研究結果推廣運用於一般公司組織協調機制的闡釋。
在此研究中,我們分別於上下班的尖峰時間,設計出多種不同的協調情境來進行模擬。我們所使用的主要績效衡量指標分別為:總旅行時間、不滿意比例,以及等待線長度。我們發現在上班或是下班的尖峰時段,所獲得的模擬結果如下:
首先,我們發現在最適協調機制設計的情境之下,其系統績效優於所有的其他情境。而當系統完全沒有任何協調機制設計時,其整體績效反而略優於最差協調機制下的情況。最後,本研究也發現在兩個來車方向的車流控制中取得平衡是非常重要的。如果只偏重於舒解某一方向的車流,則會使系統的整體績效受到另一來向車流的影響而下降。
本研究進一步將上述的結果,應用於解釋一般公司組織的內部協調情形。我們發現當一組織具有良好且適合其組織的協調機制時,組織內部的每個部份均能夠流暢順利地相互配合運作。如果組織採用了不適宜的協調機制,組織整體的綜效不但無法完全發揮,而且還可能造成未協調前每個部門績效的總和,遠大於不當協調下整體組織績效的情形。
另一項重要的議題是組織內各部門的『平衡』。分別追求個別部門績效的最大化,未必相當於追求組織整體績效的極大化。唯有找出組織中的平衡點,設計出最適合組織運作的完美協調機制,才能夠發揮提昇組織整體的綜效。
For a system to operate smoothly and achieve more global goals, it is necessary to coordinate all segments of the system together. However, it is not easy to monitor the effect and benefit of coordination of a business organization explicitly. For this reason, we choose an intersection traffic system as our research object, and then try to evaluate the performance of the system quantitatively.
Our objective is to show the different effects under different coordination mechanisms, and apply this research result to explain one of the coordination mechanisms of business organizations.
In this research, we simulated several scenarios separately during go-to-work and come-off-work periods. Indicators for performance evaluation are total traveling time, dissatisfaction level, and queue length of waiting line. Both during go-to-work and come-off-work periods, certain conclusions are obtained.
Firstly, system performance in the well-coordinated scenarios outperforms other scenarios. Furthermore, when compared with poorly designed coordination mechanism, system without any coordination might have a more acceptable performance. Finally, “balance” car flows from both coming directions is critical. Focusing on either one direction will lower overall performance level.
This result is applicable to business organizations as our conclusion. A well-designed coordination mechanism which is suitable for the organization will ensure all segments to work together smoothly. If the organization is poorly coordinated in the wrong pattern, synergy of overall organization could not be fully expressed, and the performance of overall organization may even be worse than the sum of individual performances without any coordination.
Another important issue to be emphasized on is to “balance” every division in the organization. To maximize performance of each part individually is not necessarily equivalent to pursuing the overall performance. To find a balance point, designing a perfect coordination mechanism will carry out the utmost synergy for the business of a whole.
Acknowledgement I
Chinese abstract II
English abstract III
Table of contents IV
Index of tables VI
Index of figures VII
Chapter 1 Research Background and Objective 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
Chapter 2 Introduction to Coordination 4
2.1 What is coordination? 4
2.2 Introduction to coordination structures 6
2.2.1 Product hierarchy 6
2.2.2 Decentralized market 7
2.2.3 Functional hierarchy 7
2.2.4 Centralized market 8
2.2.5 Summary 9
2.3 Indicators of evaluating coordination Structures 10
2.4 Evaluation of coordination Structures 11
2.5 Applications of coordination models 13
2.5.1 Trends of human organization evolution 13
2.5.2 Anticipating future trends of evolution 14
Chapter 3 Research Methodology and Model Construction 16
3.1 Introduction to intersection traffic model 16
3.2 Research Methodology 19
3.2.1 The nature of intersection traffic model 19
3.2.2 Introduction to system simulation 19
3.3 Research Framework 21
3.4 Model Construction 24
3.4.1 Physical flows of go-to-work period 24
3.4.2 Physical flows of come-off-work period 25
3.5 Predetermined Input Parameters 27
3.5.1 Arrival rate of individual cars 27
3.5.2 Percentage of traffic flow 28
3.5.3 Response time for a car to restart 30
3.5.4 Passage time between two intersections 30
3.6 Coordination Parameters 32
Chapter 4 Scenario Development and Analysis 35
4.1 Scenarios for go-to-work period 35
4.1.1 Scenario 1: Current situation (interlocking with Keelung Road) 36
4.1.2 Scenario 2: Interlocking with Hsinhai Road 37
4.1.3 Scenario 3: Interlocking of random time interval 38
4.2 Results and analysis for go-to-work period 40
4.2.1 Total traveling time 40
4.2.2 Dissatisfaction level 41
4.2.3 Queue length of waiting line 42
4.2.4 Summary of go-to-work period 43
4.3 Scenarios for come-off-work period 44
4.3.1 Scenario 1: Current situation 45
4.3.2 Scenario 2: Interlocking with Keelung Road 46
4.3.3 Scenario 3: Interlocking with Twunhaw South Road 47
4.3.4 Scenario 4: Interlocking of random time interval 48
4.4 Results and analysis for come-off-work period 50
4.4.1 Total traveling time 50
4.4.2 Dissatisfaction level 51
4.4.3 Queue length of waiting line 51
4.4.4 Summary of come-off-work period 52
Chapter 5 Research Conclusion and Suggestions 55
5.1 Conclusions and suggestions for intersection traffic model 55
5.2 Application to business organizations 57
References 58
Appendix A-1
1. Forrester, R., and A. B. Drexler, A Model for Team-based Organization Performance, The Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 13, Iss. 3, pp.36-49, 1999.
2. Law, A.M., and W. D. Kelton, Simulation Modeling and Analysis, Second Edition, pp.1-132, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.
3. Maister, D.H., The Psychology of Waiting Lines, Managing Services - Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources, pp.176-183, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., 1985.
4. Malone, T. W., What is Coordination Theory? Paper presented at the National Science Foundation Coordination Theory Workshop, 1988.
5. Malone, T. W., and S. A. Smith, Modeling the Performance of Organizational Structures, Operations Research, Vol. 36, No.3, pp.421-436, 1987.
6. Palisade Corporation, Bestfit - Distribution Fitting for Windows, Palisade Corporation, 1995.
7. Pritsker Corporation, Visual SLAM Quick Reference Manual, Version 1.4, pp.3-64, Pritsker Corporation, 1996.
8. Pritsker, A. A. B., Introduction to Simulation and SLAM II, Fourth Edition, pp.96-255, John Wiley and Systems Publishing Corporation, 1995.
9. Pritsker, A. A. B., J.J. O''Reilly, and D. K. LaVal, Simulation with Visual SLAM and AweSim, pp.54-277, John Wiley & Sons and Systems Publishing Corporation, 1997.
10. Williamson, O. E., The Modern Corporation: Origins, Evolution, Attributes, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 19, Iss. 4, pp.1537-1568, 1981.
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