跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/04 06:12
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:羅新興
研究生(外文):Shin-Shing Lou
論文名稱:績效評核的程序正義之研究--探討受評者正義知覺之前因及影響
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Procedural Justice in Performance Appraisal - Examing the Antecedents and Consequences of Ratee''''''''s Perceptions of Justice
指導教授:戚樹誠戚樹誠引用關係黃國隆黃國隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Cheng ChiKuo-Long Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:績效評核程序正義評核準則偏私行為印象整飾人際信任
外文關鍵詞:performance appraisalprocedural justiceappraisal criteriafavoritismimpression managementinterpersonal trust
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:72
  • 點閱點閱:628
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
隨著民主法治觀念的逐漸普及,程序正義儼然成為組織成員對管理決策的關注焦點之一。本研究以企業員工的績效評核為研究系絡,探討受評者對績效評核的程序正義知覺之前因及其影響。問卷調查了30家台灣企業的員工,回收有效問卷計324份,資料分析獲得以下研究發現:1.受評者知覺到績效評核準則的有效性(指標具體性、指標攸關性及標準一致性)愈高,則他愈知覺到績效評核的過程具有程序正義。2.受評者知覺到主管在績效評核過程愈表現偏私行為,則他愈不會知覺到績效評核的過程具有程序正義。3.受評者知覺到績效評核的過程愈具有程序正義,則他對績效評核過程的滿意度愈高。4.性別對程序正義知覺與組織承諾的關係具有干擾作用,男性受評者知覺到績效評核過程愈具有程序正義則其組織承諾愈高;就女性受評者而言,其績效評核的程序正義知覺與組織承諾之間並不存在關聯性。本研究並針對研究發現在理論發展上與管理實務上的意涵進行討論。
The increasing acceptance of concepts of democracy and law abidance has fostered attention on the issue of procedural justice by organizational members as one of the key topics of managerial decision making. This study utilizes performance appraisal as research contexts and examines the antecedents and the consequences of ratees’ perceived procedural justice. Employees from 30 Taiwanese companies were sampled. There were 324 effective responses. Results from data analyses showed that: (1) The more a ratee perceived the effectiveness of criteria of performance appraisal (i.e., the concreteness, relevance, and consistency of the indicators), the more he or she perceived procedural justice in the performance appraisal process. (2) The more a ratee perceived his or her supervisor showed favoritism in performance appraisal process, the less he or she perceived procedural justice. (3) The more a ratee perceived procedural justice in performance appraisal process, the more he or she was satisfied in it. (4) Gender showed a moderating effect on the relationship between perceived procedural justice and organizational commitment. The more a male ratee perceived procedural justice in the performance appraisal process, the more he committed to the company. On the other hand, the relationship between perceived procedural justice and organizational commitment for a female ratee was not statistically significant. This study discussed research findings both in terms of theoretical development and of practical management implications.
封面
目錄
頁數
扉頁
謝詞
中文摘要
英文摘要
目錄
表次
圖次
第一章 緒論
第一節 問題背景
第二節 研究動機
第三節 研究目的
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 績效與績效評核
第二節 組織正義的相關理論
第三節 績效評核的程序正義
第四節 評核系統與受評者正義知覺
第五節 社會系絡與受評者正義知覺
第六節 正義知覺與態度行為
第七節 干擾變項
第三章 探索性訪談
第一節 訪談過程
第二節 訪談結果
第四章 研究架構與研究方法
第一節 研究架構
第二節 研究假設
第三節 衡量工具
第四節 研究對象
第五節 資料蒐集過程
第六節 資料分析方法
第五章 研究結果
第一節 量表衡量結果檢測
第二節 研究變項的敘述統計與相關分析
第三節 評核系統及社會系絡對程序正義知覺的影響
第四節 程序正義知覺對過程滿意及組織承諾的影響
第五節 分配正義的影響
第六章 結論與管理意涵
第一節 研究結論
第二節 討論
第三節 研究限制
第四節 後續研究建議
第五節 實務管理意涵
參考文獻
附錄一:探索性訪談的結構性問卷
附錄二:J公司簡介、績效評核作法與訪談記要
附錄三:L公司簡介、績效評核作法與訪談記要
附錄四:H公司簡介、績效評核作法與訪談記要
附錄五:部屬問卷
附錄六:主管問卷
附錄七:自編量表專家檢視問卷
附錄八:預試問卷
作者簡歷
1. 日比宗平(1989),楊平吉(譯),部門績效評核實務,台北:台華工商圖書出版公司。
2. 王叢桂(民81),社會轉型中之工作價值觀研究,行政院國家科學委員會研究計畫成果報告。
3. 朱堅章(民80),「泛談正義─生活中的公道」,戴華、鄭曉時主編,正義及其相關問題,中央研究院中山人文社會科學研究所專書(28),台北:南港。
4. 李長貴、戚樹誠(民83),「企業組織員工參與之研究」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。
5. 李長貴(民86),績效管理與績效評核,台北:華泰書局。
6. 吳秉恩(民81),企業策略與人力發展,台北:中國經濟企業研究所。
7. 吳宗正(民76),迴歸分析─理論與應用(新增修訂本),台南,復文書局。
8. 林淑姬(民81),「薪酬公平、程序公正與組織承諾、組織公民行為關係之研究」,政治大學企業管理研究所博士論文。
9. 林淑姬、樊景立、吳靜吉、司徒達賢(民83),「薪酬公平、程序公正與組織承諾、組織公民行為關係之研究」,管理評論,第13卷,第2期,頁87-108。
10. 林鉦棽(民85),「組織公正、信任、組織公民行為之研究:社會交換理論之觀點」,管理科學學報,第13卷,第3期,頁391-415。
11. 戚樹誠、李長貴(民84),「企業組織員工參與之研究」,管理科學學報,第12卷,第3期,頁387-408。
12. 戚樹誠(民88),「組織內團體認同與正義知覺的關聯性研究─探討圈內與圈外團體之差異」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告(NSC88-2416-H-002-025)。
13. 張火燦(民85),策略性人力資源管理,台北:揚智出版公司。
14. 張緯良(民88),人力資源管理,台北:華泰書局。
15. 陳正強(民88),「組織公正、信任對工作投入與組織公民行為影響關係之研究」,國防管理學院資源管理研究所碩士論文。
16. 黃國隆、戚樹誠(民87),「台灣與大陸企業員工工作價值觀之比較」,海峽兩岸之企業倫理與工作價值,台北:遠流。
17. 黃藿(民84譯),Graham, G.(1988著),當代社會哲學(第三章社會正義),台北:桂冠圖書公司。
18. 黃俊英、林震岩(民82),SAS精析與實例,台北:華泰書局。
19. 楊國樞、余安邦、葉明華(民78),「中國人的個人傳統性與現代性:概念與測量」,中國人的心理與行為(1989),台北:桂冠圖書公司。
20. 楊孝瀅(民77),「內容分析」,楊國樞等主編,社會及行為科學研究法(下冊),頁809-831。
21. 諸承明(民87),「績效評估系統內涵及其效益之研究─採「期望/實際」差距分析模式」,臺大管理論叢,第九卷,第一期,頁113-151。
22. 鍾嘉慧(民88),「組織公平與管理者信任對組織政治行為影響之研究」,淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學研究所碩士論文。
23. 薛秀貞(民85),「組織政治行為對組織變革及績效關係之研究─以通過ISO9000認證之推行全面品質管理廠商為例」,淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士論文。
24. 蘇明琪(民83),「組織政治知覺對組織承諾之影響研究」,淡江大學國際企業學研究所碩士論文。
25. 羅新興﹑張緯良﹑呂紀嘉(民86),「國軍軍官考績制度之研究」,國防人力資源管理論文集(增訂版),頁97-104。
26. Adams, J. S.(1965), “Inequity in Social Exchange”, In L. Berkowitz(Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol.2, pp.267-299, New York: Academic Press.
27. Anderson, J. C. & Cerbing, D. W.(1988), “Structural Equation Mpdeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.103, No.3, pp.411-423.
28. Ball, G. A., Trevino, L. K., & Sims, JR. H. P.(1994), “Just and Unjust Punishment: Influences on Subordinate Performance and Citizenship”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37, No.2, pp.299-322.
29. Barling, J., & Phillips, M.(1993), “Interactional, Formal, and Distribution Justice in the Workplace: A Exploratory Study”, Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary & Applied, Vol.127, issue6, pp.649-656.
30. Baron, R. A.(1993), “Criticism (Informal Negative Feedback) As A Source of Perceived Unfairness in Organization: Effect, Mechanisms, and Countermeasures”, In R. Cropanzano(Ed.), Justice in Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, pp.150-170, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
31. Bauer, T. N., & Green, T. N.(1996), “Decelopment of Leader-Member Exchange: A Longitudinal Test”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.39, No.6, pp.1538-1567.
32. Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. S.(1986), “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria for Fairness”, In B. Sheppard(Ed.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations, Vol.1, pp.43-55, Greenwich, CT: JAI.
33. Byars, L. L. & Rue, L. W.(2000), Human Resource Management, International edition(6th ed.), The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., p.279.
34. Cascio, W. F.(1982), Applied Psychology in Personnel Management, 2nd ed., Reston Publishing Co., p.132.
35. Cascio, W.F.(1992), Managing Human Research, H.Y.:McGraw-Hill.
36. Churchill, G. A.(1979), “A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.16, pp.64-73.
37. Cleveland, J. N., Murphy, K. R., & Willian, R. E.(1989), “Multiple Uses of Performance Appraisal: Prevalence and Correlates”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.74, pp.130-135.
38. Cook, J. & Wall, T.(1980), “New Work Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Nonfulfillment”, Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol.53, pp.39-52.
39. Cook, J. D., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D., & Warr, P. B.(1981), The Experience of Work: A Compendium and Review of 249 Measures and their Use, Academic Press, Inc., pp.68-69.
40. Costigan, R. D., Ilter, S. S. & Berman, J.(1998), “A Multi-Dimensional Study of Trust in Organizations”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol.10, pp.303-317.
41. Cropanzano, R., & Folger, R.(1991), “Procedural Justice and Work Motivation”, In R. M. Steers, & L. W. Porter,(Eds), Motivation and Work Behavior(Sth ed.), New York:McGraw Hill.
42. Crosby, F.(1984), “Relative Deprivation in Organizational Settings”, In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings(eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.6, pp.51-93, Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.
43. Curry, J. P., Wakefield, D. S., Price, J. L., Mueller, C. W.(1986), “On the Causal Ordering of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.29, pp.847-858.
44. Dessler, G.(1997), Human Resource Management, International edition (7th ed.), Prentice-Hall, Inc.
45. Deluga, R. J.(1994), “Supervisor Trusts Building, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,Vol.67,No.4, pp.315-326.
46. Deutsch, M.(1975), “Equity, Equality and Need: What Determines Which Value Will be Used as the Basis for Distributive Justice?”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol.31, No.3, pp.137-149.
47. Drory, A., & Romm, T.(1990), “The Definition of Organizational Politics: A Review”, Human Relations, Vol.43, No.11, pp.1133-1154.
48. Eichel, E. & Bender, H. E.(1984), “Performance Appraisal: A Study of Current Techniques”, America Management Associations, New York, pp.9-33.
49. Farh, J. L., Earley, P. C., & Lin, S. C.(1997), “Impetus for Action: A Cultural Analysis of Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Chinese Society”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.42, pp.421-444.
50. Fandt, P.M., & Ferris, G. R.(1990), “The Management of Information and Impressions: When Employees Behave Opportunistically”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, Vol.45, pp.140-158.
51. Ferris, R.G., & Kacmar, K. M.(1992), “Perceptions of Organizational Politics”, Journal of Management, Vol.18, pp.93-116.
52. Ferris, G. R., Judge, T. A., Rowland, K. M., & Fitzgibbons, D. E.(1994), “Subordinate Influence and the Performance Evaluation Process: Test of a Model”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.59, pp.101-135.
53. Folger, R.(1986), “Rethinking Equity Theory: A referent Cognitions Mode”, In H. W. Bierhoff, R. L. Cohen, & J. Greenberg(Eds.), Justice in Social Relations, pp.145-162, New York: Plenum.
54. Folger, R.(1987), “Reformulating the Preconditions of Resentment: A Referent Cognitions Model, In J. C. Master, & W. P. Smith(Eds.), Social Comparison, Justice, and Relative Deprivation: Theoretical, Empirical, and Policy Perspectives, pp.183-215, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
55. Folger, R.(1993), “Reactions to Mistreatment at work”, In K. Murnighan(Ed.), Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research, pp.161-183, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
56. Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A.(1989), “Effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Reactions to Pay Raise Decisions”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, No.1, pp.151-130.
57. Folger, R., Konovsky, M. A., & Cropanzano, R.(1992),“A due Process Metaphor for Performance Appraisal”, In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cumming (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.13, pp.129-177, Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.
58. Folger, R. & Cropanzano, R.(1998),Organizational Justice and Human Resource Management, SAGE Publications, Inc.
59. Fulk, J., Brief, A. P., & Barr, S. H.(1985), “Trust-in Supervisor and Percevied Fairness and Accuracy of Performance Evaluations”, Journal of Business Research, Vol.13, 301-313.
60. Gellatly, I. R.(1995), “Individual and Group Determinants of Employee Absenteeism: Test of A Causal Model”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.16, pp.469-485.
61. Greenberg, J.(1986a), “Organizational Performance Appraisal Procedural: What Make Them Fair?”, Research on Negotiation in Organizations, R. J. Lewicki, B. H. Sheppard, & M. H. Bazerman(Ed.), Vol.1, pp.25-41.
62. Greenberg, J.(1986b), “Determinants of Perceived Fairness of Performance Evaluations”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.71, No.2, pp.340-342.
63. Greenberg, J.(1987a), “A Taxonomy of Organizational Justice Theories”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, pp.9-22.
64. Greenberg, J.(1987b),“Reactions to Procedural Injustice in Payment distributions: Do the Ends Justify the Means”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, (February), pp.51-61.
65. Greenberg, J.(1987c), “Using Diaries to Promote Procedural Justice in Performance Evaluation”, Social Justice Research, Vol.1,pp.219-234.
66. Greenberg, J.(1990), “Organizational Justice: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow”, Journal of Management, Vol.16, pp.399-432.
67. Harris, M. M., Smith, D. E., & Champagne, D.(1995), “A Field Study of Performance Appraisal Purpose: Research- versus Administrative- Based ratings”, Personnel Psychology, Vol.48, pp.151-160.
68. Jocobs, H.(1993), “The Ratings Game”, Small Business Reports, Vol.18, pp.21-22.
69. Kanungo, R. N.(1982), Work Alienation, New York: Praeger.
70. Kirkpatrick, D. L.(1983), How to Improve Performance through Appraisal and Coaching.
71. Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S.D.(1994), “Citizenship Behavior and Social Exchange”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37, No.3, pp.656-669.
72. Korsgaard, M. A., & Roberson, L.(1995), “Procedural Justice in Performance Evaluation: The Role of Instrumental and Non-Instrumental Voice in Performance Appraisal Discussions”, Journal of Management, Vol.21, No.4, pp.657-669.
73. Landy, F. J., Barnes, J. L., & Mirphy, K. R.(1978), “Correlates of Perceived Fairness and Accuracy of Performance Evaluation”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.63, Np.6, pp.751-754.
74. Landy, F. J., Barnes-Farrell, J., & Cleveland, J. N.(1980), “Perceived Fairness and Accuracy of Performance Evaluation: A Follow-Up”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.65, Np.3, pp.355-356.
75. Lerner, M. J.(1977), ‘The Justice Motive: Some Hypotheses as to its Origins and Forms”, Journal of Personality, vol.45, pp.1-52.
76. Leventhal, G. S.(1976), “Fairness in Social Relations”, In J. W. Thibaut, J. T. spence, & R. C. Carson(eds.), Contemporary Topics in Social Psychology, pp.211-239, Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
77. Leventhal, G. S.(1980), “What should be done with equity theory?”, In K.J. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. H. Willis(ed.), Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, pp.27-55, New York: Plenum.
78. Leventhal, G. S., Karuza, J., & Fry, W. R.(1980), “Beyond Fairness: A Theory of Allocation Preference”, In G. Miikula(ed.), Justice and Social Interaction, pp.167-218, New York: Springer-Verlag.
79. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R.(1988), The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice, New York: Plenum.
80. Longnecker, C. O., sims, H. P., Jr., & Gioia, D. A.(1987), “Behind the Mask: The Politics of Employee Appraisal”, Academy of Management Executive, Vol.1, pp.183-193.
81. Marches, M.(1995), “Industry: The Poser of the 360-Degree Feedback”, Pennsylvania CPA Journal, December, pp.19-47.
82. Mohrman, Jr., A., Resnick-West, S., & Lawler III, E.(1989), Designing Performance Appraisal System, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
83. Moorman, R. H.(1991), “Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Do Fairness Perceptions Influence Employee Citizenship?”, Journal of applied Psychology, Vol.76, No.6, pp.845-855.
84. Moorman, R. H., & Niehoff, B. P.(1998), “Does Perceived Organizational Support Mediate the Relationship Between Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.41, No.3, pp.351-357.
85. Naumann, S. E., Bennett, N., Bies, R. J., & Martin, C. L.(1998), “Laid off, But Still Loyal: The Influence of Perceived Justice and Organizational Support”, International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol.9, Issue 4, pp.356-368.
86. Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H.(1993), “Justice as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Methods of Monitoring and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.36, No.3, pp.527-556.
87. Oliver, J. E.(1985), “Performance Appraisal that Fit”, Personnel Journal, Vol.64, No.6(June), p.66-69.
88. Organ, D. W.(1988), “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome, Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
89. Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R.(1990), Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Leadership quarterly, Vol.1, No.2, pp.107-142.
90. Robbins, S. P.(1998),Organizational Behavior: Concept, Controversies, Applications(8thed.),Prentice Hall International Editions.
91. Roberts, G. E.(1994), “Maximizing Performance Appraisal System Acceptance: Perspectives From Municipal Government Personnel Administrators”, Public Personnel Management, Vol.23, Issue4, pp.525-549.
92. Roese, N. J.(1997), “Counterfactual Thinking”, Psychology Bulletin, Vol.121, pp.133-148.
93. Saal, F. E. & Moore, S. C.(1993), “Perceptions of promotion Fairness and Promotion Candidates’ Qualifications”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.78, No.1, pp.105-110.
94. Sherman, A., Bohlander, G., & Snell, S.(1996), Managing Human Resource, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.
95. Shore, T. H., Shore, L. M., & Thornton, G. C.(1992), “Construct Validity of Self- and Peer-Evaluation of Performance Dimensions in An Assessment Center”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.77, pp.42-45.
96. Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R.(1997), “Retaliation in the Workplace: The Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Justice”, Journal of applied Psychology, Vol.82, No.3, pp.434-443.
97. Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R.(1999), “Personality as A Moderator in the Relationship Between Fairness and retaliation”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.42, No.1, pp.100-108.
98. Sweeney, P. D., & McFarlin, D. B.(1993), “Workers’ Evaluations of the “Ends” and the “Means”: An Examination of Four Models of Distributive and Procedural Justice”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.55, pp.23-40.
99. Sweeney, P. D. & McFarlin, D. B.(1997), “Process and Outcome: Gender Differences in the Assessment of Justice”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.18, pp.83-98.
100. Tang, Thomas Li-Ping & Sarsfield-Baldwin, Linda J.(1996), “Distributive and Procedural Justice as Related to Satisfaction and Commitment”, Sam Advanced Management Journal, Vol.61, No.3, pp.25-31.
101. Tata, Jasmine & Bowes-Sperry Lynn(1996), “Emphasis on Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Justice: Differential Perceptions of Man and Woman”, Psychological Reports, Vol.79, pp.1327-1330.
102. Taylor, M. S., Tracy, k. B., Renard, M. K., Harrison, J.K., & Carroll, S.J. (1995), “Due Process in Performance Appraisal: A Quasi-experiment in Procedural Justice”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, pp.495-523.
103. Taylor, M. S., Renard, M. K., & Tracy, K. B.(1998), “Managers’ Reactions to Procedurally Just Performance Management System”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.41, No.5, pp.563-579.
104. Thibaut, J., & Walker, L.(1975), Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
105. Tyler, T. R.(1994), “Psychological Models of the Justice Motive”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.67, pp.850-863.
106. Tziner, A. & Latham, G. P.(1989), “ The Effects of Appraisal Instrument, Feedback and Goal-Setting on Worker Satisfaction and Commitment”, Journal of Organizational Behavior,Vol.10, pp.145-153.
107. Varma, A., Denisi, A. S., & Peters, L. H.(1996), “Interpersonal Affect and Performance Appraisal: A Field Study”, Personnel Psychology, Vol.49, pp.341-360.
108. Viswesvaran, C., Ones, D. S., & Schmidt, F. L.(1996), “Comparative Analysis of the Reliability of Job Performance Ratings”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.81, No.5, pp.557-574.
109. Wayne, S. J., & Ferris, G. R.(1990), “Influence Tactics, Affect, and Exchanged Quality in Supervisory-Subordinate Interactions: A Laboratory Experiment and Fild Study”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.75, pp.487-499.
110. Wayne,S.J., & Liden,R.C.(1995), “Effect of Impression Management on Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Study”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, pp.232-260.
111. Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C.(1997), “Perceived Organizational support and Leader-Member Exchange: Asocial exchange Perspective”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.40, No.1, pp.82-111.
112. Wexley, K., & Klimoski, R.(1984), “Performance Appraisal: An Update”, In G. Ferris & K. Rowland(Eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Research Management, Connecticut: Jai, pp.35-79.,
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top