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研究生:鄭森松
研究生(外文):Sen-Sung Cheng
論文名稱:柳杉心材變色之研究―環境因子影響及易變色抽出成分之初探
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Discoloration of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) Heartwood―Influence of Environmental Factors and Color Variation of Extractive Fractions
指導教授:張上鎮張上鎮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shang- Tzen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:柳杉心材變色環境因子光波長
外文關鍵詞:Japanese CedarHeartwoodDiscolorationEnvironment factorLight wavelength
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柳杉(Japanese cedar; Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)為台灣重要造林樹種之一,由於柳杉品系非常複雜,因此,造成心材顏色的差異性很大,而且柳杉製品在加工完成後,曝露於使用環境中,其紅色紋理會隨著時間的增加而逐漸深色化,最後變成黑褐色,不但失去了原有的特色,同時也降低產品的價值。因此,本論文之研究目的在探討柳杉心材變色的原因。首先,針對環境因子及光波長對柳杉紅色和黃色心材顏色變化的影響,結果發現在高含水率的條件下,會使得二者的材色深色化,最後變成黑褐色。而且僅有氧氣存在時,並不會對柳杉紅色和黃色心材顏色產生改變。必須要光線和氧氣二者共同作用下,柳杉紅色心材之材色才會由紅褐色偏向黃綠色的趨勢改變;柳杉黃色心材之材色會由黃紅色偏向紅藍色的趨勢改變。此外,柳杉紅色和黃色心材經波長600 nm以上光線照射後的△ a*值(紅綠軸的差異值)和△ b*值(黃藍軸的差異值)均隨著時間的增長而增加,換言之,心材顏色會變得更紅;而且柳杉黃色心材經波長600 nm以上光線照射後的△ a*和△ b*值增加的程度比柳杉紅色心材還要大。至於紅色化柳杉心材在室內曝露後之材色穩定性,試驗結果發現紅色化柳杉黃色心材之材色穩定性比紅色化柳杉紅色心材還要好,換言之,紅色化柳杉黃色心材維持紅色的時間較長。
另外,以遮光萃取的柳杉紅色心材甲醇抽出物,經定量得知心材中抽出成分所佔重量百分率為9.14 %。而心材甲醇抽出物經不同極性之溶劑分離後得正己烷可溶部4.30 %、氯仿可溶部1.04 %、乙酸乙酯可溶部3.20 %、甲醇可溶部 0.43 %及甲醇不溶部0.06 %。再進一步針對甲醇抽出物中易變色的可溶部作探討,結果顯示,柳杉紅色心材甲醇抽出物中各可溶部,在受光線作用後均會產生顏色的改變,甲醇可溶部的顏色會偏向藍紅色相;氯仿可溶部和正己烷可溶部則會偏向黃綠色相,而乙酸乙酯可溶部顏色變化最劇烈,會偏向紅黃色相。乙酸乙酯可溶部中各分離部經植物燈照射後均會偏向紅黃色相,其中,以乙酸乙酯可溶部中第11個分離部(E11)的顏色變化最大,而乙酸乙酯可溶部中第8個分離部(E8)的顏色變化最小。另外,乙酸乙酯可溶部中各分離部經波長600 nm以上光線照射後均會產生顏色的改變,其中,以E8分離部顏色變化最大,而且顏色會偏向紅黃色相。
Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) is one of the important planted tree species grown in Taiwan. Because of the diversity of Japanese cedar species, thus, the color variations existed in the different forms of Japanese cedar. In addition, the color of Japanese cedar heartwood is susceptible to change to dull black after exposure it to natural environment. This degradation is a significant defect that decreases the value of Japanese cedar products. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the discoloration of Japanese cedar heartwood induced by the environmental factors. To understand the discoloration of Japanese cedar reddish and yellowish heartwood caused by environmental factors and light wavelengths, Japanese cedar specimens were exposed under various environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, and light of different wavelengths. Results demonstrated that the color of Japanese cedar turned to brownish black in the presence of high moisture. On the other hand, the color of Japanese cedar reddish and yellowish heartwood did not change in the presence of oxygen. Under the combined influence of light and oxygen, the color of reddish heartwood changed from brownish red to yellowish green and the color of yellowish heartwood changed from yellowish red to reddish blue. In addition, the △ a* value (redness/greenness of difference) and △ b* value (yellowness/blueness of difference) of Japanese cedar reddish and yellowish heartwood irradiated with light of wavelengths above 600 nm were surprisingly increased with the irradiation time, indicating its color changed to red. Furthermore, the △ a* and △ b* value of Japanese cedar yellowish heartwood was even higher than Japanese cedar reddish heartwood after irradiation with light of wavelengths above 600 nm. As for the stability of reddened Japanese cedar heartwood exposed to the indoors. The stability of reddened Japanese cedar yellowish heartwood was better than that of reddened Japanese cedar reddish heartwood, indicating its enhanced red color can retain for longer time.
Besides, the amounts of MeOH extractives of Japanese cedar reddish heartwood obtained are 9.14 %. After extracting in succession with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, the MeOH extractives can be further classified into Hex. (n-hexane) soluble fraction (4.30 %), Chl. (chloroform) soluble fraction (1.04 %), EtOAc (ethyl acetate) soluble fraction (3.20 %), MeOH (methanol) soluble fraction (0.43 %), and MeOH (methanol) insoluble fraction (0.06 %). The purpose of further study is to find the fractions of the MeOH extractives being susceptibility to color change in Japanese cedar reddish heartwood. Every soluble fractions of MeOH extractives of Japanese cedar reddish heartwood discolored under the influence of light. A significant change in the hue of the MeOH soluble fraction toward bluish red was observed. The hue of the Chl. and Hex. soluble fractions changed toward yellowish green. The EtOAc soluble fraction discolored immediately and significantly under the influence of light, its hue changed toward reddish yellow. After exposure to plant lamps, color variations of paper impregnated with five subfractions of EtOAc soluble extractives occurred and their hue changed toward reddish yellow. Especially, the color variation of E11 subfraction (the 11th subfraction of EtOAc soluble fraction) was the most significant; the color variation of E8 subfraction (the 8th subfraction of EtOAc soluble fraction) was the least. In addition, changes in the color of paper impregnated with five subfractions of EtOAc soluble extractives occurred also when exposure to light with wavelengths above 600 nm. Among them, the color variation of E8 subfraction was the most severe, and its hue finally changed to reddish yellow.
頁 次
表目次 ……………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目次 ……………………………………………………………Ⅴ
摘要 ……………………………………………………………Ⅹ
Summary …………………………………………………………ⅩⅡ
Ⅰ、緒言 …………………………………………………………..1
Ⅱ、文獻回顧 ……………………………………………………..4
(Ⅰ) 與木材光變色有關之抽出成分 ……………………….…....5
1. 顏色形成的機制 ……………………………………….......5
2. 木材中的顏色物質 …………………………………….......7
3. 抽出成分受光照射後所產生的顏色變化 ……………......15
(Ⅱ) 木材光變色的反應機制及抑制方法 ……………………....17
(Ⅲ) 柳杉心材黑色化……………………………………………....19
(Ⅳ) 柳杉抽出成分 ……………………………………………....19
Ⅲ、材料與方法 ………………………………………………….22
(Ⅰ) 試驗材料……………………………………………………....22
(Ⅱ) 試驗方法 …………………………………………………....23
1. 不同環境因子對柳杉心變色之影響 ……………………...23
2. 光波長對柳杉心材變色之影響 …………………….……..24
3. 紅色化柳杉心材之材色穩定性 …………………………...25
4. 柳杉抽出成分之萃取與分離 ……………………………...25
5. 乙酸乙酯可溶部之分離 …………………………………...26
6. 抽出成分含浸紙之製作 …………………………………...27
7. 抽出成分含浸紙之照光試驗 ……………………………...28
8. 表面顏色變化分析 ………………………………………...28
Ⅳ、結果與討論 …………………………………………………..31
(Ⅰ) 環境因子對柳杉心材變色之影響 ………………………......31
1. 環境因子對柳杉紅色心材變色之影響 …………………......31
(1) 水分對柳杉紅色心材變色之影響 …………………….......31
(2) 光線與氧氣對柳杉紅色心材變色之影響 …………….......34
2. 環境因子對柳杉黃色心材變色之影響 …………………......36
(1) 水分對柳杉黃色心材變色之影響 …………………….......36
(2) 光線與氧氣對柳杉黃色心材變色之影響 …………….......38
(Ⅱ) 光波長對柳杉心材變色之影響 …………………………........40
1. 光波長對柳杉紅色心材變色之影響 ……………………......40
2. 光波長對柳杉黃色心材變色之影響 ……………………......43
(Ⅲ) 紅色化柳杉心材之材色穩定性 …………………………........47
1. 柳杉紅色心材之材色穩定性 …………………………….......47
2. 柳杉黃色心材之材色穩定性 …………………………….......48
(Ⅳ) 柳杉心材抽出成分之萃取與分離 ……………………….........49
(Ⅴ) 柳杉心材抽出成分含浸紙之光變色 …………………….........51
1. 甲醇抽出成分各可溶部含浸紙的光變色 ……………….......51
2. 乙酸乙酯可溶部之分離部含浸紙的光變色 …………….......55
(1) 含浸紙經植物燈照光後之顏色變化 …………………........55
(2) 含浸紙經波長600 nm以上的光線照射後之顏色變化 . ....59
Ⅴ、結論 …………………………………………………………….63
Ⅵ、參考文獻 ……………………………………………………….65
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