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研究生:陳品方
研究生(外文):Pin-Fun Chen
論文名稱:台灣杉與土肉桂精油及其成分之生物活性
論文名稱(外文):Bioactivity of Essential Oils and Their Components from Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata) and Indigenous Cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.)
指導教授:張上鎮張上鎮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shang- Tzen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:台灣杉土肉桂精油抗細菌活性抗蠻活性抗腐朽菌活性
外文關鍵詞:TaiwaniaIndigenous Cinnamonessential oilantibacterial activityantimite activityantifungal activity
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為了評估台灣杉(Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata)與土肉桂(Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.)兩種台灣固有樹種精油之生物活性,及瞭解各成分在各生物活性上所扮演的角色,本試驗乃萃取其精油並分離其成分,然後進行抗細菌、抗及抗腐朽菌三種生物活性試驗。由抗細菌試驗結果得知,台灣杉心材精油及抽出成分僅對格蘭氏陽性菌顯示抗菌活性,而精油之抗細菌活性係由Cadinane骨架化合物所造成,至於三個同屬Cadinane骨架之同分異構物-Cadinol、T-Cadinol與T-Muurolol的抗細菌活性,並未因立體結構不同而有所影響。另外,二類抽出成分Ferruginol則顯現最佳之抗細菌活性。至於土肉桂葉精油,亦顯現相當程度之抗細菌活性,且對格蘭氏陽性及陰性菌皆具抑菌性;試驗結果亦顯示土肉桂葉精油對格蘭氏陽性菌之抗細菌活性與其成分中桂皮醛(Cinnamaldehyde)含量有密切的相關性,而精油中各成分之抗細菌活性以桂皮醛最為顯著。由抗試驗結果得知,台灣杉心材精油具抑制室塵的作用,而各成分中以-Cadinol具有最佳之抑制效果,至於三個同分異構物的抗活性大小則為-Cadinol > T-Muurolol > T-Cadinol;土肉桂葉精油則顯現相當優異之抗效果,而此抗活性並不單純由桂皮醛所造成,須由某些特殊成分或一群成分的增效作用而產生。另外,由抗腐朽菌試驗結果亦得知土肉桂葉精油具顯著之抗腐朽菌活性,且精油成分中亦以桂皮醛顯現最強的抑制作用。除此之外,比較桂皮醛同類化合物中的生物活性,證實抗細菌活性及抗腐朽菌活性皆以桂皮醛為最佳,而抗活性則是以桂皮乙酸酯(Cinnamyl acetate)最為顯著。最後,並發現濾紙含浸Cinnamaldehyde、-Cadinol、土肉桂葉精油及台灣杉心材精油後,可獲得顯著之防黴效果,具有潛力製成防黴抗菌之特殊用紙。
To evaluate the bioactivity of the essential oils of two endemic tree in Taiwan, Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata) and Indigenous Cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.), and to understand the role of their constituents for every bioactivity, the essential oils were extracted and their constituents were analyzed and isolated in this study. The essential oils and their constituents were carried on antibacterial, antimite, and antifungal tests. According to the results of antibacterial test, the essential oil of Taiwania heartwood and its constituents exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of Taiwania heartwood essential oil was ascribed to the cadinane skeletal extractives. The antibacterial activities of three cadinane type sesquiterpenoids, namely -cadinol, T-cadinol, and T-muurolol, having different configurations, were the same against four tested bacteria. In addition, the diterpenoid, ferruginol, displayed the best antibacterial activities. On the other hand, the essential oil extracted from Indigenous Cinnamon leaves also had demonstrable antibacterial activities on both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Furthermore, the results of antibacterial test also demonstrated that the bioactivity of Indigenous Cinnamon leaf essential oil against Gram-positive bacteria related to the contents of cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antibacterial activity compared with the other constituents of the leaf essential oil.
According to the results of antimite test, Taiwania heartwood essential oil had miticidal activities against house dust mites. -Cadinol possessed the strongest antimite activity in comparison with other components of the Taiwania heartwood essential oil. The decreasing order of antimite activity of three cadinane skeletal sesquiterpenoids was: -cadinol > T-muurolol > T-cadinol. In addition, Indigenous Cinnamon leaf essential oil also had very strong antimite activities. Furthermore, the results also implied that some special components or a synergistic effect of a group of the components in Indigenous Cinnamon leaf essential oil endowed it with such strong antimite activities.
Results of antifungal test revealed that Indigenous Cinnamon leaf essential oil also possessed significant antifungal activities against wood rot fungi. Cinnamaldehyde also displayed the strongest antifungal activities compared to the other constituents of leaf essential oil. Furthermore, comparisons of the bioactivities of cinnamaldehyde’s congeners demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde had the strongest antibacterial and antifungal activities, and cinnamyl acetate exhibited the strongest antimite activities. In addition, according to the results of mildew resistance test, filter paper impregnated with cinnamaldehyde, -cadinol, Indigenous Cinnamon leaf essential oil, and Taiwania heartwood essential oil exhibited good mildew resistance property. It reveals that these essential oils and compounds have potential to be utilized in making antifungal paper products.
頁 次
表目次 …………………………………………………....Ⅲ
圖目次 ………………………………………………………Ⅵ
摘要 ………………………………………………………Ⅶ
Summary ……………………………………………………Ⅷ
Ⅰ、緒言 …………………………………………………… 1
Ⅱ、文獻回顧 ……………………………………………… 3
(Ⅰ)樹木精油及抽出成分之生物活性 ………………… 3
1. 精油之萃取 ……………………………………………. 4
2. 抗細菌活性之研究 ……………………………………. 6
(1) 抗細菌活性試驗方法 ………………………………. 6
(2) 具抗細菌活性之精油 ………………………………. 7
3. 抗活性之研究 ……………………………………… 10
(1) 抗活性試驗方法 ………………………………….10
(2) 具抗活性之精油 ………………………………….12
4. 抗腐朽菌活性之研究 ………………………………….15
(1) 抗腐朽菌活性試驗方法 …………………………….15
(2) 具抗腐朽菌活性之精油 …………………………….17
(Ⅱ)台灣杉精油及抽出成分之生物活性 ………………18
(Ⅲ)肉桂精油及精油成分之生物活性 …………………20
Ⅲ、材料與方法 ……………………………………………24
(Ⅰ)試驗材料 ……………………………………………24
1. 樹種 …………………………………………………….24
2. 微生物 ………………………………………………….24
3. 類 …………………………………………………….25
4. 培養基 ………………………………………………….25
5. 化學試藥 ……………………………………………….27
(Ⅱ)試驗方法 ……………………………………………27
1. 精油之萃取 …………………………………………….27
2. 精油之氣相層析 ……………………………………….27
3. 抽出成分之分離 ……………………………………….28
4. 抗細菌試驗 …………………………………………….28
5. 抗試驗 ……………………………………………….28
6. 抗腐朽菌試驗 ………………………………………….29
7. 防黴性試驗 …………………………………………….29
Ⅳ、結果與討論 ……………………………………………30
(Ⅰ)精油成分之定量 ……………………………………30
1. 台灣杉精油重要成分之定量 ………………………….30
2. 土肉桂葉精油成分之定量 …………………………….30
(Ⅱ)抗細菌活性 ………………………………………....32
1. 台灣杉精油及其成分之抗細菌活性 ………………….32
2. 土肉桂精油及其成分之抗細菌活性 ………………….37
(Ⅲ)抗室塵活性 ………………………………………43
1. 台灣杉精油及其成分之抗活性 …………………….43
2. 土肉桂精油及其成分之抗活性 …………………….46
(Ⅳ)抗腐朽菌活性 ………………………………………49
1. 六樹種精油之抗腐朽菌活性 ………………………….49
2. 台灣杉精油之抗腐朽菌活性 ………………………….50
3. 土肉桂精油及其成分之抗腐朽菌活性………………….51
(Ⅴ)防黴性紙類應用研究 ………………………………56
Ⅴ、結論 ……………………………………………………58
Ⅵ、參考文獻 ………………………………………………61
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