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研究生:莊景光
研究生(外文):Jiing-Guang Chuang
論文名稱:花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrB和gyrA基因之選殖
論文名稱(外文):Cloning of gyrB and gyrA Genes of Phytoplasma Associated with Peanut Witches'' Broom
指導教授:林長平林長平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chan-Pin Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:植物病理學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:花生簇葉病病原菌質體拓撲酵素選殖
外文關鍵詞:topoisomerase IIgyrBgyrAPNWBphytoplasma
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花生簇葉病(Peanut witches’ broom, PNWB)是由植物菌質體(phytoplasma)所引起之病害。由於植物菌質體仍無法人工培養,因此有關其生理生化特性的研究仍屬有限。Gyrase是由 gyrA 及 gyrB 基因分別轉譯出的兩個A subunits及兩個B subunits所共同組成,是屬於第二型的DNA topoisomerase,其功能與DNA的複製有關。本研究在進行花生簇葉病病原菌質體 gyrB 基因選殖時,以Acholeplasma laidlawii、Bacillus sp.、Escherichia coli、Staphylococcus aureus、Streptococcus pneumoniae、Spiroplasma citri及Mycoplasma spp. 等細菌之gyrB基因進行比對,先根據其高保守性區域設計PCR引子,再以花生簇葉病病原菌質體DNA為模板進行PCR反應,獲得一1.4 kb大小之PCR產物,再以此序列設計PCR引子對以增幅出篩選用核酸探針,並藉以篩選花生簇葉病病原菌質體之基因庫,遂獲得一選殖株重組質體pPGB 1-4。對pPGB 1-4之嵌入片段行核酸序列分析得知其包含一個完整open reading frame (ORF),稱為ORF1。而藉由pPGB 1-4上已知序列及比對其他細菌gyrA基因核酸序列,設計PCR引子對增幅出gyrA篩選用探針,並成功的選殖出另一重組質體pPGA 2-3,經核酸序列解序後與pPGB 1-4序列共同進行核酸序列分析,獲得另一完整的ORF2序列。由ORF1及ORF2推衍所得之胺基酸序列進行比對分析後,發現其基因大小及基因結構與其他細菌的gyrB及gyrA基因相似。藉此推斷,ORF1及ORF2應分別為花生簇葉病病原菌質體之gyrB及gyrA基因。在此gyrB基因及gyrA基因核酸片段之密碼利用性上,並未發現以UGA作為tryptophan遺傳密碼的情形,且和其他Mollicutes綱之細菌的基因體同樣具有AT-rich的特性。由南方氏雜合反應的結果可發現在花生簇葉病病原菌質體中應僅具有單一套(single copy number)之gyrB基因及gyrA基因。由北方式雜合反應及反轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應的結果可發現,在花生簇葉病病原菌質體中gyrB及gyrA基因有可能是以gyrB-gyrA cotranscription 的方式進行轉錄。
DNA gyrase is a type II topoisomerase that is a tetrameric molecule composed of two A and two B subunits, which are encoded by the gyrA and gyrB genes, respectively. In order to clone and analyses the gyrB gene, a pair of oligo-nucleotides PCR primer GBF2/ GBR3 was designed according to the sequences of the gyrB gene of Acholeplasma laidlawii, Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptomyces spheroides, Spiroplasma citri and Mycoplasma spp. Total DNA from diseased periwinkle infected with phytoplasma associated with peanut witches’ broom (PNWB)was prepared for PCR reaction to amplify a 1458 bp-PCR fragment of the gyrB gene of the phytoplasma. A 768 bp-PCR product was then amplified by using the primers GBF3, GBR5 synthesized according to the sequences of the 1458 bp-PCR fragment and used as a nucleic acid probe for the screening of the Lambda ZAP II genomic library of PNWB-phytoplasma. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 5.0 kb insert DNA of pPGB 1-4, one of the in vivo excised recombinants carrying a complete open reading frame (ORF), ORF1 was determined. And in order to clone and analyses the gyrA gene, a specific primer GAF1 was designed based on the ORF1 DNA sequence, and the other degenerate primer GAR2 was designed according to the sequences of the gyrA gene of E. coli, Bacillus sp., S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium. Total DNA from diseased periwinkle infected with phytoplasma associated with peanut witches’ broom (PNWB) was prepared for PCR reaction to amplify a 995 bp-PCR fragment of the gyrA gene of the phytoplasma. A 462 bp-PCR product was then amplified by using the primers GAF3, GAR3 synthesized according to the sequences of the 995 bp-PCR fragment and used as a nucleic acid probe for the screening of the Lambda ZAP II genomic library of PNWB-phytoplasma. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 4.0 kb insert DNA of pPGA 2-3, one of the in vivo excised recombinants carrying a complete ORF, ORF2 was determined. The genes organization and the nucleotide sequence in conserved region of the ORFs are similar to those of the homologous gyrB and gyrA genes of other organisms. According to the nucleic acid and amino acid sequence analyses, these genes were identified as the putative gyrB and gyrA genes. According to the results of Southern hybridization analysis by using the probe for gyrB or gyrA, it is suggested that only one copy of gyrB and gyrA may exist in PNWB-phytoplasma. However, according to the results of Northern hybridization and RT-PCR analyses, it is suggested that gyrB and gyrA may be cotranscribed as a polycistronic mRNA in PNWB-phytoplasma.
壹、前言
貳、前人研究
一、植物菌質體之發現
二、植物菌質體之植物病理學(plant pathology)
三、Mollicutes綱細菌之生物特性
四、植物菌質體在分子生物學上的研究
五、細菌DNA gyrase之研究
參、材料與方法
一、試驗植物來源及繁殖
二、健康植物及受花生簇葉病病原菌質體感染植物全DNA(total DNA)之純化
三、花生簇葉病病原菌質體基因庫之增量(amplification)
(一)基因庫大小之測定(titering)
(二)噬菌體之增量(amplification)
四、花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrB基因篩選用核酸探針(probe)之製備及基因庫之篩選(screening)
A. 花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrB基因篩選用核酸探針之製備
(一)聚合酵素連鎖反應(PCR)引子(primer)之設計與聚合酵素連鎖反應
(二)聚合酵素連鎖反應產物之選殖(cloning)
1.黏結反應
2.轉型作用(transformation)
3.準轉型株之特性分析(1)微量抽取質體DNA(plasmid DNA mini preparation)
(2)嵌入片段大小之分析
(3)重組質體DNA之PCR反應
(4)準轉型株所帶重組質體嵌入DNA之核酸定序(sequencing)與其序列分析
(三)基因庫篩選用核酸探針之製備
1. 轉型株所帶質體之回收
2. 轉型株重組質體嵌入DNA探針之標識(labeling)
B. 花生簇葉病病原菌質體基因庫之篩選(screening)
(一)基因庫之增殖及噬菌體溶菌斑之轉印(plaque lifting)
(二)雜配(hybridization reaction)及呈色反應
(三)生體內剪接作用(in vivo excision)
(四)選殖株之特性分析
1.微量抽取質體DNA
2.嵌入片段大小之分析
3.選殖株重組質體之PCR反應
4.選殖株嵌入DNA之核酸定序(sequencing)
五、花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrA基因篩選用核酸探針之製備及基因庫篩選
六、以南方氏轉漬(Southern blotting)及雜配反應(hybridization)確定gyrB、gyrA基因之套數(copy number)
(一)核酸探針之製備
(二)南方氏轉漬
七、北方式轉漬(northern blotting)及雜配反應
(一)植物體全RNA之純化
(二)北方式轉漬及雜配反應
八、反轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應(revese transcription PCR, RT-PCR)
(一)反轉錄反應
(二)聚合酵素連鎖反應
肆、結果
一、以日日春為宿主繁殖花生簇葉病病原菌質體
二、健康植物及受花生簇葉病病原菌質體感染植物全DNA之純化三、花生簇葉病病原菌質體基因庫大小之測定四、花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrB基因篩選用核酸探針之製備及基因庫之篩選
A. 花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrB基因篩選用核酸探針之製備
(一)PCR反應引子之設計(二)PCR反應及PCR反應產物之選殖
(三)轉型株之特性分析
B. 花生簇葉病病原菌質體基因庫之篩選
(一)基因庫之篩選
(二)選殖株嵌入片段核酸序列及胺基酸序列之分析與比對五、花生簇葉病病原菌質體gyrA基因核酸探針之製備及基因庫篩選六、以南方氏轉漬法及雜配反應確定套數
七、北方式轉漬法及雜配反應
八、反轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應伍、討論陸、中文摘要
柒、英文摘要
捌、參考文獻
玖、圖 表
拾、附 錄
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