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研究生(外文):Shu-Huan Wu
論文名稱(外文):The Time-Space Continuum in Beckett''s Waiting for Godot,Endgame and Happy Days
指導教授(外文):Sheue-Jen Liu
中文關鍵詞:心理空間巴赫汀時空型時空連續漢娜 絲考妮可芙山繆 貝克特戲劇空間
外文關鍵詞:The Theatrical SpaceSamuel BeckettTime-Space ContinuumHanna ScolnicovChronotopeConceptual SpaceBakhtin
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本論文係以巴赫汀(Mikhail Bakhtin)的時空型理論(The Time-Space Continuum)來探討山繆•貝克特(Samuel Beckett)的三齣戲劇:《等待果陀》(Waiting for Godot)、《結局》(Endgame),以及《快樂天》(Happy Days)。在此三部作品中貝克特呈現對時間和空間匠心獨運的安排,並深刻顯現他對現今人類生存問題的終極關懷。
  導言概論山繆•貝克特劇作與巴赫汀時空型理論的關係: 探討時間是如何藉由空間現形、空間是如何更具體展示於時間的次序�堙B以及貝克特的哲學思想與時空架構密切的關係。在貝克特劇作中的時空形式與巴赫汀的「時空不可分割」主張相互呼應。除此之外,此篇論文更輔以漢娜•絲考妮可芙(Hanna Scolnicov)的戲劇空間理論(Theatre Space, Theatrical Space, and the Theatrical Space Without)作為章節安排的主要架構。
  第一章探討舞台上的空間--內在戲劇空間(The Theatrical Space Within)。首先分析舞台上的各個道具,進而探究空間的領域,並討論時間的發展次序。在舞台上,時間是反覆行進的、空間是一成不變的;貝克特如此這般暗示人類每日生活的一成不變。巴赫汀的時空交互作用(the intersection between time and space)在此章中亦有深入的討論,藉此更強調了前述時空不可分割的循環性。
  第二章研討舞台外的空間--外在戲劇空間(The Theatrical Space Without)。那是觀眾的肉眼無法識別的領域。「外在戲劇空間」著重於角色提到的空間和時間--過去、未來。不可知的未來與破碎的記憶使得他們迷失在時空�堙F時間的不連續是「外在戲劇空間」討論的重點。
  第三章說明角色的心理空間(Conceptual Space)。角色與外在環境的關係是疏離的(Alienation),他們無法分辨自我所處的環境。角色與角色的關係(象徵性意涵)事實上是一體而不容分割的。貝克特認為人類既被棄於世上獨自生存,人類理應相互需要與扶持,相互依靠,以證明存在的價值。結論總結前述時空觀點並延續日後對貝克特的研究方向。
This thesis is a research on Samuel Beckett''s plays Waiting for Godot, Endgame and Happy Days--in the light of Mikhail Bakhtin''s theory of Time-Space Continuum. Beckett''s concept of time and space is manifested in these three dramatic works. These plays are crucial for comprehending Beckett''s concerns about human life of our age.
   Introduce is devoted to explicating how Bakhtin''s theory has helped to analyze Beckettian time-space structure: how time becomes visible in space, how space becomes more concrete in associating with temporal sequences and what relationship exists between Beckettian philosophical ideas and time-space structure. The forms of time and of the chronotope in Beckettian plays are evocative to Bakhtin''s insistence that time and space are inseparable. The basic construction of this thesis is based on Hanna Scolnicov''s division of the theatrical space. She defines the visible space on the stage as the theatrical space within and the invisible space/verbal space as the theatrical space without.
   Chapter One looks into the space on the stage-the theatrical space within. Analyzing the meaning of every object present on the stage, I focus on spatial dimension first and then their temporal sequences. On the stage, the time is repetitive and the space is changeless. Beckett implies that this is human beings'' life in the earthly world. Applying Bakhtin''s theory about the intersection of time and space to Beckett''s plays, I emphasize the inseparability of time and space.
   Chapter Two studies the theatrical space without which is invisible to spectators'' naked eyes. The theatrical space without focuses on the places characters mentioned and the time they will be in the future or had been in the past. The unknowable future and fragmented memory about the past make them lost in the flux of time. The discontinuity of time is revealed in the theatrical space without.
   Chapter Three accounts for the discussion of conceptual space. The relationship between characters and their surroundings is alienation. They fail to recognize their situation. The relationship between characters and characters, the distance in their concept, is inseparable. Beckett regards humans as being thrown into the earthly existence independently. People are interdependent and need companions. Humans need witnesses in order to make sure of our own existence. The last part of my thesis, Conclusion, concludes the foregoing investigation of time-space continuum.
Chinese Abstract . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
English Abstract .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01
Chapter I : The Theatrical Space Within . . . . . . . 11
Chapter II : The Theatrical Space Without . . . . . . 32
Chapter III : Conceptual Space . . . . .. . . . . . . 58
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
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