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研究生:簡郁娟
研究生(外文):Yu-chuan Chien
論文名稱:"可預測故事"影響外語初學者口語與閱讀發展之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Predictable Stories on Oral and Emergent Literacy Development: A Descriptive Study of EFL Beginners in Kindergarten
指導教授:黃月貴黃月貴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yueh-kuey Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:西洋語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:88
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:可預測故事啟發期閱讀以英語為外語初學者幼稚園英語教學閱讀全語言
外文關鍵詞:predictable storyemergent literacyEFLbeginnerkindergartenteaching Engllishreadingwhole language
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  在傳統的外語教學中,故事教學常因為單字、文法結構難度的限制,而將其置於中、高級課程的教學內容;然而根據全語文的教學理念與實驗證明,年幼的第二語言初學者,能在理解故事內容的過程中,學習故事中的新語言與語言的語法知識(K. Goodman, Y. Goodman, & Flores, 1979; Hudelson, 1981)。尤其是可預測故事(predictable story),這類的故事中含有不斷重覆且符合自然情境的句型結構,不但提供真實而有趣的學習情境,讓孩子自然而然地了解故事的大意之外,同時也提供了有意義的重覆練習,學生在跟著讀故事的過程中,不知不覺地又練習了好多遍與主題相關的生字、句型。而且,學生們也不知不覺地記住了故事的內容,許多學生甚至於能夠再重述整個故事。本實驗以五個幼稚園大班的學童為個案研究對象,旨在探討以可預測故事為初學者閱讀教材的可行性。在本研究中的幼稚園學童,從初學階段起,即開始閱讀許多配合學習主題內容的故事,有的是用來呈現主題教學與引發學習動機;有的則是做為另類的單元複習。分項探討主題如下:(1)故事教學對年幼初學者口語發展的影響為何?(2)經由分析兒童對啟發期閱讀(emergent literacy)行為及書本文字概念(print awareness)的結果,探討故事教學對其閱讀發展的影響(3)探討學童的母語閱讀能力,學童家長對啟發期閱讀的看法與在家中的輔導情況,對孩子在英語閱讀發展的相關影響。
  研究結果發現,外語的初學者與以英語為母語的兒童一樣,除了可以從適合的故事中學到新的語言,並經初步的文字接觸,開始產生啟發期閱讀的行為,至於其他閱讀策略的運用,例如:字母拼讀的能力,則有個別差異,與學童本身在中文的閱讀行為及家長對啟發期閱讀的看法有正面關係。
  本研究目的除了提供給兒童英語教師對年幼外語初學者在閱讀教學上的建議之外,更希望提供給老師在選擇閱讀教材時一個新的觀點:一個能提供符合自然情境需求而且讓學生容易預測並重述內容的故事,更可鼓勵年幼的初學者開始主動探索外語的學習;並非以符合拼音規則的生字,與配合學習者程度的文法結構為內容者,才可做為基礎閱讀的故事或讀本。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using predictable stories as reading materials on the oral and emergent literacy development of EFL beginners in kindergarten in Taiwan. A child-centered and literature-based curriculum integrating whole language philosophy, the natural approach and TPR was developed for a group of kindergarten students at a typical public school in Taiwan. Daily instruction was given by the researcher for one school year.
Five students aged 6 to 7 were chosen based on a consideration of their family background and ability levels. Using the mode of ethnographic research, the study involved multiple data sources obtained from observation during daily instruction and parental interviews in order to examine children''s oral performance and emergent literacy development. Data collection was obtained by the use of videotape, audiotape, teaching logs, students'' portfolios, and miscue analysis. The findings of the study showed that predictable storybooks enable EFL children to develop some aspects of reading behaviors such as book awareness, the directionality of print and print awareness. Some children even began to construct meaning by using their grapho-phonemic knowledge in order to make sense of the story without explicit phonics instruction. The children''s L1 reading behaviors and parents'' attitudes toward emergent literacy observed in the study are correlated with the children''s L2 reading behaviors. The story instruction provides a great source to expand he children''s oral language use in the real-life situation.
The findings of this study provide EFL teachers and curriculum planners with new information about how EFL children develop their second language reading and how EFL children learn from the early reading experience to expand the overall L2 proficiency through predictable storybooks at the beginning level.
Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 The Research Problem .................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Purpose of the Study ....................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Research Questions .......................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Research Methodology .................................................................................................... 8
1.5 Significance of the Study ................................................................................................. 9
1.6 Limitations of the Study ................................................................................................... 9
1.7 Definition of Terms .......................................................................................................... 10
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................................................................ 13
2.1 Reading Process in First Language Acquisition ............................................................... 14
2.1.1 Research in First Language Reading ....................................................................... 14
2.1.2 Alternative Approach Helping Children in Literacy ................................................ 19
2.1.3 Emergent Literacy ................................................................................................... 20
2.1.4 Using Predictable Reading Materials on L1 Young Children ................................... 22
2.2 Reading Process in L2/FL ................................................................................................. 25
2.2.1 Research in L2/F2 Reading ...................................................................................... 25
2.2.2 Using Predictable Reading Materials on L1 Young Children .................................... 29
2.2.3 The Degree of Difference Between L1 and L2/FL Writing Systems and Its Effect on L2
/FL Reading ............................................................................................................. 32
2.2.4 L1 Reading Strategies Transfer in Second Language ................................................ 33
III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES ............................................................................................ 36
3.1 Subjects ............................................................................................................................. 36
3.1.1 Selection of Subjects ................................................................................................. 36
3.1.2 Background Information on the Subjects .................................................................. 37
3.1.3 Parental Involvement ................................................................................................ 38
3.2 Research Questions ........................................................................................................... 38
3.3 Research Design ............................................................................................................... 39
3.3.1 Selection of Texts ..................................................................................................... 39
3.3.2 Organization of the Curriculim .................................................................................. 40
3.4 Instrument .......................................................................................................................... 41
3.5 Data Collection Procedures ................................................................................................ 42
3.5.1 Initial Data Collection ............................................................................................... 43
3.5.2 Ongoing Data Collection .......................................................................................... 43
3.5.1 Post-program Data Collection ................................................................................... 43
3.6 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................... 44
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ............................................................................................ 46
4.1 The Changes in Oral Language Use .................................................................................. 46
4.2 The Influences of Predictable Storybooks on Emergent Reading Development ................. 51
4.3 The Factors Contributed to the Literacy Development of EFL Learners.............................. 68
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY ................................ 79
5.1 Summery of the Study........................................................................................................ 79
5.2 Major Findings of the Study ............................................................................................... 80
5.3 Implications for the Study .................................................................................................. 85
5.4 Suggestions of Further Research ........................................................................................ 87
5.5 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 88
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 89
APPENDIXS .................................................................................................................................. 98
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