(3.236.122.9) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/09 07:07
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李健銘
研究生(外文):Chien-Ming Lee
論文名稱:MPEG-4影像傳輸錯誤的偵測與隱蔽
論文名稱(外文):Detection and Concealment of Transmission Errors in MPEG-4 Images
指導教授:柳金章柳金章引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-Jang Leou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:傳輸錯誤MPEG-4影像錯誤偵測錯誤隱蔽形狀資料紋理資料
外文關鍵詞:Transmission errorMPEG-4 imageerror detectionerror concealmentshape datatexture data
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:161
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
因為MPEG-4影像內容使用熵編碼,所以若有一個傳輸錯誤發生,就會造成在同一video packet中目前字碼及其接續字碼的解碼錯誤,進一步使接收影像的品質大大降低。在此一個傳輸錯誤可以是單一錯誤位元或迸發錯誤。在本研究中,我們提出以偵測及隱蔽的方法去處理MPEG-4影像的傳輸錯誤 。 所提出方法乃是利用所接收到的MPEG-4影像中可使用的資訊來降低傳輸錯誤造成的視覺上的突兀,以便重建出對應的高品質影像。所提方法不會增加傳輸位元率,亦不必改變傳輸器(編碼器)。
在所提出的方法中,MPEG-4影像的傳輸錯誤可用連續兩個程序來偵測:(1)每一個video packet是否有錯誤發生是以一些錯誤檢驗條件來決定的,這些錯誤檢驗條件是得自於MPEG-4壓縮標準的限制;(2)使用一個回溯機制以便找到一個錯誤video packet中,第一個錯誤區塊的確切位置。在傳輸錯誤被偵測到之後,再使用所提出的錯誤隱蔽方法來恢復原來的形狀與影像紋理區塊。MPEG-4影像含有I-, P-, 與BVOP三種型態,前者為intra-coded,而後二者為inter-coded。對intra-coded的IVOPs形狀的錯誤隱蔽,我們採用[13]所提的方法,而對inter-coded的P-與BVOPs形狀的錯誤隱蔽我們提出一種新方法。另外在恢復(復原)紋理錯誤方面,我們將數種使用空間、頻率、與時間資訊的隱蔽技術一起使用,以產生每個紋理區塊之可能的候選隱蔽區塊。再根據所提出用於紋理錯誤隱蔽的隱蔽成本函數,從所有可能的紋理錯誤隱蔽區塊中選出一個最佳的紋理錯誤隱蔽區塊來隱蔽受損的紋理區塊。
根據實驗結果顯示,我們所提出的方法幾乎都能從包含各種傳輸錯誤的MPEG-4影像重建出相當高品質影像,這顯示我們提出方法的可適性。

For entropy-coded MPEG-4 images, a transmission error in a codeword may cause the underlying codeword and its subsequent codewords within a video packet to be misinterpreted, resulting in a great degradation of the received MPEG-4 images. Here a transmission error may be a single-bit error or a burst error. In this study, the detection and concealment approach to transmission errors in MPEG-4 images is proposed. The objective of the proposed approach is to eliminate the visual effect induced by transmission errors within MPEG-4 images so that high-quality MPEG-4 images can be recovered from their corresponding corrupted MPEG-4 images, without increasing the transmission bit rate and without changing the transmitter (encoder).
In the proposed error detection approach, transmission errors within a video packet of an MPEG-4 image are detected by two successive procedures: (1) whether the video packet is corrupted or not is determined by checking a set of error detection conditions derived from the MPEG-4 bitstream syntax, and (2) the precise location (block-based) of the first transmission error (the first corrupted/lost block) within the corrupted video packet is verified by a backtracking procedure. After all the corrupted blocks within each video packet are detected by the proposed error detection approach, error concealment is to recover (estimate) the shape and texture data of the corrupted/lost image blocks. For MPEG-4 images, the types of VOPs include I-, P-, and BVOPs, where the former IVOPs are intra-coded and the latter P- and BVOPs are inter-coded. To recover (estimate) the corrupted/lost shape data, error concealment approach to the shape data of intra-coded IVOPs by [13] is adopted and the error concealment approach to the shape data of inter-coded P- and BVOPs is proposed in this study. On the other hand, to recover (estimate) the corrupted/lost texture data, several existing and proposed concealment techniques using spatial, spectral (frequency), and temporal information are employed together to generate a set of possible concealment candidates for each corrupted texture block. Then an objective performance measure (cost function) for texture error concealment is proposed and employed to determine the “best” texture error concealment candidate among the set of generated candidates as the concealed texture block for the corrupted/lost texture block.
Based on the simulation results, obtained in this study, the proposed approach can recover high-quality MPEG-4 images from their corresponding corrupted MPEG-4 images. This shows the feasibility of the proposed approach.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to his advisor, Dr. Jin-Jang Leou, for his tireless guidance, patient training, and kind discussions. Thanks are also due to the colleagues in the Image Processing and Computer Vision Laboratory at the Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University for their help and friendship during preparing this thesis.
The author also wishes to thank his family for their support and dedicate this thesis to his parents.

摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES x
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Survey of Related Researches 3
1.3 Overview of Proposed Approach 8
1.4 Thesis Organization 9
CHAPTER 2 MPEG-4 COMPRESSION STANDARD 10
2.1 MPEG-4 Video 10
2.1.1 Overview of MPEG-4 video 10
2.1.2 MPEG-4 video compression techniques 11
2.1.3 Syntax and data organization of MPEG-4 video 16
2.2 MPEG-4 Error Resilience Techniques 19
CHAPTER 3 DETECTION AND CONCEALMENT OF TRANSMISSION ERRORS IN MPEG-4 IMAGES 21
3.1 Proposed Error Detection Approach 22
3.2 Proposed Error Concealment Approach 31
3.2.1 Proposed error concealment approach for shape data 31
3.2.2 Proposed error concealment approach for texture data 36
CHAPTER 4 SIMULATION RESULTS 42
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 69
5.1 Discussions 69
5.2 Conclusions 70
REFERENCES 72

[1] C. T. Chen and T. R. Hsing, “Review: digital coding techniques for visual communications,“ Journal of Visual Commun. and Image Representation, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-16, 1991.
[2] M. Rabbani and P. W. Jones, Digital Image Compression Techniques. Bellingham, Washington: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1991.
[3] H. M. Hang and J. W. Woods, Handbook of Visual Communications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1995.
[4] A. M. Tekalp, Digital Video Processing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR, 1995.
[5] D. L. Gall, “MPEG: a video compression standard for multimedia applications,” Commun. of the ACM, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 46-58, 1991.
[6] ISO/IEC 11172-2, Information technology-coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s: video, Nov. 1991.
[7] ISO/IEC DIS 13818-2, Information technology-generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: video, Nov. 1994.
[8] J. L. Mitchell, W. B. Pennebaker, C. E. Fogg, and D. J. LeGall, MPEG Video Compression Standard. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997.
[9] B. G. Haskell, A. Puri, and A. N. Netravali, Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG-2. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997.
[10] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N3093, “MPEG-4 video verification model version 15.0,” 1999.
[11] Video coding for low bitrate communication, ITU-T Recommendation H.263, May 1996.
[12] M. R. Frater, W. S. Lee, M. Pickering, and J. F. Arnold, “Error concealment in video coding of arbitrarily shaped objects,” Signal Processing: Image Commu., Vol. 15, pp. 631-641, 2000.
[13] S. Shirani, B. Erol, and F. Kossentini, “A concealment method for shape information in MPEG-4 coded video sequences,” IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, Vol. 2, No. 3, September 2000.
[14] P. J. Lee, L. G. Chen, W. J. Wang, and M. J. Chen, “Robust error concealment algorithm for MPEG-4 with the aids of fuzzy theory,” IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Los Angeles, U.S.A., June 2001.
[15] S. Roman, Coding and Information Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
[16] A. Poli and L. Huguet, Error Correcting Codes. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.
[17] H. Ohta and T. Kitami, “A cell loss recovery method using FEC in ATM networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Commun., Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 1471-1483, 1991.
[18] L. J. Wang and J. J. Leou, “Detection and correction of transmission errors in pyramid images,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 25-30, 1998.
[19] W. L. Shyu and J. J. Leou, “Detection and correction of transmission errors in facsimile images,” IEEE Trans. on Commun., Vol. 44, No. 8, pp. 938-948, 1996.
[20] Y. H. Han and J. J. Leou, “Detection and correction of transmission errors in JPEG images,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 221-231, 1998.
[21] X. Lee, Y. Q. Zhang, and A. Leon-Garcia, “Information loss recovery for block-based image coding techniques — a fuzzy logic approach,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.259-273, 1995.
[22] K. H. Jung, J. H. Chang, and C. W. Lee, “Error concealment technique using projection data for block-based image coding,” SPIE, Vol. 2308, pp. 1466-1476, 1994.
[23] Y. Wang, Q. F. Zhu, and L. Shaw, “Maximally smooth image recovery in transform coding,” IEEE Trans. on Commun., Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1544-1551, 1993.
[24] G. Yu and M. W. Marcellin, and M. M. K. Liu, “Recovery of video in the presence of packet loss using interleaving and spatial redundancy,” in Proc. of 3rd Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Vol. 2, 1996, pp. 105-108.
[25] J. W. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. U. Lee, “DCT coefficients recovery-based error concealment technique and its application to the MPEG-2 bit stream error,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 845-854, 1997.
[26] H. Sun and W. Kwok, “Concealment of damaged block transform coded images using projections onto convex sets,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 470-477, 1995.
[27] W. Kwok and H. Sun, “Multi-directional interpolation for spatial error concealment,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 455-460, 1993.
[28] W. M. Lam and A. R. Reibman, “An error concealment algorithm for images subject to channel errors,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 533-542, 1995.
[29] S. S. Hemami and T. H. Y. Meng, “Transform coded image reconstruction exploiting interblock correlation,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 4, No. 7, pp. 1023-1027, 1995.
[30] Z. Wang, Y. Yu, and D. Zhang, “Best neighborhood matching: an information loss restoration technique for block-based image coding systems,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 7, No. 7, pp. 1056-1061, 1998.
[31] J. W. Suh, and Y. S. Ho, “Error concealment based on directional interpolation,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 295-302, 1997.
[32] P. J. Lee and M. J. Chen, “Robust error concealment algorithm for video decoder,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 851-859, 1999.
[33] M. Ghanbari and V. Seferidis, “Cell-loss concealment in ATM video codecs,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 238-247, 1993.
[34] M. Wada, “Selective recovery of video packet loss using error concealment,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Commun., Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 807-814, 1989.
[35] W. M. Lam, A. R. Reibman, and B. Liu, “Recovery of lost or erroneously received motion vectors,” in Proc. ICASSP’93, 1993, pp. 417-420.
[36] J. Feng, K. T. Lo, and H. Mehrpour, “Error concealment for MPEG video transmissions,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 183-187, 1997.
[37] L. H. Kieu and K. N. Ngan, “Cell-loss concealment techniques for layered video codecs in an ATM network,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 666-677, 1994.
[38] F. Zhu, Y. Wang, and L. Shaw, “Coding and cell-loss recovery in DCT-based packet video,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 248-258, 1993.
[39] H. Lee, J. S. Youn, S. H. Jang, and S. H. Jang, “Transmission error detection, resynchronization, and error concealment for MPEG video decoder,” SPIE, Vol. 2094, pp. 195-204, 1993.
[40] H, Sun and J. Zdepski, “Adaptive error concealment algorithm for MPEG compressed video,” SPIE, Vol. 1818, pp. 814-824, 1992.
[41] H. Sun, K. Challapalli, and J. Zdepski, “Error concealment in digital simulcast AD-HDTV decoder,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 108-118, 1992.
[42] W. Luo and M. E. Zarki, “Analysis of error concealment schemes for MPEG-2 video transmission over ATM based networks,” SPIE, Vol. 2501, pp. 1358-1368, 1995.
[43] W. Keck, “A method for robust decoding of erroneous MPEG-2 video bitstreams,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 411-421, 1996.
[44] P. Cuenca, L. Orozco-Barbosa, A. Garrido, F. Quiles, and T. Olivares, “A survey of error concealment schemes for MPEG-2 video communications over ATM networks,” in Canadian Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 1, 1997, pp. 118-121.
[45] W. J. Chu and J. J. Leou, “Detection and concealment of transmission errors in H.261 images,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 74-84, 1998.
[46] H. C. Shyu, and J. J. Leou, “Detection and concealment of transmission errors in MPEG-2 images-a genetic algorithm approach,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technol., Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 937-948, 1999.
[47] J. W. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. U. Lee, “Error-resilient decoding of randomly impaired MPEG-2 bit stream,” SPIE, vol. 2227, pp. 78-88, 1996.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔