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研究生:林忠溥
研究生(外文):Ling Tiing Puu
論文名稱:以多重協定標籤交換技術架設具有擴充性的虛擬私有網路
論文名稱(外文):Implementation of Scalable VPN over MPLS
指導教授:侯廷昭
指導教授(外文):Ting-Chao Hou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:MPLSVPNVRFBGPMBGPZebraSSMP
外文關鍵詞:MPLSVPNVRFBGPMBGPZebraSSMP
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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目前,企業用戶多是透過租用專線來保持公司內部連線,然而這樣所建構的網路擴充性並不佳。多重協定標籤交換技術虛擬私有網路 (MPLS VPN)是建構在同儕模式 (Peer model) 網路架構上,並沒有像重疊模式 (Overlay model) 網路N平方的擴充問題,且MPLS有效地結合了第二、三層,故可提供給我們一個有擴充性、有服務品質的VPN網路。
  在使用者方便的前提下,服務供應者可以透過MPLS骨幹網路,為客戶提供VPN的服務。MPLS VPN也允許我們使用重覆的虛擬IP,與網際網路連接,故可暫時解決IP不足的問題。
  在本論文中,我們提供建構MPLS VPN所需的考量點及策略。將Zebra BGP載入到Linux的核心,便可將我們所建構出供VPN查詢的VRF路由表資訊廣播給其他的LSR。我們也自行研發SSMP來提供給AIS交換機及管理者PC之間溝通的介面。透過以上的方法,我們可成功地建構出簡單的MPLS VPN雛型。
Geographically dispersed sites in a private network are traditionally interconnected using dedicated leased lines to ensure that inter-site connectivity is always private. However, they are built as an overlay model. MPLS VPN is constructed as a peer model network, hence the N-squared scalability issue typically with the overlay model does not exist. Furthermore, MPLS combines second layer and third layer efficiently, so it can provide a scalable and QoS VPN.
MPLS VPN allows service providers to use their IP backbone to provide VPN services to their customer. It makes the service very simple for customers to use. It also supports overlapping address spaces to efficiently use private IP address space, so it can solve the problem for lack of IP for a moment.
In this thesis, we report our effort in building a scalable VPN over MPLS in our lab. We give the considerations and strategies in building such a network. Together with porting Zebra BGP, we modify Linux kernel to build the Virtual Routing Forwarding Table, and distribute the routing information through BGP. A new switch management protocol, SSMP is developed by us for communication between the ATM Internet Switch (AIS) and the adjunct (PC). Finally, we successfully build up a simple and functional MPLS VPN prototype.
目  錄
1.簡介1
1.1 背景1
1.2 VPN面臨的困難2
1.3 IP VPN發展3
1.4 研究方法4
2.網際網路Internet5
2.1背景及技術5
2.2QoS議題5
2.3IP and ATM Overlay Model6
2.4IP and ATM Peer Model7
2.4.1Ipsilon的IP Switch8
2.4.2CISCO的Switch8
2.4.3IBM的ARIS8
2.4.4ATM論壇的MPOA9
2.4.5IETF的MPLS9
3.MPLS介紹10
3.1MPLS網路運作10
3.2MPLS的優點11
3.3MPLS的應用12
4.MPLS網路架設13
4.1基本架構13
4.2設備平台14
4.3ATM與MPLS共存15
4.4標籤分配協定16
4.4.1標籤的決定16
4.4.2階層式的標籤18
4.4.3標籤分配模式19
4.4.4VC-Merge的考量21
4.5運作機制22
4.5.1傳送 (Forwarding)22
4.5.2控制 (Control)24
5.BGP25
5.1Border Gateway Protocol25
5.2BGP 訊息格式26
5.2.1Open Message Format27
5.2.2Update Message Format27
5.2.3Notification Message Format28
5.2.4Keep-alive Message Format29
5.3Multi-protocol BGP29
6.VPN32
6.1什麼是VPN?32
6.2成本效益32
6.3應用層面33
6.4VPN的技術35
7.MPLS VPN37
7.1網路設備37
7.2改進與擴充38
7.2.1Route Distinguisher38
7.2.2 Community Attribute40
7.2.3 Route Refresh capacity41
7.2.4 Output Route Filter42
7.3運作元件42
7.3.1Control42
7.3.2 Forwarding44
7.4實例說明46
7.5與Public Internet連接53
7.6優點54
7.7MPLS VPN限制56
8.MPLS VPN實作57
8.1環境架設57
8.1.1硬體方面57
8.1.2軟體方面59
8.2Zebra運作59
8.2.1Zebra介紹59
8.2.2Zebra安裝過程60
8.2.3Zebra BGP的運作60
8.3Linux網路運作64
8.4SSMP69
8.5MPLS VPN運作72
8.6修改部份75
8.6.1修改ZEBRA方面76
8.6.2修改Linux核心方面76
8.6.3自行撰寫SSMP78
8.6.4測試常用Script78
8.7測試結果79
9.結論80
9.1研究成果80
9.2 改善空間81
9.2.1BGP的改善81
9.2.2Community問題82
9.3未來發展83
10.參考資料85
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[ 2] Brune Davie, Yakov Rekhter, “MPLS Technology and Application”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2000.
[ 3] E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Callon, "Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture", RFC3031, January 2001.
[ 4] Whitepaper, “Multiprotocol Label Switching Enhancing Routing in the New Public Network” Juniper Networks, Inc.
[ 5] D. C. Wan, "QoS in next generation Internet," Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on High Performance Computing in the Asia-Pacific Region, Vol. 1 , 2000, Page(s): 65 —70.
[ 6] J.Moy, “OSPF Version 2”, RFC 2328, Standards Track, April 1998.
[ 7] Darryl P.Black, “Building Switched Networks”, Addison Wesley, 1999 (ISDN 0-201-37953-8).
[ 8] Davie, B., P. Doolan, and Y. Rekhter, “Switching in IP Networks: IP Switching, Tag Switching, and Related Technologies”, Morgan Kaufmann, 1998 (ISBN 1-55860-505-3).
[ 9] Metz, Christopher, IP Switching: Protocols and Architectures, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999 (ISBN 0-07-041953-1).
[ 10] P. Newman, G. Minshall, and T. Lyan, “IP Switching: ATM Under IP,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, November 1997.
[11] Cisco Systems'' Tag Switching Architecture Overview, Y. Rekhter, B. Davie, D. Katz,E. Rosen, and G. Swallow, February 1997.
[12] G. Swallow, "MPLS advantages for traffic engineering," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 37 12 , Dec. 1999 , Page(s): 54 —57.
[13] A. Kankkunen, "MPLS and next generation access networks," 1st European Conference on Universal Multiservice Networks, 2000, Page(s): 5 —16.
[14] Cisco, “Cisco MPLS Controller Software Configuration Guide, Release 9.3.0”, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wanbu/bpx8600/mpls/9_3_0/mpls9_3/index.htm, April, 2000.
[15] Cisco, “Configuring MPLS with the BPX Switch and the 6400/7200/7500 Routers”, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wanbu/
bpx8600/mpls/9_3_1/mpls05.htm.
[16] Cisco, “Multiprotocol Label Switching on Cisco”, http://www.cisco.com/
univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121newft/121t/121t3/rtr_13t.htm.
[17] H. H. Lee, B. I. Kim, J. S. Lee, C. H. Yim, "Structures of an ATM switching system with MPLS functionality," IEEE GLOBECOM ''99, Vol.1b, 1999, Page(s): 616 —620.
[18] Y. K. Kim; S. G. Min,"Designing and implementing of an open ATM switching system to support MPLS," Fifth Asia-Pacific Conference and Fourth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, 1999, Page(s): 283 -286 vol.1.
[19] T. M. Chen and T. H. Oh, "Reliable services in MPLS," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 37 12 , Dec. 1999 , Page(s): 58 —62.
[20] D. Awduche, J. Malcolm, J. Agogbua, M. O''Dell, J. McManus, "Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS", RFC2702, September 1999.
[21] E. Rosen, Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS VPNs", RFC2547, March 1999.
[22] Jim Guichard, Ivan Pepelnjak, MPLS and VPN architectures, CISCO Press, October 2000 (ISBN 1-58705-001-1).
[23] K. Muthukrishnan, A. Malis, "A Core MPLS IP VPN Architecture", RFC2917, September 2000.
[24] B. Fox, B. Gleeson, "Virtual Private Networks Identifier", RFC2685, September 1999.
[25] B. Gleeson, A. Lin, J. Heinanen, G. Armitage, A. Malis, "A Framework for IP Based Virtual Private Networks", RFC2764, February 2000.
[26] E. Rosen, D. Tappan, G. Fedorkow, Y. Rekhter, D. Farinacci, T. Li, A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack Encoding", RFC3032, January 2001.
[27] P. Newman, W.Edwards, R. Hinden, E. Hoffman, F. Ching Liaw, T. Lyon, and G. Minshall, “Ipsilon''s General Switch Management Protocol Specification Version 2.0”, March 1998.
[28] B. Davie, J. Lawrence, K. McCloghrie, E. Rosen, G. Swallow, Y. Rekhter, P. Doolan, "MPLS using LDP and ATM VC Switching", RFC3035, January 2001.
[29] Y. Rekhter, T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC1771, March 1995.
[30] John W. Steward III, “BGP4 Inter-Domain Routing in the Internet”, Addison Wesley, 1998 (ISDN 0-201-37951-1).
[31] T. Bates, Y. Rekhter, R. Chandra, D. Katz, "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC2858, June 2000.
[32] T. Bates, R. Chandra, E. Chen, "BGP Route Reflection - An Alternative to Full Mesh IBGP", RFC2796, April 2000.
[33] P. Traina, D. McPherson, J. Scudder, "Autonomous System Confederations for BGP", RFC3065, February 2001.
[34] E. Chen, "Route Refresh Capability for BGP-4", RFC2918, September 2000.
[35] R. Chandra, J. Scudder, "Capabilities Advertisement with BGP-4", RFC2842, May 2000.
[36] C. Villamizar, R. Chandra, R. Govindan, "BGP Route Flap Damping", RFC2439, November 1998.
[37] Cisco, “Configuring Virtual Private Networks”, http://www.cisco.com/
univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/dialns_c/dnsprt3/dcdvpn.htm.
[38] David McDysan, “ VPN Application Guide Real Solutions for Enterprise Networks”, Wiley Computer Publishing, 2000. (ISBN 0471371750)
[39] Cisco, “Overview of Access VPNs and Tunneling Technologies”, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/intsolns/vpn_soln/vpdnover.htm.
[40] Whitepaper, “RFC 2547bis: BGP/MPLS VPN Fundamentals”, Juniper Networks, Inc, 2000.
[41] Zebra, http.zebra.org.
[42] Alessandro Rubini, “Linux Device Drivers”, O’Reilly & Associates, Inc, 2000. (ISBN 9578247397)
[43] MPLS Forum, http://www.mplsforum.org.
[44] Cisco, “Designing MPLS for ATM”, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/
td/doc/product/wanbu/bpx8600/mpls/9_3_1/mpls03.htm
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