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研究生:曾俊傑
研究生(外文):Tseng Chun-Chieh
論文名稱:展頻系統中擬亂碼擷取技術之設計與分析
論文名稱(外文):Design and Analysis of Pseudo-Noise Code Acauisition Techniques in Spread Spectrum Systems
指導教授:沈文和
指導教授(外文):Sheen Wern-Ho
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:擬亂碼擷取展頻跳頻直序同步
外文關鍵詞:Code AcquisitionSpread spectrumFrequency hoppingdirect sequencesynchronization
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展頻系統中最重要的工作之一為擬亂碼擷取系統(pseudo-noise code acquisition)之設計。本論文之研究重點即在於探索現今最常使用兩種展頻系統中擬亂碼擷取的問題。其一針對直序式展頻系統(direct-sequence),另一則針對跳頻式展頻系統(frequency- hopping)。
首先,我們考慮快速跳頻式展頻系統(fast frequency hopping) 於頻帶式多重針頻阻擾(band multi-tone jamming)影響之下,擬亂碼擷取系統之性能。先前之研究已知,跳頻式展頻系統若配合錯誤更正碼一起使用,於反阻擾(anti-jamming)的應用方面非常有效。藉由快速跳頻的方式,亦即使跳頻率(hopping rate)快數倍於符元率(symbol rate),所導致的時間多途性(time diversity)可用來提昇系統的性能。本論文之研究結果指出,此一性質對於擬亂碼擷取系統性能之提昇上,亦有顯著的效果。研究重心在於性能較佳的可變貯列時間(variable dwell-time)式的擬亂碼擷取系統之設計與分析,並提出三種具不同複雜程度的循序式碼擷取測試(sequential tests)以與傳統的多重貯列式擷取測試(multiple-dwell test)作比較。結果發現,(1). 快速跳頻所衍生的時間多途性對於多重貯列式擷取測試方式而言的確會有大幅度的改善。而且,(2). 所提出的三種循序式碼擷取測試方式於性能上皆優於傳統的多重貯列式擷取測試方式且極能容忍對阻擾狀態訊息(jamming state information)估計所發生的錯誤。
其次,所考慮的問題是一般分碼多重進接 (code division multiple access,CDMA) 系統中,上鍵(uplink)隨機接取通道(random access channel)中之同步問題。現行系統中,此乃是藉由對前置元(preamble)的同步來達成。為避免重複地傳送前置元而影響整體系統容量,如何設計出可靠而快速的前置元同步器便是重要議題。本論文中,提出一個極富設計彈性的串並式碼相位檢測器(parallel-serial code phase detector)。此外,亦提出一個極為通用的分析方式,可將所有系統參數列入考慮。文末,則以目前最被廣泛使用的3GPP WCDMA/FDD 系統為例,以便說明如何將該檢測器運用於實際系統之中,以於碼擷取性能及系統複雜度兩方面獲致良好的平衡與折衷。

Pseudo noise (PN) code acquisition is one of the most challenging
works in the design of a spread spectrum receiver. This thesis investigates the issue of fast
PN code acquisition for direct-sequence (DS) and frequency hopping (FH) spread spectrum systems,
the two most popular spread spectrum systems in practical use.
First of all, we are concerned with PN code acquisition with
clipped diversity combining for fast frequency hopping (FFH) spread-spectrum systems, under a threat of
band multitone jamming. FH spread spectrum signaling along with forward
error correction coding (FEC) has been known to be very effective in antijamming (AJ) applications.
By hopping more than once over a symbol duration, the fast FH (FFH)
spread spectrum signaling offers an easy-to-implement form of time diversity
(repetition code) that can improve the system performance. In this thesis,
this inherent time diversity is utilized to improve the code acquisition performance, as well.
Emphasis will be on the acquisition systems based on variable dwell-time tests, including multiple-dwell
test and sequential test, as they have a better performance over the fixed dwell-time counterparts.
Three novel sequential acquisition systems with different level of implementation complexity
are proposed, analyzed and compared to the conventional multple-dwell system.
Numerical results show that (i) for the multiple-dwell test, diversity can provide
a significant performance improvement and may be indispensable for a heavily
jammed case to achieve satisfactory performance, and
(ii) the proposed sequential tests significantly outperform the traditional multiple-dwell system
and are very robust under the non-ideal jammer state information.
Secondly, we focus on the issue of burst synchronization
for random access in the reverse link of CDMA (code division multiple access) systems.
Efficient random access is one of
the key designs in CDMA cellular systems. In random access, a preamble part is usually
devised for fast and reliable burst synchronization, which is essential in
order to avoid excessive access delay and/or repeated transmissions that may
reduce the overall system capacity. In this part, a flexible burst synchronizer based on
a parallel-serial code-phase detector is proposed, which can be
easily configured to achieve different complexity/performance tradeoffs.
In addition, a general analysis is also presented with important design parameters being taken
into account, including the number of correlators, power control error, power ramping step, diversity order,
frequency offset, multipath combining, and so forth.
In addition, the proposed algorithm is applied to the 3GPP WCDMA/FDD system
to illustrate how the tradeoffs between acquisition speed and complexity
can be achieved in practical applications.

1. Introduction
2. Multiple-Dwell and Sequential Code Acquisition with Diversity for FFH/MFSK Spread Spectrum Systems under Band Multitone Jamming
3. Burst Synchronization of Slotted Random Access with Preamble Power Ramping in the Reverse Link of CDMA Systems
4. Preamble Detection in the Random Access Channel of a UTRA/FDD System
5. Conclusions

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