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研究生:張益誠
研究生(外文):Yi-Cheng Chang
論文名稱:適應性三維幾何模型切層演算法之研發應用於快速原型系統
論文名稱(外文):The Development of Adaptive 3-D Geometric Model Slicing for Rapid Prototyping Systems
指導教授:羅仁權羅仁權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ren C. Luo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:快速原型適應性切層
外文關鍵詞:Rapid PrototypingAdaptive Slicing
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近年來快速原型技術已被認為是一種有助於產品設計的程序。這種技術可以減化產品設計週期及降低設計成本。而切層(Slicing)在整個快速原型技術中是一項重要的程序。其原理是將三維的電腦輔助設計(CAD)模型分解為一層一層的二維層輪廓,使得CAD模型得以被單方向的堆疊建構。切層方法影響到了快速原型系統建構實體模型的精度及速度。一般而言,商業上之快速原型系統使用傳統切層方法,而所謂傳統切層方法就是將CAD模型以固定層厚做切層動作,因此操作者必須在模型較快的製造速度但低表面精度和模型較長的製造時間但高表面精度之間做妥協。所以,為了要控制所建構模型的表面精度及降低因層製造原理而產生的階梯效應,適應性切層方法實有其發展之必要性。
本研究主要分為兩部分,第一個部分為針對快速原型系統發展一套新的適應性切層演算法。所提出之切層方法可以根據三維CAD模型之幾何表面在垂直方向之變化而運算出每一切層所需支層厚。經過電腦切層運算結果,所推導之切層方法在保持模型表面經度之情況下與傳統切層方法作比較可大幅減少切層數目,而其切層時間和一般適應性切層方法比較後亦發現本研究所提出之方法更有效率。另一個部分為改良本實驗室所研發之光罩式快速原型機,本研究針對此快速原型機之架構及製程做改進,使得此系統能更精確及快速的製造實體模型。而本研究所提出之切層方法也有效率地實現在此系統。

In recent years, Rapid Prototyping technology is known as one of the efficient procedures to improve product design so as to reduce design cycle and product costs. Slicing is an important process in whole Rapid Prototyping. It decomposes the three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model into two-dimensional layer contours that can be easily built in a single deposition. The slicing method affects accuracy and the time of building the parts that are established by rapid prototyping system. In general, commercial rapid prototyping systems use traditional slicing method which slices the model in uniform layer thickness so that operators must compromise between model with fast fabrication as well as low accuracy, and slow fabrication with high accuracy by choosing thick or thin building layers. Thus, adaptive slicing needs to be performed with a view to control the accuracy of the model and to reduce the staircase effect.
The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first place, the focus of this thesis is to develop a new adaptive slicing algorithm. Based on the proposed method, the three-dimensional CAD model can be sliced into variable layer thickness automatically by detecting the change of the geometry curvature in the vertical direction of the CAD model. According to the computational slicing results, the proposed algorithm can reduce larger number of layers than uniform slicing method without reducing the model accuracy. Besides, it takes less time to slice than the ordinary slicing method. Secondly, the aim is to reform the Photo-Mask Shaping (PMS) rapid prototyping system that is developed by our research group. This research serves to improve the system architecture and the manufacturing process of the PMS rapid prototyping system so that this system can build the parts with speed and accuracy. Finally, the proposed slicing method is implemented on the PMS rapid prototyping system with efficiency.

摘 要i
Abstractii
Table of Contentsiv
List of Figuresvii
List of Tablesx
Chapter 1 : Introduction1
1.1 Rapid Prototyping Processes3
1.2 Slicing for Rapid Prototyping5
1.3 Staircase Effect of Rapid Prototyping7
1.4 Objectives and Organization of Thesis Research8
1.4.1 Problem Statement8
1.4.2 Solution Overview8
1.4.3 Thesis Organization9
Chapter 2 : Literature Review11
2.1 Classification of Rapid Prototyping Technologies11
2.1.1 Liquid Based12
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)12
Solid Ground Curing (SGC)14
2.1.2 Powder Based16
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)17
Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM)19
2.1.3 Solid Based21
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)21
Multi-Jet Modeling System (MJM)23
Model Maker (MM)24
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)26
2.2 STL File Format28
2.3 Adaptive Slicing29
Chapter 3 : Related Mathematical Concepts38
3.1 Basic Geometric Concepts38
3.1.1 Edge-Line Intersections39
3.1.2 Rotation in Space41
3.1.3 Projection of Geometric Model43
Perspective Projections44
Orthogonal Projections46
3.2 Winding Rules48
Even-odd rule48
Non-zero winding rule48
3.3 Regression Analysis49
3.3.1 The linear regression model49
3.3.2 Ordinary least squares estimation50
3.3.3 Assumptions for regression analysis51
3.3.4 Properties of the OLS estimator53
Chapter 4 : Adaptive Slicing Algorithm55
4.1 Pre-processes56
4.1.1 Loading Data Before Slicing56
4.1.2 Data Sorting58
4.2 Pre-slicing (Thick Layer Generation)60
4.2.1 Determining Thick Layer Thickness60
4.2.2 Horizontal Surface Detection63
4.3 Contour Generation64
4.3.1 Contour Orientation Convention64
4.3.2 Composing The Contour64
4.3.3 Multi-Contours in a Layer69
4.4 Generating Variable Layer Thickness70
4.5 Photo-mask Generation74
Chapter 5 : Photo-mask Shaping Rapid Prototyping System76
5.1 System Structure77
5.1.1 Data Processing78
5.1.2 Photo-Mask80
5.1.3 Curing Light Source81
5.1.4 Remote Control and Monitoring Unit85
5.1.5 Z-axis Elevator86
5.2 Experimental Setup88
Chapter 6 : Experimental Results92
6.1 Software Results92
Case 1: Slicing Result by Using Various Slicing Methods93
Case 2: Slicing Result by Using Various Slicing Methods95
Case 3: Slicing Result by Using Various Slicing Methods96
6.2 Experimental Results for The Improved RP System99
Case 4: RP Part Built by PMS RP System100
Case 5: RP Part Built by PMS RP System103
Case 6: RP Part Built by PMS RP System103
Chapter 7 Conclsion and Discussion105
Chapter 8 Contribution107
References109
Appendix A The Family Tree of Rapid Prototyping113
Liquids Based113
Powders Based115
Solid Materials Based116
Sheets Based117
Gas, Atoms and Other Odd Stuff Based118
Misc118

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