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研究生:黃玉琪
研究生(外文):Yu-chi Huang
論文名稱:詞頻在中文時貌標記處理過程中的效應
論文名稱(外文):Frequency Effects on the Processing of an Aspect Marker in Mandarin
指導教授:麥傑麥傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):James T. Myers
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:屈折構詞學詞貌標記「著」線上處理全詞假設詞頻效應詞彙判斷任務
外文關鍵詞:inflectional morphologyaspect marker zheon-line processingsingle-unit hypothesisfrequency effectlexical decision task
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本篇研究是探討國語中屈折構詞學(inflectional morphology)在線上處理過程(on-line processing)時的表現。關於一個複雜詞( morphologically complex word)是如何被儲存與處理,長久以來一直有不同的看法。一派說法認為只有字根(base form)儲存在心理辭典(mental lexicon)中,而屈折詞(inflected word)的處理則是運用文法規則產生;另一派則宣稱不論是字根或屈折詞都是單獨地儲存在心理辭典中,而且都是以全詞(whole unit)的形式被處理。在本篇研究中,動詞加上詞貌標記「著」(例如: 注視著) 被看成一個有規律的屈折詞。筆者主張中文的屈折詞是以全詞的形式,也就是以表面形式(surface form),被儲存及處理的。為了驗證這個假設,筆者進行了三個實驗。在這三個詞彙判斷任務(lexical decision task)的實驗中,刺激項目(stimuli item)中的字根皆有相等的詞頻 (word frequency),而根據這些字根所產生的屈折詞則有高低詞頻之分。在第一個實驗中所有刺激項目皆是以字根的形式呈現;第二個實驗中則以屈折詞的形式呈現。如果在高詞頻及低詞頻的屈折詞中出現反應時間(reaction time)的不同,亦即詞頻效應(frequency effect)的話,則非常有可能表示這些屈折詞是以表面形式的方式被處理的,因為它們的字根詞頻皆是相同的。實驗結果證實了反應時間是由表面形式的詞頻高低所決定。在第三個實驗中,筆者進一步排除了可能的語意混淆(semantic confound) 因素,仍舊得到相同的結果。總結來說,這些結果支持「全詞假設」 (single-unit hypothesis),和Sereno 及 Jongman (1997) 在英文規律複數詞(regular plurals) 上所發現的結論是一致的。

The present study investigates the representation of inflectional morphology during on-line processing in Mandarin. There has been a long-standing debate on how morphologically complex words are stored and processed. At one extreme, there are claims that only base forms are stored in the lexicon, and inflected forms are processed by rule application. At the other extreme, there are claims that both base forms and inflected forms are stored as separate lexical entries in the mental lexicon and processed as whole units. In this study, a verb suffixed by an aspect marker zhe (i.e. V-zhe) was considered an inflected word. I propose that Mandarin inflected words are stored and processed as whole units, i.e. via their surface forms. To test this hypothesis, three experiments were conducted. In all three lexical decision experiments, items were matched for base frequency while frequency of the inflected forms was varied. In Experiment 1, all stimuli items were presented in the base forms. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli items were presented in their inflected forms. If significant differences in reaction times exist between high-frequency and low-frequency inflected forms, it is very likely that inflected forms are processed via their surface forms, since the frequency of the base forms were controlled to be equal. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that differences in RTs were predicted by the frequency of the surface form. In Experiment 3, after a possible semantic confound was filtered out, the results still remained the same. To sum up, the results lend support for the single-unit hypothesis, consistent with Sereno and Jongman’s(1997) findings on English regular plurals.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1Motivation
1.2The goal of the thesis
1.3Hypothesis and prediction
1.4The organization of the thesis
Chapter 2 Background
2.1 Some background information about the aspect marker zhe
2.1.1 The semantics of zhe
2.1.2 Verb types which zhe can and cannot attach to
2.1.3 The judgments on the morphological status of zhe
2.2 Theories of morphological processing
2.2.1 The rule-and-representation theory
2.2.2 The associative memory theory
2.2.3 The dual-system theory
2.3 A previous study on the processing of English inflected forms
Chapter 3 The effect of frequency
3.1 Experiment 1
3.1.1 Methods
3.1.2 Results
3.1.3 Discussion
3.2 Experiment 2
3.2.1 Methods
3.2.2 Results
3.2.3 Discussion
3.3 A rating task on semantic acceptability
3.3.1 Methods
3.3.2 Results
3.3.3 Discussion
Chapter 4 The role of semantic acceptability
4.1 A pre-test rating task
4.1.1 Methods
4.1.2 Results
4.1.3 Discussion
4.2 Experiment 3
4.2.1 Methods
4.2.2 Results
4.2.3 Discussion
Chapter 5 General discussion and conclusion
References
Appendices
Appendix 1: Base forms for Experiment 1
Appendix 2: Nonwords for Experiment 1
Appendix 3: High- and low-frequency inflected forms and token frequency for Experiment 2
Appendix 4: Nonword-zhe forms for Experiments 2 and 3
Appendix 5: High- and low-frequency inflected forms and token frequency for Experiment 3
Appendix 6:Questionnaire of a post-test rating task
Appendix 7: The average rated score of each item in Experiment 2
Appendix 8: Questionnaire for a pre-test rating task
Appendix 9: The average rated score of each item in Experiment 3
Appendix 10: 受試者背景資料表
Appendix 11: 指導語
Table of Figures
Figure 1: Model of word recognition incorporating a morphological analysis. (Taft and Forster 1975:644).
Figure 2: Model for the single unit hypothesis
Table of Charts
Chart 1: The mean RTs of the base forms in Experiment 1
Chart 2: The mean RTs of the inflected forms in Experiment 2
Chart 3: The mean RTs of the inflected forms in Experiment 3

References
Chinese
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中文詞知識庫小組 CKIP (1995),注音檢索現代漢語字頻表,詞庫小組技術報告 no. 95-01。台北: 中央研究院。
English
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