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研究生:余文裕
論文名稱:在樁帽與群樁效應下檢測基樁長度之理論與實驗研究
指導教授:廖述濤
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中華大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:149
中文關鍵詞:非破壞檢測音波回音法衝擊反應法樁長增量逼近法群樁系統樁帽
外文關鍵詞:nondestructive testingSonic Echo methodImpulse Response methodIncremental Approach for Pile Length methodgroup pilespile cap
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利用非破壞檢測技術來評估新建單樁之完整性以及營造品質已是被許多國家採用的成熟技術。然而,欲將此類技術應用於現有橋樑基礎下之基樁則仍困難重重。主要的原因在於檢測的複雜度因各種不同的結構元件的參與而大幅提高,例如重要的影響因素包括樁帽與基礎板效應、群樁效應與礅柱等上部結構效應等。我國921集集大地震後,許多橋樑系統之基樁完整性評估即屬此類棘手問題。而基樁非破壞檢測方法中之「音波回音法」與「衝擊反應法」在現地檢測上,具便利、經濟且快速等優點,因此有待所有研究成果成熟後,此方法將可做為第一線之非破壞檢測法。
而本研究之主要目的,即從理論與實驗方面研究以「音波回音法」法與「衝擊反應法」來檢測在含樁帽與群樁效應下之基樁長度。在理論方面,本研究發展出二維平面應力有限元素模式,來模擬含樁帽之群樁基礎的動力反應,藉此便能對樁帽與群樁效應對檢測訊號的影響進行廣泛的參數變化研究。在實驗方面,則對新建單樁與含樁帽之群樁系統進行現地之敲擊反應檢測,以探討樁帽尺寸與群樁效應在實際工程檢測結果上之影響,並與有限元素之數模擬結果做比較。本研究亦將對新近提出的「樁長增量逼近法」做更進一步之研究與現場結果實証,以了解此方法在實際應用上之困難處與其價值。
Using nondestructive testing methods to evaluate the integrity and construction quality of a newly-built single pile is a mature technique adopted by many countries. However, many difficulties have been encountered in applying this kind of techniques into evaluating the piles of existing bridges. The dominant factors include the effects due to pile caps and foundation plate, pile grouping, and superstructures such as piers. One example of this kind of complicated problems is to evaluate the integrity of piles under numerous bridges after the attack of the Ji-Ji (921) earthquake. However, NDT techniques such as the Sonic Echo and the Impulse Response methods have the advantages of being convenient, economical, and efficient, they can be used as the first line testing means once the related researches are mature.
The objective of this research is to conduct the theoretical and experimental studies on using the Sonic Echo and Impulse Response methods to determine the length of a pile or pile group with pile cap. In the theoretical aspect, a 2-D plane-stress finite element model will be first developed to simulate the dynamic response of group piles with pile cap. Extensive parametric studies can then be carried out to study the influence of the effects due to the pile cap and pile grouping. In the experimental aspect, some newly-built single pile and group pile with pile cap will be tested in order to discuss the influence of the size of pile caps and pile grouping. The results obtained from the finite element model and the in-situ tests thus can be compared. Finally the Incremental Approach for Pile Length method, which was proposed recently, will be studied using the in-situ data so that the difficulties and potentials of this method can be evaluated.
圖目錄...............................................Ⅴ
表目錄.............................................ⅩⅢ
第一章 緒論..........................................1
1.1 研究動機........................................1
1.2 研究目標........................................2
1.3 文獻回顧........................................3
第二章 理論背景.......................................7
2.1 基礎波傳理論....................................7
2.2 音波回音法.....................................10
2.3 衝擊反應法.....................................11
2.4 理論樁長增量逼近法.............................13
2.5 資料曲線之平滑化...............................13
2.5.1 三角加權平均法.............................14
2.5.2 低通濾波法.................................15
2.6 最佳直線的決定...............................16
第三章 有限元素模式..................................17
3.1 二維平面應力有限元素模式.......................17
3.2 動力積分方程式.................................20
3.3 衝擊荷重之定義.................................21
3.4 基樁範例之幾何組態參數介紹.....................22
3.5 有限元素分析結果之初步驗証.....................24
3.5.1 案例問題定義...............................24
3.5.2 位移反應之理論估算值.......................26
3.5.3 有限元素模擬分析結果.........................27
第四章 樁帽效應對單樁暫態彈性波傳之影響..............31
4.1 無樁帽單樁之長度檢測限制.......................31
4.1.1 長為20公尺之單樁檢測結果...................32
4.1.1 長為30公尺之單樁檢測結果...................33
4.1.3 長為40公尺之單樁檢測結果...................34
4.1.4 長為50公尺之單樁檢測結果...................35
4.1.5 長為60公尺之單樁檢測結果...................36
4.1.6 綜合結論...................................37
4.2 含樁帽單樁在時間域上之反應分析結果.............48
4.2.1 長9公尺之含樁帽單樁........................48
4.2.2 長19公尺之含樁帽單樁.......................49
4.2.3 長29公尺之含樁帽單樁.......................50
4.2.3 綜合討論...................................51
4.3 含樁帽單樁之參數變化與力學導納曲線.............58
4.3.1 翼寬對力學導納曲線之影響...................58
4.3.2 翼深對力學導納曲線之影響...................66
第五章 樁帽與群樁效應對基樁暫態彈性波傳之影響........71
5.1基本型樁之介紹..................................71
5.2 群樁樁帽下基樁根數之影響.......................74
5.3 群樁樁帽翼寬之影響.............................81
5.4 群樁樁帽翼深之影響.............................95
5.5 施力延時之影響................................108
5.6 基樁長度之影響................................119
第六章 現地檢測實驗.................................128
6.1 現地檢測......................................128
6.1.1 現地群樁基礎之設計幾何組態................128
6.1.2 無樁帽單樁之現地檢測結果..................130
6.1.3 群樁系統現地檢測結果......................132
6.1.4 檢測結果之比較............................135
6.2 樁長增量逼近法之初步實際應用..................136
6.2.1 樁長增量逼近法對現場無樁帽單樁之初步應用..146
6.2.2 樁長增量逼近法對現場群樁系統之初步應用....140
6.2.3 綜合結論..................................143
第七章 結論.........................................144
參考文獻............................................147
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