(3.238.186.43) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/01 14:52
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林宗輝
研究生(外文):Tzong-Huei Lin
論文名稱:臺灣蘭科植物-石斛、連珠石斛與臺灣金線連之化學成分及藥理活性研究
論文名稱(外文):Chemical and Pharmacological Studies of Taiwanese Orchids - Dendrobium moniliforme SWARTZ, Dendrobium nakaharai SCHLECHTER and Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA
指導教授:張淑貞張淑貞引用關係陳忠川陳忠川引用關係王繼平王繼平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Jen ChangChung-Chuan ChenJih-Pyang Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中國醫藥學院
系所名稱:中國藥學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:藥學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:344
中文關鍵詞:蘭科石斛連珠石斛臺灣金線連化學組成藥理活性菲類化合物抗發炎活性
外文關鍵詞:OrchidaceaeDendrobium moniliforme SWARTZDendrobium nakaharai SCHLECHTERAnoectochilus formosanus HAYATAchemical constituentspharmacological activitiesphenanthrenesanti-inflammatory activities
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:24
  • 點閱點閱:1484
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:279
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本研究針對蘭科石斛屬(Dendrobium)和開唇蘭(金線連)屬(Anoectochilus)植物之基原、化學成分及藥理活性等項考察,確認了石斛和金線連在植物學上的分類和地位,整理了相關的研究,作為從事石斛和金線連化學成分與藥理活性研究之參考。
延續本研究室對於臺灣蘭科植物的成分與藥理活性之探討,本論文共完成三種蘭科植物-石斛、連珠石斛和臺灣金線連的成分分析,及體外活性測試,茲分別敘述於後:
石斛(Dendrobium moniliforme SWARTZ)成分研究之結果為:由石斛莖部正己烷粗抽物分離得到十四個化合物,包含heptacosane (1),octacosanyl hexadecanoate (2),methyl and ethyl linolenates (3),4-methoxybenzaldehyde (4), alkyl trans-ferulates (5),pheophytin a (6),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates (7),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8),stigmast-4-en-3-one (9),phytosterols (10),denbinobin (11),vanillin (12),linoleic acid (13)和heptatriaconsanoic acid (14);由石斛莖部乙酸乙酯粗抽物分離得到十一個化合物,包含alkyl trans-ferulates (5),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates (7),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8),denbinobin (11),aliphatic acids (14),alkyl hexadecanoates (15),alkyl acetates (16),dengibsin (17),moniliquinone (18),moniliformol (19)和diethyl glycol (20);由石斛根部正己烷粗抽物分離得到六個化合物,包含alkyl trans-ferulates (5),phytosterols (10),denbinobin (11),aliphatic acids (14),ergosterol (21),ergosterol peroxide (22)。以上化合物之中,18和19為新化合物,而2,12,13,15,16,17和20為石斛屬植物首次分離得到的化合物。
連珠石斛(Dendrobium nakaharai SCHLECHTER)成分研究結果:由連珠石斛正己烷粗抽物分離得到十七個化合物,包含alkyl trans-ferulates (5),pheophytin a (6),stigmast-4-en-3-one (9),phytosterols (10),linoleic acid (13),aliphatic acids (14),ergosterol (21),trans-β-carotene (23),2,3,4,7-tetramethoxyphenanthrene (24),nakaharain (25),aliphatic alcohols (26),nakaquinone (27),2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (28),confusarin (29),nudol (30),bulbophyllanthrin (31)和nakaharaiquinone (32);由連珠石斛乙酸乙酯粗抽物分離得到十個化合物,包含alkyl trans-ferulates (5),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates (7),alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8),protocatechuic acid (33),nakaharain (25),2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (28),uracil (34),nakaharoside A (35),nakaharoside B (36)和vitexin (37)。以上化合物之中,25,27,32,35和36為新化合物,而 23,24,28,31,33,34 和 37為石斛屬植物首次分離得到的化合物。
臺灣金線連(Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA)成分研究結果:由臺灣金線連正己烷粗抽物分離得到六個化合物,包含pheophytin a (6),linoleic acid (13),trans-β-carotene (23),2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (38),4-vinylphenol (39)和lutein (40);由臺灣金線連乙酸乙酯粗抽物分離得到五個化合物,包含pheophytin a (6),phytosterols (10),uracil (34),pheophytin b (41)和anoectolide A (42);由臺灣金線連甲醇粗抽物分離得到四個化合物,包含phytosterols (10),anoectolide A (42),anoectolide B (43)和ethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (44)。以上化合物之中,42和43為新化合物,而6,13,23,34,38,39,40,41和44為開唇屬蘭植物首次分離得到的化合物。
在抗發炎及抗過敏試驗方面,連珠石斛和臺灣金線連的粗抽物對於fMLP引發嗜中性白血球釋放β-glucuronidase和lysozyme的體外試驗和compound 48/80引發肥滿細胞釋放β-glucuronidase和histamine的體外試驗均有顯著的抑制作用。此外,對11個化合物進行抗發炎和抗過敏活性試驗:
1. 石斛分離純化的化合物:4對嗜中性白血球釋放超氧自由基所造成的發炎,可能有抑制作用;11有好的中樞和周 邊抗發炎及抗過敏活性;12對嗜中性白血球的抗發炎可能有活性。
2. 連珠石斛分離純化的化合物:新化合物25抗發炎及抗過敏活性不佳;28對嗜中性白血球的抗發炎有不錯的活性 ;33,34和37對嗜中性白血球所引發的發炎可能有抑制效果。
3. 臺灣金線連分離純化的化合物:6,13和23可能具有對嗜中性白血球和周邊的抗發炎活性。
此外,其它化合物的抗發炎和抗過敏活性試驗仍在進行中。
This study was first based on the investigations and literature survey of plant origin, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Dendrobium genus and Anoectochilus genus. We could understand the plant taxonomy and position of Shi-Hu and Kinsenren. This research provided some information for chemical and pharmacological studies of Shi-Hu and Kinsenren.
In the course of our studies on the constituents and pharmacolo- gical activity of Taiwanese Orchidaceae plants, this study carried out the chemical analysis and in vitro bioactivity tests of three species of Orchidaceae plants-Dendrobium moniliforme SWARTZ, Dendrobium nakaharai SCHLECHTER and Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA.
Studies on the constituents of D. moniliforme resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds from n-hexane extract of stems, including heptacosane (1), octacosanyl hexadecanoate (2), methyl and ethyl linolenates (3), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (4), alkyl trans-ferulates (5), pheophytin a (6), alkyl 4''-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates (7), alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8), stigmast-4-en-3-one (9), phytosterols (10), denbinobin (11), vanillin (12), linoleic acid (13) and heptatriaconsanoic acid (14). Eleven compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the stems, including alkyl trans-ferulates (5), alkyl 4''-hydroxy-cis-cinnamates (7), alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8), denbinobin (11), aliphatic acids (14), alkyl hexadecanoates (15), alkyl acetates (16), dengibsin (17), moniliquinone (18), moniliformol (19) and diethyl glycol (20). Six compounds were isolated from n-hexane extract of the roots, including alkyl trans-ferulates (5), phytosterols (10), denbinobin (11), aliphatic acids (14), ergosterol (21) and ergosterol peroxide (22). Among these, 18 and 19 were new compounds, and 2, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17 and 20 were the first report of Dendrobium genus.
Studies on the constituents of whole plants of D. nakaharai, seventeen compounds were isolated from n-hexane extract, including alkyl trans-ferulates (5), pheophytin a (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (9), phytosterols (10), linoleic acid (13), aliphatic acids (14), ergosterol (21), trans-β-carotene (23), 2,3,4,7-tetramethoxyphenanthrene (24), nakaharain (25), aliphatic alcohols (26), nakaquinone (27), 2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (28), confusarin (29), nudol (30), bulbophyllanthrin (31) and nakaharaiquinone (32). Ten compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract, including alkyl trans-ferulates (5), alkyl 4''-hydroxy- cis-cinnamates (7), alkyl 4''-hydroxy-trans-cinnamates (8), protocatechuic acid (33), nakaharain (25), 2,5-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (28), uracil (34), nakaharoside A (35), nakaharoside B (36) and vitexin (37). Among these, 25, 27, 32, 35 and 36 were new compounds, and 23, 24, 28, 31, 33, 34 and 37 were the first report of Dendrobium genus.
Studies on the constituents of whole plants of A. formosanus, six compounds were isolated from n-hexane extract, including pheophytin a (6), linoleic acid (13), trans-β-carotene (23), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (38), 4-vinylphenol (39) and lutein (40). Five compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract, including pheophytin a (6), phytosterols (10), uracil (34), pheophytin b (41) and anoectolide A (42). Four compounds were isolated from methanol extract, including phytosterols (10), anoectolide A (42), anoectolide B (43) and ethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (44). Among these, 42 and 43 were new compounds, and 6, 13, 23, 34, 38, 39, 40, 41 and 44 were first report of A. formosanus.
In the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic assays, the crude extracts of D. nakaharai and A. formosanus significantly inhibited the release of β-glucuronidase and lysozyme on neutrophil degranulation induced by fMLP in vitro and inhibited the release of β-glucuronidase and histamine on mast cells induced by compound 48/80 in vitro. In addition, the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of eleven compounds were investigated.
1. The isolated compounds from D. nakaharai showed that a new compound, 25 had not benefit in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. 28 had better anti-inflammation against neutrophil. 33, 34 and 37 may have inhibition of the inflammatory against neutrophil.
2. The isolated compounds from D. moniliforme showed that 4 may have effect of anti-inflammatory against the neutrophil superoxide formation. 11 may have benefit in controlling central and peripheral inflammation as well as allergy against mast cell. 12 had inhibition against neutrophil.
3. The isolated compounds from A. formosanus showed that 6, 13 and 23 may have benefit in controlling neutrophil and peripheral inflammation.
However, other compounds are still under test.
頁 數
目錄 i
圖表目錄 iv
中文摘要 xv
英文摘要 xviii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究之背景及目的 1
第二節 植物基原考察 2
一、石斛之植物學分類 2
二、金線連之植物學分類 2
三、蘭科植物之特徵 3
四、植物之形態與生長特性 8
第三節 化學成分考察 11
一、石斛屬植物之化學成分 11
二、石斛屬植物成分之化學結構 14
三、開唇蘭屬(金線連屬)植物之化學成分 23
四、開唇蘭屬植物成分之化學結構 24
第四節 藥理活性考察 27
一、石斛之藥理活性 27
二、金線連之藥理活性 31
第五節 抗發炎及抗過敏活性試驗簡介 34
第二章 實驗部分 36
第一節 實驗材料 36
第二節 試藥與材料 36
第三節 實驗儀器 38
第四節 植物成分之抽取與分離 40
一、石斛之抽取與分離 40
二、連珠石斛之抽取與分離 48
三、臺灣金線連之抽取與分離 68
第五節 抗發炎及抗過敏實驗方法 81
一、嗜中性白血球(Neutrophils )的去顆粒作用 81
二、肥滿細胞(Mast cells)的去顆粒作用 82
三、NO的測定 82
四、TNF-α和PGE2的測定 83
五、統計方法 83
第三章 結果與討論 84
第一節 化合物之結構決定 84
一、Phenanthrene類化合物 84
二、Phenanthraquinone (phenanthrene-1,4-quinone)類化合物 117
三、9,10-Dihydrophenanthraquinone 類化合物 130
四、Phenanthradiquinone 類化合物 137
五、Fluorenone類化合物 143
六、Flavonoid類化合物 149
七、Benzene和Phenol 類化合物 173
八、Carotenoid類化合物 217
九、Chlorophyll類化合物 225
十、Sterol類化合物 240
十一、Fatty acid or ester類化合物 256
十二、Pyrimidine類化合物 267
十三、Sugar類化合物 270
十四、其它 275
第二節 抗發炎及抗過敏之藥理活性 286
一、連珠石斛粗抽物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗 286
二、DNE-I~DNE-VI之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗 288
三、臺灣金線連粗抽物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗 291
四、化合物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗 292
第三節 化合物之光譜數據 303
第四節 分離之成分的化學結構 322
第四章 結論 326
第一節 植物化學成分 326
第二節 抗發炎及抗過敏活性試驗 328
參考文獻 329
著者學經歷表 342
學術著作目錄 343
封面
目錄
圖表目錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究之背景及目的
第二節 植物基原考察
一、石斛之植物學分類
二、金線連之植物學分類
三、蘭科植物之特徵
四、植物之形態與生長特生
第三節 化學成分考察
一、石斛屬植物之化學成分
二、石斛屬植物成分之化學結構
三、開唇蘭屬(金線連屬)植物之化學成分
四、開唇蘭屬植物成分之化學結構
第四節 藥理活性考察
一、石斛之藥理活性
二、金線連之藥理活性
第五節 抗發炎及抗迥敏活性試驗簡介
第二章 實驗部分
第一節 實驗材料
第二節 試藥與材料
第三節 實驗儀器
第四節 植物成分之抽取與分離
一、石斛之抽取與分離
二、連珠石斛之抽取與分離
三、臺灣金線連之抽取與分離
第五節 抗發炎及抗過敏實驗方法
一、嗜中性白血球(Neutrophils)的去顆柆作用
二、肥滿細胞(Mast cells)的去顆粒作用
三、NO的測定
四、TNF-a和PGE2的測定
五、統計方法
第三章 結果與討論
第一節 化合物之結構決定
一、Phenanthrene類化合物
二、Phenanthraquinone(phenanthrene-1,4-quinone)類化合物
三、9,10-Dihydrophenanthraquinone類化合物
四、Phenanthradiquinone類化合物
五、Fluorenone類化合物
六、Flavonoid類化合物
七、Benzene和Phenol類化合物
八、Carotenoid類化合物
九、Chlorophll類化合物
十、Sterol類化合物
十一、Fatty acid or ester類化合物
十二、Pyrimidine類化合物
十三、Sugar類化合物
十四、其它
第二節 抗發炎及抗過敏之藥理活性
一、連珠石斛粗抽物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗
二、DNE-I~DNE-VI之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗
三、臺灣金線連粗抽物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗
四、化合物之抗發炎及抗過敏試驗
第三節 化合物之光譜數據
第四節 分離之成分的化學結構
第四章 結論
第一節 植物化學成分
第二節 抗發炎及抗過敏活性試驗
參考文獻
著者學經歷表
學術著作目錄
參考文獻
1. Gawell L, Leander K. The constitution of aduncin, a sesquiterpene related to picrotoxinin, found in Dendrobium aduncum. Phytochemistry 15:1991-1992, 1976.
2. Dahmen J, Leander K. Amotin and amoenin, two sesquiterpenes of the picrotoxane group from Dendrobium amoenum. Phytochemistry 17: 1949-1952, 1978.
3. Veerraju P, Prakasa Rao NS, Jaganmohana Rao L, Jaganmohana Rao KV, Mohana Rao PR. Amoenumin, a 9,10-dihydro-5H-phenanthro-(4,5-b,c, d)-pyran from Dendrobium amoenum. Phytochemistry 28(3):950-951, 1989.
4. Veerraju P, Prakasa Rao NS, Jaganmohana Rao L, Jaganmohana Rao KV, Mohana Rao PR. Bibenzyls and phenanthrenoids of some species of Orchidaceae. Phytochemistry 28(11):3031-3034, 1989.
5. Majumder PL, Sen S. Bibenzyl derivatives from the orchid Dendrobium amoenum. Phytochemistry 52:1365-1369, 1999.
6. Leander K, Luning B. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids viii, an imidazolium salt from Dendrobium anosmum LINDL. and Dendrobium parishii RCHB. f.. Tetrahedron Letters 8:905-908, 1968.
7. Luning B, Leander K. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids iii.the alkaloids in Dendrobium primulinum LINDL. and Dendrobium chrysanthum WALL.. Acta Chem. Scan. 19(7):1607-1611, 1965.
8. Ma GX, Wang TS, Yin L, Pan Y, Xu GJ, Xu LS. Studies on the constituents of Dendobium chryseum. J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 7(1):52-54, 1998.
9. Zheng WP, Tang YP, Lou FC, Fei Z. Studies on the constituents of Dendobium chryseum ROLFE, Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 31(1): 5-7, 2000.
10. 馬國祥、徐國鈞、徐珞珊、王崢濤、菊池沏,鼓槌石斛化學成分的研究,藥學學報 29(10):763-766,1994。
11. Ma G, Xu G, Xu L, Wang Z. Determination of chrysotoxene, erianin and chrysotoxine in 18 species of "Shihu" with HPLC. Zhongguo Yasoke Daxue Xuebao 25(2):103-105, 1994.
12. Ma G, Xu G, Xu L, Wang X. Inhibitory effects of Dendrobium chrysotoxum and its constituents on the mouse HePA and ESC. Zhongguo Yasoke Daxue Xuebao 25(3):188-189, 1994.
13. 馬國祥、徐國鈞、徐珞珊、王崢濤、菊池沏,鼓槌石斛中一新的聯卞化合物---鼓槌石斛素,藥學學報 31(3):222-225,1996。
14. Ma GX, Wang ZT, Xu LS, Xu GJ. A New Fluorenone derivative from Dendrobium chrysotoxum. J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 7(2):59-61, 1998.
15. Ma GX, LeBlance GA. The activity of erianin and chrysotoxine from Dendrobium chrysotoxum to reverse multidrug resistance in B16/n MDR-1 cells, J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 7(3):142-146, 1998.
16. Elander M, Leander K, Rosenblom J, Ruusa E. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxxii.crepidine,crepidamine and dendrocrepine, three alkaloids from Dendrobium crepidatum LINDL.. Acta Chem. Scan. 27(6): 1907-1913, 1973.
17. Majumder PL, Chatterjee S. Crepidatin, a bibenzyl derivative from the Orchid Dendrobium crepidatum. Phytochemistry 28(7):1986-1988, 1989.
18. Majumder PL, Pal S. Cumulatin and tristin, two bibenzyl derivatives from the orchids Dendrobium cumulatum and Bulbophyllum triste. Phytochemistry 32(6),1561-1565, 1993.
19. Dahmen J, Leander K, Rosenblom J. Studies on Orchidaceae glycosides. 3. a new glycoside,2-(β -D-glycopyranosyloxy)-4,5-dime- thoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (densifloroside), from Dendrobium densiflorum WALL.. Acta Chem. scand. B29(5):627-639, 1975.
20. Talapatra SK, Bose S, Mallik AK, Talapatra B. On the chemistry of lindian Orchidaceae plants. part-iii. dendroflorin, a new fluorenone derivative from Dendrobium densiflorum WALL.. J. Indian Chem. Soc. LXI(9):1010-1012, 1984.
21. Majumder PL, Chakraborti J. Chemical constituents of the orchid Dendrobium farmerii: further evidence for the revised structure of dengibsin. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 66:834, 1989.
22. 李滿飛、平田義正、徐國鈞、丹羽正武、吳厚銘,流蘇石斛化學成分的研究,中草藥 23(5):227-228,1992.
23. Talapatra SK, Bhaumik A, Talapatra B. Denfigenin, a diosgenin derivative from Dendrobium fimbriatum. Phytochemistry 31(7):2431-2434, 1992.
24. Granelli I, Leander K, Luning B. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xvi. a new alkaloid, 2-hydroxydendrobine, from Dendrobium findlayanum PAR. et RCHB. f.. Acta Chem. Scan.. 24(4):1209-1212, 1970.
25. Hedman K, Leander K, Luning B. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxv. n-isopentenyl derivatives of dendroxine and 6-hydroxydendroxine from Dendrobium friedricksianum LINDL. and Dendrobium hildebrandii ROLF.. Acta Chem. Scan. 25(3):1142-1144, 1971.
26. Talapatra B, Das AK, Talapatra SK. Defuscin, a new phenolic ester from Dendrobium fuscescens :conformation of shikimic acid. Phytochemistry 28(1):290-292, 1989.
27. Talapatra SK, Bose S, Mallik AK, Talapatra B. On the chemistry of Indian Orchidaceae plants-II, dengibsin and dengibsinin, the first natural fluorenone derivatives from Dendrobium gibsonii LINDL.. Tetrahadron 41(13):2765-2769, 1985.
28. Elander M, Leander K. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxi. 6-hydroxynobiline, a new alkaloid, from Dendrobium hildebrandii ROLF, Acta Chem. Scan. 25(2):717-720, 1971.
29. Suzuki H, Keimatsu I, Ito KJ. Pharm. Soc. Japan 54:146, 1934.
30. 李滿飛、平田義正、徐國鈞、丹羽正武、吳厚銘,粉花石斛化學成分的研究,藥學學報 26(4):307-310,1991。
31. 吳麗琴、柯逢年、鄧哲明、陳建志,石斛的抗血小板凝集活性成分之研究,中醫藥雜誌 5(4):198-199,1994。
32. Chen CC, Wu LG, Ko FN, Teng CM. Antiplatelet aggregation prin- ciples of Dendrobium loddigesii. J. Nat. Prod. 57(9):271-274, 1994.
33. Inubushi Y, Tsuda Y, Konita T, Matsumoto S. Shihunine, a new phtha- lide-pyrrolidine alkaloid. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 12(6):749-750, 1964.
34. Inubushi Y, Tsuda Y, Konita T, Matsumoto S. The struture of shihunine: a new phthalide-pyrrolidine alkaloid. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 16(6):1014-1018, 1968.
35. Elander M, Gawell L, Leander K: Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxii. Synthesis and absolute configuration of pieradine. lactone-betaine isomerization of shihunine. Acta Chem. Scan. 25(2):721-724, 1971.
36. Majumder PL, Sen RC. Structure of moscatin-a new phenanthrene derivative from the orchid Dendrobium moscatum. Indian J. Chem., Sect. B 26B(1):18-20, 1987.
37. Majumder PL, Sen RC. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative from the orchid Dendrobium moscatum. Phytochemistry 26(7):2121-2124, 1987.
38. Onaka T, Kamata S, Maeda T, Kawazoe Y, Natsume,Toshihiko Okamato M, Uchimaru F, Shimizu M. The structure of nobilonine. The second alkaloid from Dendrobium nobile. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 13(6): 745-747, 1965.
39. Inubushi Y, Tsuda Y, Katarao E. The structure of dendramine. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 14(6):668-671, 1966.
40. Okamato T, Natsume M, Onaka T, Uchimaru F, Shimizu M. The structure of dendroxine. The third alkaloid from Dendrobium nobile. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 14(6):672-675, 1966.
41. Okamato T, Natsume M, Onaka T, Uchimaru F, Shimizu M. The structure of dendramine (6-oxydendrobine) and 6-oxydendroxine. The fourth and fifth alkaloid from Dendrobium nobile. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 14(6):676-680, 1966.
42. Porter LA. Picrotoxinin and related substances. Chem. Rev. 67:441-464, 1967.
43. Granelli I, Leander K. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids XIX. Synthesis and absolute configuration of dendrine. Acta Chem. Scand. 24:1108-1109, 1970.
44. Okamato T, Natsume M, Onaka T, Uchimaru F, Shimizu M. Further studies on the alkaloidal constituents of Dendrobium nobile (Orchidaceae)-structure determination of 4-hydroxydendroxine and nobilome- thylene. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 20(2):418-421, 1972.
45. Hedman K, Leander K. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxvii. Quaternary salts of the dendrobine type from Dendrobium nobile LINDL.. Acta Chem. Scan. 26(8):3177-3180, 1972.
46. Wang H, Zhao T, Che CT. Dendrobine and 3-hydroxy-2-oxodendrobine from Dendrobium nobile, J. Nat. Prod. 48(5):796-801, 1985.
47. Li M, Xu G, Wu H, Hirata Y, Niwa M. Chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendrobium nobile LINDL.. Youji Huaxue; 11(2):219- 224, 1991. (CA 115:68440s )
48. Lee YH, Park JD, Baek NI, Kim SI, Ahn BZ. In vitro and in vivo antitumoral phenanthrenes from the aerial parts of Dendrobium nobile. Planta Med. 61:178-179, 1995.
49. Miyazawa M, Shimamura H, Nakamura S, Kameoka H. Antimutagenic activity of gigantol from Dendrobium nobile. J. Agric. Food Chem., 45:2849-2853, 1997.
50. Behr D, Berg JE, Karlsson B, Leander K. Anne-marie pilotti and anne-charlotte wiehager, studies on Orchidaceae glycoside from Dendrobium ochreatum LINDL.. Acta. Chem. Scand. B29(3): 401, 1975.
51. Behr D, Leander K. Three steroid glycosides of the stigmastane type from Dendrobium ochreatum. Phytochemistry 15:1403-1406, 1976.
52. Elander M, Leander K, Luning B. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloid sxiv. a phthalide alkaloid from Dendrobium pierardii ROXB.. Acta Chem. Scan. 23(6):2177-2178, 1969.
53. Yamaki M, Honda C. The stilbenoids from Dendrobium plicatile. Phytochemistry 43(1):207-208, 1996.
54. Honda C, Yamaki M. Phenanthrenes from Dendrobium plicatile. Phytochemistry 53:987-990, 2000.
55. Saito N, Toki K, Uesato K, Shigihara A, Honda T. An acylated cyanidin glycoside from the red-purple flowers of Dendrobium. Phytochemistry 37(1):245-248, 1994.
56. Figureiredo P, George F, Tatsuzawa F, Toki K, Saito N, Brouillard R. New features of intramolecular copigmentation by acylated anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 51:125-132, 1999.
57. Blomqvist L, Leander K, Luning B, Rosenblom J. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids xxix. The absolute configuration of dendropri- mine, an alkaloid from Dendrobium primulinum LINDL.. Acta Chem. Scan. 26(8):3203-3206, 1972.
58. Majumder PL, Pal S. Rotundatin, a new 9,10-dihydropheneanthrene derivatives from Dendrobium rotundatum. Phytochemistry 31(9):3225- 3228, 1992.
59. Morita H, Fujiwara M, Yoshida N, Kobayashi J. New picrotoxinin- type and dendrobine-type sesquiterpenoids from Dendrobium snowflake ''Red Star''. Tetrahedron 56:5801-5805, 2000.
60. Huang YL, Lay HL, Shen CC, Chen FC, Chen CC. Stilbenoids from the stem of Dendrobium sonia. Chin. Pharm. J. 52(6):305-311, 2000.
61. Nishida R, Iwahashi O, Tan KH. Accumulation of Dendrobium superbum (Orchidaceae) fragrance in the rectal glands by males of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae. J. Chem. Ecol. 19(4):713-722, 1993.
62. Wrigley TC. Ayapin, scopoletin and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin from Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (REICHB. f.). Nature, 188:1108, 1960.
63. Blomqvist L, Brandange S, Gawell L, Leander K, Luning B. Studies on Orchidaceae alkaloids XXXVII. Dendrowardine, a quaternary alkaloid from Dendrobium wardianum WR.. Acta Chem. Scand. 27:1439-1441, 1973.
64. 張紀立、何錦麗,石斛藥理研究進展,時珍國醫國藥 11(5):469- 470,2000。
65. 徐建華、李莉、陳立站,鐵皮石斛與西洋參的養陰生津作用研究,中草藥 26(2):79-80,1995。
66. 李莉、徐建華、范允坤、陳立站,石斛洋參沖劑的藥理作用研究,中成藥 17(10):28-30,1995。
67. 鈴木秀幹、慶松一郎、伊藤己酉三,漢藥金石斛研究(第三報)Dendrobin 研究,藥學雜誌 54:801-819,1934。
68. 李廣勛,中藥藥理毒理與臨床,天津科技翻譯出版社,天津,pp. 376-377,1992。
69. 徐國鈞、杭秉茜、李滿飛,11種石斛對豚鼠離體腸管和小鼠胃腸道蠕動的影響,中草藥 19(1):21-23,1988。
70. 陳少夫、李宇權、吳亞麗、周卓、孫麗華,石斛對胃酸分泌及血清胃泌素、血漿生長抑制素濃度的影響,中國 中藥雜誌 20(3):181-182,1995。
71. 楊濤、梁康、侯偉敏,四種中草藥對大鼠半乳糖性白內障相關活性的影響,生物化學雜誌 7(6):731,1991。
72. 楊濤、梁康、張昌穎,四種中草藥對大鼠半乳糖性白內障防治效用的研究,北京醫科大學學報 23(2):97-99, 1991。
73. 楊濤、梁康、侯緯敏、張昌穎,四種中草藥抗白內障形成中晶狀體脂類過氧水平及脂類含量的變化,生物化學 雜誌 8(2):164- 167,1992。
74. 楊濤、梁康、侯緯敏、張昌穎,四種中草藥對大鼠半乳糖性白內障氧化還原物質及糖類含量的影響,生物化學 雜誌 8(1):21-25,1992。
75. 楊濤、梁康、侯緯敏、張昌穎,四種中草藥成分對醛糖還原和脂類過氧化的抑制作用,生物化學雜誌 8(1):21-25,1992。
76. 孫兆泉、彭源貴、首第武、肖梅英、聶傳英,石斛夜光顆粒劑對大鼠實驗性白內障及家兔球結膜微循環的影響 ,中國中醫眼科雜誌 8(1):3-6,1998。
77. 林佳燕,霍山石斛對視網膜色素上皮細胞及視網膜細胞的生物活性及其有效成份之研究,國立陽明大學生物藥 學研究所碩士論文,台北, 1999。
78. 陳囿任,霍山石斛對腦神經細胞及視網膜色素上皮細胞作用機轉之研究,國立陽明大學生物藥學研究所碩士論 文,台北, 2000。
79. Ono K, Nakane H, Meng ZM, Ose Y, Mizuno M. Differential inhibitory effects of various herb extracts on the activities of reverse transcriptase and various deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerases. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(7):1810-1812, 1989.
80. 施子隸、何季芬、張桂藍、蔣時紅,金釵石斛水煎液對小白鼠腹腔巨噬細胞吞噬功能影響的實驗觀察,河南中 醫 9(2):35-36,1989。
81. 施紅、黃玲,石斛抗衰老作用的實驗研究,中華老年醫學雜誌 13(2):104,1994。
82. 施紅、陳玉春、林智誠、章小宛,石斛複方製劑對小鼠免疫功能的影響,福建中醫學院學報 6(2):24-26,1996。
83. 黃民權、蔡體育、劉慶倫,鐵皮石斛多糖對小白鼠白細胞數翰林巴細胞移動抑制因子的影響,天然產物研究與 開發 8(3):39,1996。
84. 施紅、林智誠、張學敏、陳玉春,石斛複方製劑對小鼠腹腔巨噬細胞吞噬功能的作用,福建中醫學院學報 8(3):33-35,1998。
85. 王天山、陸躍鳴、馬國祥,鼓槌石斛中化學成分對K562腫瘤細胞株生長抑制作用體外試驗,天然產物研究與 開發 9(2):1,1997。
86. 許鴻源,常用中藥之研究,行政院衛生署中醫藥委員會,台北, pp. 29-32,1972。
87. 江蘇新醫院編,中藥大辭典上冊,上海科技出版社,上海, p. 588,1977。
88. 南京藥學院 中草藥學編寫組,中草藥學下冊,江蘇科技出版社,南京, p. 1386,1980。
89. 方泰惠,石斛對大鼠系膜的動脈血管的作用,南京中醫學院學報 7(2):100,1991。
90. 施紅、洪振豐、許碧玉、汪碧萍、鄭純、胡一中,石斛複方製劑的致突變微核試驗,福建中醫學院學報 6(1):30-31,1996。
91. 陳慧如,中藥金線蓮對兔子血小板花生四烯酸新陳代謝的影響及其有效成分之研究,國立成功大學碩士論文, 台南, 1993。
92. Takatsuki T, Tago H, Nakamura M, Muraoka S, Yoshizawa T. Hypo- glycemics and lipid metabolism-improving agents containing 3-glucosyloxy-4-hydroxybutyric Acid or its derivatives from plants, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 07 76522 [95 76522], 1995.
93. 陳銘波,台灣金線蓮(Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA)之成份研究,國立清華大學碩士論文,新竹, 1996。
94. Du XM, Yoshizawa T, Shoyama Y. Butanoic acid glucoside composition of whole body and in vitro platelets of Anoectochilus formosanus. Phytochemistry 49(7):1925-1928, 1998.
95. Du XM, Sun NY, Irino N, Shoyama Y. Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48(11):1803-1804, 2000.
96. Ito A, Kasai R, Yamasaki K, Sugimoto H. Aliphatic and aromatic glucosides from Anoectochilus koshunesesis. Phytochemistry 33(5):1133-1137, 1993.
97. Ito A, Yasumoto K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K. A sterol with an unusual side chain from Anoectochilus koshunesesis. Phytochemistry 36(6): 1465-1467, 1994.
98. Takatsuki S, Wang JD, Narui T, Okuyama T. Studies on the components of crude drug "Kim-soan-lian". J. Jap. Botany 67(2):121-123, 1992.
99. 周先樂、陳世明、楊政民,中藥藥理作用之研究,(二)另五十種中藥對動脈血壓之影響,臺灣醫誌 74:702-707 ,1975。
100. 梁文俐、陳榮進、江育人、蘇慶華、楊玲玲、顏焜熒,臺灣產金線蓮之研究I.金線蓮之生理活性研究,臺灣科 學 43:47-58,1990。
101. Huang DD, Law RCS, Mak OT. Effects of tissue-cultured Anoectochilus formosanus HAY. Extracts on the arachidonate metabolism, Bot. Bull. Academia Sinica 32:113-119, 1991.
102. Lin JM, Lin CC, Chiu HF, Yang JJ, Lee SG. Evalution of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats, American Journal of Chinese Medicine 21(1):59-69, 1993.
103. 詹前朕、侯嘉隆、鍾楚紅、劉武哲,以體外細胞培養法建立抗病毒中藥篩檢,大蒜與台灣金線蓮抽取液之評 估,藥物食品分析2(2):123-132,1994。
104. 劉新裕、張同吳、王昭月、張愛華、王順成,金線連之品種特性與毒性研究,中華農業研究 47(3):242-258, 1998。
105. Tu HM, Son NY, Yoshizawa T. Separation of 3-O-glucopyranosyl-g-butyrolactone from Anoectochilus or Goodyera. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 11 92,492 [99 92,492], 1999.
106. 陳裕、許文江、黃自強、楊叔禹、陳進益,複方金線蓮膠囊治療II型糖尿病的初步研究,The Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice 18(5):358,2000。
107. 陳卓、黃自強,金線蓮降血糖作用的初步研究,福建醫藥雜誌22(1):207-208,2000。
108. 林文川、施純青、吳岳文、陳臆如、張惠玲、許朝添,臺灣金線連水粗萃取物對大鼠90天餵食毒性作用,中 醫藥雜誌 11(1):19- 29,2000。
109. 林文川、施純青、吳岳文,妊娠期及授乳期母鼠投與臺灣金線連水粗萃取物對新生兒的影響,中醫藥雜誌 11(2):79-85,2000。
110. 林宗輝,金草蘭(Dendrobium clavatum var. aurantiacum)之成分研究,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所碩士論文,台 中, 1997。
111. 甘偉松,藥用植物學,國立中國醫藥研究所,台北, pp. 647-658,1986。
112. 李惠林,臺灣植物誌(第一版),現代關係出版社,台北,Vol. 5, pp. 874-878,pp. 953-979,1987。
113. 柳重勝,台灣的蘭科植物簡介,台灣植物資源調查研習會論文摘要,台中, pp. 8-9,1996。
114. Dressler RL. The Orchids: natural history and classification, Cambride, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.
115. 吉占和,中國石斛屬的初步研究,植物分類學報 18(4):427-449,1980。
116. 謝壽昌,中國古今地名大辭典,臺灣商務書館,台北,Vol. 5,pp. 804-811,1987。
117. 吳征鎰等,西藏植物誌,科學出版社,北京, pp. 587-593,1987。
118. 廣東省植物研究所,海南植物誌,科學出版社,海南,Vol. 4, pp. 220-225,1977。
119. 周榮漢,中藥資源學,中國醫藥科技出版社,北京, pp. 541-548,1993。
120. 陳忠川,石斛類藥材之生藥學及櫻石斛組織培養之研究,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所博士論文,台中, 1995。
121. 沙文蘭、羅金裕,中藥石斛鑑定研究 Ⅰ. 石斛原植物和藥材調查,藥學學報 15(6):351-358,1980。
122. 雲南省藥材公司編,雲南中藥資源名錄,科學出版社, pp. 669-672,1993。
123. 吳征鎰,新華本草綱要(第三冊),上海科學出技術版社,上海, pp. 587-593。
124. 楊再義,台灣植物名彙,天然書社,台北, pp. 424-428,1982。
125. 林讚標,台灣蘭科植物第一冊,昌達印製廠,嘉義, pp. 116-147,1976。
126. Su HJ,臺灣植物誌(第二版),現代關係出版社,台北,Vol. 5, pp. 746-749,pp. 839-849,pp. 857-859,1987。
127. 李滿飛、徐國鈞、徐珞珊、金蓉鸞,商品石斛的調查及鑑定,中草藥 17(10):33-36,1986。
128. 孫金長,石斛與石仙桃的性狀鑑別,中藥通報 11(10):20,1986。
129. 鄭博仁,雲南石斛屬藥材現狀及其原植物,中國中藥雜誌 15(1): 9-12,1990。
130. 李滿飛、徐國鈞、徐珞珊、金蓉鸞,商品石斛的調查及鑑定(Ⅱ),中草藥 22(4):173-80,1991。
131. 馬國祥、徐國鈞、徐珞珊、李滿飛,商品石斛的調查及鑑定(III),中草藥 26(7):370-372,1991。
132. 徐珞珊、徐國鈞、沙文蘭、羅金裕,中藥石斛顯微鑑定研究I,南京藥學院學報 2:1-4,1980。
133. 鄭炳富,鮮石斛宜藏室內,中草藥 11(4):30,1986。
134. 蕭翌柱、陳威臣、呂佳宜、蔡新聲,臺灣金線連之組織培養, I.改進種子萌芽率之研究,中華農業研究 44(3):279-286,1995。
135. 鄭純、黃以鍾、李蓮芳,金線蓮文獻考證、原植物及商品調查,中草藥 27(3):169-172,1996。
136. 邱年永、張光雄,原色臺灣藥用植物圖鑑 (4),南天書局,台北,pp. 282-283,1995。
137. 蘇鴻傑,台灣的野生蘭,豐年叢書,南投, pp. 98-104,1974。
138. 周鎮,台灣蘭圖鑑 (著生蘭篇),創譯出版社,台中, pp. 89-100,pp. 124-136,pp. 182-185,1989。
139. 劉新裕、蔡新聲、徐原田、劉柏煙,金線連之繁殖與栽培技術,科學農業 35(5-6):125-129,1987。
140. 謝文全,神農本草經之考察與重輯,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所博士論文,台中, 1995。
141. 那琦、謝文全,重輯名醫別錄,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所,台中,p. 40,1977。
142. 岡西為人,重輯新修本草,草部上品,國立中國醫藥研究所,台北,Vol. 6,pp. 158-159,1964。
143. 那琦、謝文全、李一宏,重輯嘉祐補注本草,草部上品,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所,台中,Vol. 6,p. 72 ,1989。
144. 宋˙唐慎微,重修政和經史證類備用本草,南天書局,台北,pp. 164-165,1976。
145. 宋˙唐慎微,經史證類大觀本草,草部上品,正言出版社,台南,Vol. 6,p. 166,1976。
146. 明˙李時珍,本草綱目,文友書店,台北,pp. 799-800,1959。
147. Semb AG, Vaage J, Mjos OD. Oxygen free radical producing leuko- cytes cause functional depression of isolated rat hearts: role of leukotrienes. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol 22:555-563, 1990.
148. Weissmann G, Smolen JE, Korchak HM. Release of inflammatory mediators from stimulated neutrophils. N. Engl. J. Med. 303:27-34, 1980.
149. Ishizaka T, Ishizaka K, Tomioka H. Release of histamine and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) by IgE-anti-IgE reactions on monkey mast cells. J. Immunol. 108:53-520, 1972.
150. Austen KF. Biologic implications of the structural and functional characteristics of the chemical mediators of immediate type hypersensitivity. Hatrvey Lect. 73:93-161, 1979.
151. Adams GK, Lichtenstein LM. In vitro studies of antigen-induced bronchospasm: effect of antihistamine and SRS-A antagonist on response to sensititized guinea pig and human airways to antigen. J. Immunol. 122:555-562, 1979.
152. Schwartz LB, Austen KF. Structural and function of the chemical mediators of mast cells. Prog. Allergy. 34:271-321, 1984.
153. Kunkel SL, Chensue SW, Phan SH.Prostaglandins as endogenous mediators of interleukin 1 production. J. Immunol. 136:186-192, 1986.
154. Beutler B, Cerami A. Tumor necrosis factor, cachexia, shock, and inflammation: A common mediator. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 57:505-518, 1988.
155. Ding AH, Nathan CF, Stuehr DJ. Release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and reactive oxygen intermediates from mouse peritonel macrophahes: comparison of activiting cytokines and evidence for independent production. J. Immunol. 141:2407-2412, 1988.
156. Wang JP, Raung SL, Kuo YH, Teng CM. Daphnoretin-induced respiratory burst in rat neutrophils is, probably mainly through through protein kinase C activation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 288:341-348, 1995.
157. Barrett AJ. Lysosomes. In: Dingle JT (Ed.), A Laboratory Handbook, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 118-120, 1972.
158. Absolom DR. Basic methods for the study of phagocytosis. Methods Enzymol. 132:92-179, 1986.
159. Markert M, Andrews PC, Babior, BM. Measurement of O2- production by human neutrophils. The preparation and assay of NADPH oxidase-containing particles from human neutrophils. Methods Enzymol. 105:358-365, 1984.
160. Wang JP, Hsu MF, Ouyang CH, Teng CM. Edematous response caused by [Thi5, 8, D-Phe7]bradykinin, a B2 receptor antagonist, is due to mast cell degranulation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 161:143-149, 1989.
161. Hakanson R, Ronnberg A. L. Improved fluorometric assay of histamine. Analyt. Biochem. 60:560-567, 1974.
162. Minghetti L, Nicolini A, Polazzi E, Creminon C, Maclouf J, Levi G. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in activated rat microglial cultures is down-regulated by exogenous prostaglandin E2 and by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Glia 19:152-160, 1997.
163. Letcher RM, Nhamo LRM. Chemical constituents of the combre- taceae. Part I. Substituted phenanthrenes and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes from the heartwood of Combretum apiculatum. J. Chem. Soc. (C) 3070-3076, 1971.
164. Majumder PL, Kar A, Shoolery JN. Bulbophyllanthrin, a phenan- threne of the orchid Bulbophyllum leopardium. Phytochemistry 24(9):2083-2088, 1985.
165. Majumder PL, Kar A. Confusarin and confusaridin, two phenanthrene derivatives of the orchid Eria confusa. Phytochemistry 26(4):1127-1129, 1987.
166. Shimizu M, Shogawa H, Hayashi T, Arisawa M, Suzuki S, Yoshizaki M, Morita N, Ferro E, Basualdo I, Berganza LH. Anti-inflammatory constituents of topically applied crude drugs. III. Constituents and anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan crude drug "Tamanda cuna" (Catasetum barbatum LINDLE). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36(11):4447-4452, 1988.
167. Estrada S, Toscano RA, Mata R. New phenanthrene derivatives from Maxillaria densa. J. Nat. Prod. 62:1175-1178, 1999.
168. Bhandari SR, Kapadi AH, Mujumder PL, Joadar M, Shoolery JN. Nudol, a phenanthrene of the orchids Eulophia nuda, Erica carinata and Eria stricta. Phytochemistry 24(4):801-804, 1985.
169. Yamaki M, Kato T, Bai L, Inoue K, Takagi S. Methylated stilbenoids from Bletilla striata. Phytochemistry 30(8):2759-2760, 1991.
170. Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB. The systematic identification of flavonoids, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 41- 61, 1970.
171. Wang PH, Lee SS. Polar Chemical constituents from Phoebe formosana. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 46(2):215-219, 1999.
172. Lin YL, Kuo YH, Shiao MS, Chen CC, Ou JC. Flavonoid glycosides from Terminalia catappa L., J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 47:253-256, 2000.
173. Monties B, Bouilant M, Chopin J. C-diholosylflavones dans les feuilles du melon (Cucumis melo). Phytochemistry 15:1053-1056, 1976.
174. Maatooq GT, El-Sharkawy SH, Afifi MS, Rosazza JPN. C-p-hydroxybenzoylglycoflavones from Citrullus colocynthis, Phytochemistry 44(1):187-190, 1997.
175. Hashidoko Y, Tahara S, Mizutani J. Long chain alkyl esters of 4''-hydroxy-cinnamic acids from Leaves of Rosa rugosa. Phytochemistry 31:3282-3283, 1992.
176. Li MF, Hirata Y, Xu GJ, Niwa M, Wu HM. Studies on the chemical constituents of eyeshapad Dendrobium ( Dendrobium fimbriatum ). Zhongcaoyo 23:227-228, 1992.
177. Talapatra B, Das AK, Talapatra SK. Defuscin, a new phenolic ester from Dendrobium fuscescens: Conformation of shikimic acid. Phytochemistry 28:290-292, 1989.
178. Balde AM, Claeys M, Pieters LA, Wray V, Vlietinck AJ. Ferulic acid esters from stem bark of Pavetta owariensis. Phytochemistry 30:1024-1026, 1991.
179. Bernards MA, Lewis NG. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers. Phytochemistry 31:3409-3412, 1992.
180. Katagiri Y, Mizutani J, Tahara S. Ferulic acid esters of unsaturated higher alcohols from Lupinus luteus roots. Phytochemistry 46:347-352, 1997.
181. Takemoto M, Achiwa K. Synthesis of styrenes through the decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acids by plant cell cultures. Tetrahedron Letter 40:6595-6598, 1999.
182. Wu TS, Chang FC, Wu PL. Constituents of leaves of Tetradium glabrifolium. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 42:929-934, 1995.
183. Kuo YH, Shue MJ. New esters, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethyl hexa- and octacosanoates from the leaves of Cinnamomum reticulatum Hay. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 38:65-69, 1991.
184. Ayer WA, Muir DJ, Chakravarty R. Phenolic and other metabolites of Phellinus pini, a fungus pathogenic to pine. Phytochemistry 42(5): 1321-1324, 1996.
185. Moss GP. Carbon-13 NMR spectra of carotenoids, Pure Appl. Chem. 47:97-102, 1976.
186. Sakata K, Yamamoto K, Ishikawa H, Yagi A, Etoh H, Ina K. Chlorophyllone-a, a new pheophorbide-a related compound isolated from Ruditapes philippinarum as an antioxidative compound. Tetrahedron Letters 31(8):1165-1168, 1990.
187. Gramatica P, Manitto P, Monti D, Speranza G. Stereoselective total synthesis of natural phytol via double bond reductions by baker''s yeast. Tetrahedron 43(19):4481-4486, 1987.
188. Jackson AH. Chem. Biochem. Plant Pigm., Academic Press, London, Vol. I, p. 1, 1976.
189. Risch N, Brockmann H. Totalzuordnung des 13C-NMR-spektrums. Tetrahedron Letters 24(2):173-176, 1983.
190. Buchanane MS, Hashimoto T, Asakawa Y. Phytyl esters and pheophytins from the hornwort Megaceros flagellaris. Phytochemistry 41(5):1373-1376, 1996.
191. 陳惠玲、姜宏哲,白芝之成份研究,臺灣科學 47(1):45?55,1994。
192. Chiang HC, Chu SC. Studies on the constituents of Ganoderma lucidum. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 38(1):71-76, 1991.
193. Huang KF, Yen YF. Constituents of Erythrina variegata (II). Chin. Pharm. J. 49:21-29, 1997.
194.Shapiro RH, Wilson JM, Djerassi C. Sterols 1:1, 1963.
195. Jamaluddin F, Mohamed S, Lajis MdN. Hgypoglycaemic effect of stigmast-4-en-3-one, from Parkia speciosa empty pods. Food Chemistry 54:9-13, 1995.
196. Chang CW. 1. Studies on bioactive constituents of plants. (1) Ocimum basilicum L. (2) Syzygium formosanum; 2. HPLC assays of naringin and hesperidin. Ph. D. Dissertation; China Medical College, Taichung, Taiwan, , p I-26, I-40, 1997.
197. Chang MH, Wang GJ, Kuo YH, Lee CK. The low polar constituents from Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (BLUME) SHERF, J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 47(5):1131-1136, 2000.
198. Khetwal KS, Rijivi AA, Pande S. An ester and coumarins from the high altitude herb Pleurospermum densiflorum. Phytochemistry 35: 1033-1035, 1994.
199. Kitajma J, Ishikawa T, Tanaka Y, Ida Y. Water-souble constituents of fenel. IX. Glucides and nucleosides. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 47(7):988-992, 1999.
200. Kitajima J, Ishikawa T, Tanaka Y. Water-soluble constituents of fennel. I. Alkyl glycosides. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 46(10):1643-1646, 1998.
201. Takahashi R, Sato S, Sodesawa T, Suzuki M, Ogura K. Preparation of microporous silica gel by sol-gel process in the presence of ethylene glycol oligomers. Bull.Chem. Soc. Jpn. 73:765-774, 2000.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 134. 蕭翌柱、陳威臣、呂佳宜、蔡新聲,臺灣金線連之組織培養, I.改進種子萌芽率之研究,中華農業研究 44(3):279-286,1995。
2. 109. 林文川、施純青、吳岳文,妊娠期及授乳期母鼠投與臺灣金線連水粗萃取物對新生兒的影響,中醫藥雜誌 11(2):79-85,2000。
3. 191. 陳惠玲、姜宏哲,白芝之成份研究,臺灣科學 47(1):45?55,1994。
4. 139. 劉新裕、蔡新聲、徐原田、劉柏煙,金線連之繁殖與栽培技術,科學農業 35(5-6):125-129,1987。
5. 104. 劉新裕、張同吳、王昭月、張愛華、王順成,金線連之品種特性與毒性研究,中華農業研究 47(3):242-258, 1998。
6. 103. 詹前朕、侯嘉隆、鍾楚紅、劉武哲,以體外細胞培養法建立抗病毒中藥篩檢,大蒜與台灣金線蓮抽取液之評 估,藥物食品分析2(2):123-132,1994。
7. [3] 楊啟榮、強玲英、郭文凱、林郁欣、林暉雄、張哲暐、趙俊傑,微系統類LIGA製程光刻技術,科儀新知,民國九十年。
8. [13] 楊景棠,「微細放電加工技術」,機械工業雜誌,P193-200,6月號,民國八十六年。
9. [18] 楊啟榮、強玲英、黃奇聲,微系統LIGA製程之精密電鑄技術,科儀新知,第21期,第6卷,民國八十九年。
10. [19] 周敏傑、呂春福、王紀雯、何淑鈴、葉信宏,微結構之合金電鑄技術,機械工業雜誌,第150~157頁,8月號,民國八十七年。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔